• Kelso Mountain

    Mojave

    National Preserve California

Springs & Seeps: Columbia Mtn (1:24,000)

Bullock Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO1T
General Location:
Columbia Mountain
Elevation: 1400 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
Trough
Vegetation:
Grass/sedge in and around trough. Joshua tree with mixed desert scrub understory incl. Chollas, spriny shrubs, sages and Asteraceae shrubs. Also present, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Larrea tridentata, Thamnosma montana, Gutierrezea (disturbed area near road) Chrysothamnus (dominant in lower bajada). Yucca brevifolia understory = Opuntia ramossisima, Opuntia acanthocarpa, Opuntia echinocarpa, Salvia dorii, Ericameria larcifolia, Ephedra nevadensis, Salazaria mexicana, Yucca baccata, Echinocereus engelmanni (rare) Prunus fasciculata, Menodora spinescens, Tetradymia, Salvia mojavensis. Pinus monophyla (only one) was in the shrub line.
Animals Use: deer, burro, livestock, coyote, rabbit, cat
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
2 l/m
Water quality: Conductivity 618 (µS/cm)
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Site consists of a round corral with an open/non-functioning gate. Water trough inside the corral is ½ cylindrical, 10’ long, diameter is 4.5’, therefore the water is 2 ¼’ deep. Trough is full of water and spilling onto ground forming a wet-muddy/grassy outlet wetting a 10’ x 3’ area beyond the corral fence. Wet area inside the corral is approx 50’ x 10-15’. There is an old hand-dug well with timber bracing approx. 12 ‘-15’ deep; dry bottom. Topographic evidence (mounded linear dirt feature extends most of the distance to the corral) indicates this may be the source. No pipe is visible.
Photos: Yes

Chicken Water Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO2
General Location:
Columbia Mountain
Elevation:
1449 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Adit
Vegetation:
Fair amount of Mesquite (not Screwbean) trees are around (sole indication of riparian vegetation). Joshua Tree-mixed shrub understory. Guttierezia, Thamnosma montana with Atriplex sp. Crinkle leaf, pith stems, in wash below adit. Very rounded, green shrub, 3-4 dm, rangier shrub w/bigger leaves (Ericameria larcifolia),grass, Robinia neomexican at foot of adit wash.
Animal Use: White crowned sparrows and unidentified finches
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock & diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: This site consists of a corral with metal trough made from a ½ cylinder. It’s dry, but has no holes. Upgradient from the corral, an adit was blasted into a ridge forming a qanat. Pipe is visible, submerged in the standing water. Pipe must be clogged at some point (or maybe broken underground) because there is no flow into the corral tank. The adit goes deeper into the hillside beyond the standing pool water, but not sure how far (at least 12’Adit is blasted beneath travertine rock. Adit is approx 60-70m distance from the corral.
Photos: Yes

Columbia Mine Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO3
General Location:
Columbia Mountain
Elevation: 1401 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

COYOTE AND WILDCAT SPRINGS GROUP
Coyote Spring –Mid Hills, Wildcat Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO4, 5
General Location: Columbia Mountain
Elevation: 1360 m (Coyote Spring) & 1368 m (Wildcat Spring)
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
Yes (Coyote Spring)

Globe Canyon Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO8
General Location:
Globe Canyon in the Providence Mountains
Elevation: 1572 m
History: Mining, Wildfire (2005)
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Dry (after wildfire)
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
dry
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
historic diversion, wildfire
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Collapsed qanat and possible collapsed well, all dry. Near the bottom of the Globe Mine camp site, just above the wash bottom, is an old cement trough which held water.
Photos: Yes

Gold Valley Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO6
General Location:
Gold Valley
Elevation: 1534 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Qanat
Vegetation: Baccharis sergiloides (which is dense in this canyon), Prunus fasciculata, Acacia greggii, Rhus trilobata. Many other shrubs and annuals, including Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Purshia, Ericameria linearifolia, Lotus rigidus, Coleogyne ramossima (few), Salvia columnaris (dense) Cryptantha, Baileya, chaenactis, Uropappus, Gilia, Mirailis multiflora, Amsinckia tesselata, Spaeralcea ambigua, Malacothrix glabrata, Bromus rubens, Schismus.
Animal Use: Deer and varmints.
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition: NA
Type of disturbance:
diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
This site includes a collapsed well and collapsed qanat. Rusty metal pipe goes down the hill. This drainage represents a fairly small catchment. There are lots of metal items lying around which is probably mining trash. The collapsed qanat is quite small; only about 3’ across and completely silted in.
Photos: Yes

Mexican Water Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO7
General Location:
Columbia Mountain
Elevation:
1425 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
The shrubline at a break in slope indicates a fault (or at least a higher groundwater table).
Type of spring: Seep/Qanat
Vegetation:
Prunus fasciculate, Guttierezia, Artemesia tridentate, Marrubium vulgare, Ericameria larcifolia. Non-wetland vegetation is made up off a Joshua tree with mixed desert scrub understory. Also present are Eriogonum fasciculatum, Larrea tridentata, Thamnosma montana, Gutierrezea (disturbed area near road) Chrysothamnus (dominant in lower bajada). Yucca brevifolia with and an understory consisting of Opuntia ramossisima, Opuntia acanthocarpa, Opuntia echinocarpa, Salvia dorii, Ephedra nevadensis, Salazaria mexicana, Yucca baccata, Echinocereus engelmanni (rare) Prunus fasciculata, Menodora spinescens, Tetradymia, Menodora spinescens, Opuntia chlorotica, Eriogonum fasciculatum.
Animal Use: Burros
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: This spring consists of a trough. A metal pipe is visible going into a gnarly patch of shrubs covering a buried qanat. Some sections of metal pipe are strewn near the shrubs. Rusted holes near bottom of trough; wouldn’t hold water even if water flowed in pipe and if pipe-trough connection were intact (which it’s not).
Photos: Yes

SILVER LEAD SPRING (SLS)
Silver Lead Spring, (drinker, qanat, trough)
MOJA Spring IDs:
COMO9, 9D, 9Q, 9T
General Location:
Mid Hills
Elevation:
1626 – 1654 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep, Drinker, Qanat, Trough
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota (e.g., Bufo, bugs):
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Functioning qanat and shallow "well"
Photos: Yes

Summit Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
COMO10
General Location: Providence Mountains, South of Globe Mine
Elevation: 1436 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
cattle, burros
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
.33 gpm
Water quality: NA
Site Condition:
moderately disturbed or highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

Did You Know?

photo of detail on Kelso Depot.

The railroad town of Kelso in Mojave National Preserve was named in 1905 by railroad construction workers. Two men placed their names in a hat, along with that of a third who had just moved away. The name drawn from the hat was that of John H. Kelso, the man absent from the drawing. More...