• Kelso Mountain

    Mojave

    National Preserve California

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Springs & Seeps: Ivanpah (1:24,000)

Big Hunch Mine
MOJA Spring ID: IVAN1
General Location:
4th of July Canyon
Elevation:
1827 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
Multiple seeps in drainage
Vegetation: Grasses
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic Biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
Slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
Historic mining remnants
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
Yes

Bronze Mine Spring
MOJA Spring ID: IVAN17
General Location:
Between Keystone and Live Oak canyons
Elevation:
1819 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
small patches of grass
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic Biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
0.08 gpm
Water quality: NA
Site Condition:
Undisturbed
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
Yes

Cliff Canyon (upper & lower)
MOJA Spring ID(s):
IVAN 15, 10
General Location: Cliff Canyon, Brant
Elevation:
1260 m (lower); 1365 m (upper)
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Grasses, Bacharris
Animal Use: burros (lower), quail (upper)
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
undisturbed (upper), highly disturbed (lower)
Type of disturbance: livestock, burros, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Pipe is heading up the canyon to a bacharris outcrop. Spring is located just above a large rocky drop in the wash with multiple pipe visible dropping down from the spring.
Photos: Yes (Upper only)

GARVANZA SPRING (GAS)
Garvanza Spring (spring brook 1 – top, spring brook 2 – top, spring brook 2 – bottom, highest water, pool)
MOJA Spring IDs:
IVAN2-6
General Location: Brant
Elevation:
1284 – 1358 m
History:
Mining
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Rheocrene
Vegetation:
There is Tamarisk and Arundo in the drainage, though the Arundo does not appear to be spreading. Mimulus in wet gravel of stream bed with Bromus madritensis, Baccharis sergiloides. Grass with moss and B. sergiloides; Typha with B. sergiloides, Mimulus; Baccharis sergiloides near stream with Erodium, B. madritensis. Polypogon monspeliensis with B. madritensis, B. sergiloides, Claytonia perfoliata. Salix goodingii; Single specimen, new leafed with male catkins, stout trunk with gray-black, furrowed bark with B. madritensis and near Tamarix. Arundo donax L. Arabis in rocks of stream channel bank near B. madritensis; Myosurus cupulatus in wet sand at pool edge, long reach of stream. Surrounding vegetation is made up of Cactus scrub with widely scattered pinyon. Pinyon density increases with elevation up canyon Over 50 spp. of shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals recorded.
Animal Use: Several reptiles spotted, including 5 individuals of 2 species of lizards and a nonpoisonous snake.
Aquatic biota:
Mosquito larvae (spring brook 2 – bottom); in pool sediments, annelid “inch” worm, dip larvae, unidentified insect larva with 2 tail cerci, ostracods
Ephemeral: No
Discharge: 57 l/m (Spring time)
Water quality: (pool): pH: 8.02, Conductivity: 785 (µS/cm), DO: 10.4 mg/l; Springbrook 1: pH: 7.67, Conductivity: 818 (µS/cm), DO: 9.26 mg/l) ; mid-springbrook: DO: 29.9 mg/l, pH: 9.1, Conductivity: 2390 (µS/cm), TDS: 1191 mg/l, Salinity: 1.1 (0/00);
Site Condition: slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Hydrologically these springs are nearly pristine; a few cement remnants of various old catchments. Black plastic pipe is piled up in a couple places. An old metal pipe is still visible in a few places – none of it is functioning. Tons of miners’ detritus around - cans, stove pipes, bed springs, timbers.
Photos: Yes

Keystone Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN7
General Location:
Keystone Canyon
Elevation:
1784 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
no
Discharge:
1 l/m
Water quality: NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
Yes

Lecyr Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN8
General Location:
Between Keystone Canyon and Ivanpah Road
Elevation: 1555 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
Upstream of spring, the canyon is lined with baccharis for about 1/2 mile up both the left and right forks.
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
0.1 gpm
Water quality: NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Old pipe extends up the wash to the source.
Photos: No

Lecyr Reservoir/Lecyr Well
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN9
General Location:
Off Ivanpah Road
Elevation:
1503 m
History: Grazing
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Reservoir and abandoned well
Vegetation: The reservoir has become a tamarisk cove. Also morning glory, coyote squash.
Animal Use: Quails, duck
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion, tamarisk
Type of infrastructure/diversion: A man-made reservoir with an abandoned windmill well.
Photos: Yes

Live Oak Canyon Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN19
General Location:
Live Oak Canyon
Elevation:
1810 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
2 drops/sec
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

Mail Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN11
General Location: Between Sagamore Mine and Ivanpah Road (Ivanpah)
Elevation: 1533 m
History: Historic mining and grazing
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Helocrene
Vegetation:
Polypogon monspeliensis, Hordeum muinum ssp. Glaucum, Lepidium latifolium—invasive weedy mustard
Animal Use: Quail, doves, flying insects, insect larvae
Aquatic biota: yes
Ephemeral:
no
Discharge:
0.1 gpm
Water quality: DO: 5.11 mg/l, pH: 4.55, Conductivity: 1424 (µS/cm), TDS: 704 mg/l, Salinity: 0.7 (0/00)
Site Condition:
moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, excavation, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Old OX Ranch trough is adjacent. It is a cement-lined metal trough with juniper tree-branch supports around the perimeter. It looks quite old. Markings in the lip of the cement lining include “ED Shirey on the east end and “BOB & LOUISE on the south side. Dimensions of the trough are 3’x15’. The trough is located on the flat, adjacent to the wash that drains Mail Spring. The spring itself, which is located right off the road is surrounded by a burro fence.
Photos: Yes

PACHALKA SPRING (PAS)
Pachalka Spring, (shaft, shallow qanat)
MOJA Spring IDs:
IVAN 12, 12S, 12Q
General Location: Clark Mountain west side
Elevation: 1500 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring: Rheocrene, Qanat
Vegetation:
Salix laevigata, Anemopsis californica (dense stand SE of spring head). More by quanat downstream Salix goodingii. Catalpa, Sambucus Mexicana (a line of these extend down the wash), Juncus xiphiodes, Juncus mexicana (a dense stand in spring head area), Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum Watercress, Moss, Plantago major, Heliotropum curravasicum, Mortonia utahensis. Locally abundant, infrequent in Mojave Rubus leucodermis - Western raspberry. Apple tree near qanat. Additional plants observed near the spring/wash: Acacia greggii, Artemisia ludoviciana, Atriplex canescens, Brickelia sp., Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens, Datura wrightii, Gutierrezia, Larrea tridentata (few), Lycium andersonii (few), L. cooperi, Marrubium vulgare, Penstemmon palmeri, Prosopis glandulosa (few), Prunus fasciculata, Rhus trilobata (few), a Rosaceae. Other nono-spring relate plants include Coleogyne ramosissima, flat and cylindric Opuntias, Yucca brevifolia (few), Y. baccata, Y. Schidigera. This list is by no means comprehensive, including only the most easily observed plants.
Animal Use: Burros
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
2.25 gpm
Water quality: pH: 6.96, Conductivity: 459 (µS/cm), TDS: 222 mg/l, Salinity: 0.2 (0/00) (Pachalka Spring); pH: 7.95, Conductivity: 432 (µS/cm), TDS: 209 mg/l, Salinity 0.2 (0/00) (qanat)
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: recreation, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
A pipe runs upstream from a 55 gallon collection tank. At about 10’ from the collection tank the pipe went underground and seemed to enter a cement spring box. (Pachalka Spring). The northern qanat is in a deep (approx 10’) steep-sided vegetated hole. Can’t access the qanat nor the storage pool just outside the qanat. The pool is about 5’ x 6’ and the water looks at least 15” deep (Pachalka Spring Shaft). The southern qanat is timber supported and accessible. The excavated interior is approx 4’ x 3’ and the water surface is 12” from the top at the rear of the excavated interior. The rocky ceiling is mostly covered with moss. Water storage in the pool is approx 5 gallons. Water drips from the ceiling (Pachalka Spring Qanat).
Photos:
No

SAGAMORE MINE (SMS)
Sagamore Mine Seep & Sagamore Mine Spring

MOJA Spring ID(s):
IVAN13, IVAN21
General Location:
Sagamore Mine, Sagamore Canyon
Elevation: 1622 - 1688 m
History: Mining
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
grasses
Animal Use:
Insects
Aquatic biota:
none
Ephemeral: yes
Discharge:
not flowing
Water quality:
Seep: pH: 7.3, Conductivity: 2.42 (mS/cm), TDS: 1176 mg/l, Salinity: 1.2 0/00, DO 12.1 mg/l, Spring: pH: 7.61, Conductivity: 1.94 (mS/cm), Salinity: 1.0 0/00, DO 2.8 mg/l
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: mining, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Old mining infrastructure.
Photos: Yes

Slaughterhouse Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN14T
General Location:
Off Ivanpah Road
Elevation: 1242 m
History: Grazing
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep/Trough
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Trough located next to Corral. Pipe runs into the trough and supplies a steady drip of water.
Photos: Yes

Unnamed Spring #29
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN18
General Location:
East of Keystone Canyon
Elevation:
1715 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral: no
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

Wayne’s Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
IVAN16
General Location: Ivanpah Townsite #3
Elevation:
1220 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Willows
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Collapsed wooden structure
Photos: Yes

Did You Know?

photo of detail on Kelso Depot.

The railroad town of Kelso in Mojave National Preserve was named in 1905 by railroad construction workers. Two men placed their names in a hat, along with that of a third who had just moved away. The name drawn from the hat was that of John H. Kelso, the man absent from the drawing. More...