• Kelso Mountain

    Mojave

    National Preserve California

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Springs & Seeps: Castle Peaks (1:24,000)

Barnwell Seep
MOJA Spring ID:
CAPE 7
General Location: In channel across from Barnwell coral off Hart Mine Road
Elevation:
1412 m
History: historic town, railroad and grazing by Rock Cattle Company
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Seep within a channel
Vegetation:
Cattails, tamarisk
Animal Use: Coyotes
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
yes
Discharge: < 1 l/m
Water quality: DO: 5.6 mg/l, pH: 9.4, Conductivity: 2.13 (mS/cm) TDS: 1054 mg/l, Salinity: 1.1 (0/00)
Site Condition: moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Water was piped from several windmills in the area. Broken metal as well as plastic pipes are still present.
Photos: Yes

Bathtub Spring NY (tank & collapsed qanat)
MOJA Spring ID: CAPE1
General Location: Castle Peaks, off Ivanpah Road
Elevation:
1380 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
Qanat, drinker
Vegetation:
Polypogon viridis, Mimulus guttatus, Glycirrhiza lepidota, Licorice root
Animal Use: Red-spotted toads
Aquatic Biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
0.3–0.8 l/m
Water Quality: DO 63.4% (at 21.5 °C), pH 6.9, Conductivity 550 (µS/cm), TDS 267 mg/l
Site Condition: Highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
Diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
functioning qanat, bathtub drinker, burro fence
Photos: Yes

Castle Peaks Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
CAPE8
General Location: South of Castle Peaks
Elevation:
1492 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Moss, grasses, Water weed.
Animal Use: Flying insects.
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
no
Discharge:
none
Water quality:
DO: 2.4 mg/l, pH: 8.2, Conductivity: 768 (µS/cm), TDS: 371 mg/l, Salinity: 0.4 (0/00)
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
historic diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: The spring consists of a hand-dug hole (1m long x 2 m wide x 3 m deep). A wooden spring box stabilizes the ground for about 1 meter above and below the ground. Historic metal piping can be found in the vicinity of the spring box. Timbers covering the springbox have fallen into the “spring.” Two natural pools can be found upstream (5 & 10m) from the springbox during wetter periods.
Photos: Yes

Coats Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
CAPE2
General Location:
Castle Peaks east side
Elevation:
1417 m
History: Cattle grazing
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Baccharis & catclaw
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Source (dry) located up minor wash to the upper left of tank/trough/corral complex. Two branches of the wash contain large amounts of baccharis. Source has large baccharis growth and remnants of wooden supports of well/qanat/spring box. Pipe and debris litter the entire area. Cattle use was heavy. 1 hand-dug well (dry).
Photos: Yes

Dove Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
CAPE3Q
General Location:
Castle Peaks (west side)
Elevation: 1452 m
History: Historically diverted for livestock to a corral 1 km downstream.
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Hypocrene (Qanat)
Vegetation:
Moss on vertical rock entrance of qanat above ground level. Plants just outside qanat include Stanleya pinnata, Bromus rubens, Rhus trilobata, Acacia greggii, Brickelia sp., Atriplex sp., Amsinckia tesselata, Phacelia sp., Forestiera pubescens, Erodium cicutarium, Eriogonum inflatum, Gutierezzia sp. as well as Joshua tree desert scrub.
Animal Use: Variety of birds
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
30 drops per minute - 5 l/m
Water quality:
DO: 5.4 mg/l, pH: 7.49, Conductivity: 447 (µS/cm), TDS: 216 mg/l, Salinity: 0.21 (0/00)
Site Condition: moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance: diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: This qanat is on the hill about 50’ above the channel bottom in the upper basin, but below the rock outcrop/structure construction. The qanat space is approximately 4x4x5-6 and is holding about (4x4x4) 48 ft3 of water. Pipe end is located approximately 5 meters below the qanat with water flowing most of the time throughout the year. The right ½ of the back wall of qanat is seepy and covered with algae.
Photos: Yes

MALPAIS SPRINGS (MAS)
Malpais Springs (upper and lower)
MOJA Spring IDs:
HAPE1, CAPE 3
General Location: Between Castle Peaks and state line
Elevation: 1378 & 1400 m
History: grazing
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Rheocrene
Vegetation: Willows dominate the wash in this area (upper). This is one of the few riparian corridors in the preserve.
Animal Use: Variety of birds.
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
<1 l/m
Water quality:
Lower: DO: 9.38 mg/l, pH: 9.16, Conductivity: 1142 (µS/cm) TDS: 560 mg/l, Salinity: 0.6 (0/00), Upper: DO: 9.95 mg/l, pH: 9.28, Conductivity: 868 (µS/cm) TDS: 420 mg/l, Salinity: 0.4 (0/00)
Site Condition:
moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Old, destroyed spring box found near left bank beneath a large growth of willows (lower). Water is piped from the source located beneath a bedrock wall at the last "wide" spot in the canyon. Two blue, bucket drinkers are located about 50 yards downstream of the source. They contain approximately 10 gallons of water with a small overflow for another 5 yards down the wash.
Photos: Yes

Rock Cabin Well
MOJA Spring ID: CAPE 6
General Location: off Ivanpah Road south of Barnwell
Elevation: 1482 m
History: historic mining and residence (Rock Cabin)
Hydrogeology: Desert wet meadow
Type of spring:
Seep within a channel
Vegetation: Cattails, tamarisk, rushes, grasses, mesquite, willow
Animal Use: Coyotes, deer, various birds
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
yes
Discharge:
< 1 l/m
Water quality: DO: 5.05 mg/l, pH: 9.6, Conductivity: 4.37 (mS/cm) TDS: 2280 mg/l, Salinity: 2.3 (0/00)
Site Condition: slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance: historic mining, residence
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Hand-dug well, currently filled with cattails about five meters from the channel. The foundations and remains of the Rock Cabin as well as a mining structure are present.
Photos: Yes

Taylor Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
CAPE4
General Location:
Castle Peaks East Side
Elevation:
1480 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation: Site dominated by baccharis.Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock, diversion etc. Type of infrastructure/diversion: Some excavation evident at spring source (dry) with remnants of wooden fence around the perimeter of collapsed banks. An old cattle trough is found on the left bank.
Photos: Yes

Willow Spring - NY
MOJA Spring ID:
CAPE5
General Location:
Castle Peaks west side
Elevation:
1385 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Springbox
Vegetation:
Mesquite
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock, diversion, springbox
Type of infrastructure/diversion: This spring has a cement spring box approximately 10 feet deep. The spring box is excavated into the bank approximately 15 feet from the edge of the wash. A trough is located about 100 yards down the wash from the spring. The plumbing system still appears to be functional and the trough and spring box well both most likely contain water during the spring. There is also a corral and an old, destroyed tank, and well located further down the wash. Old metal pipe was observed more than a mile downstream from the spring site.
Photos: Yes

Did You Know?

photo of rattlesnake

The venom of the Mojave rattlesnake is extremely toxic and causes more respiratory distress than that of any other North American rattlesnake. Due to its unique hue, it is known locally as the Mojave green.