• Kelso Mountain

    Mojave

    National Preserve California

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Springs & Seeps: Fountain Peak (1:24,000)

ABC GROUP
Spring A, B, C, Dam Good Spring, Pipewrench Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
FOPE7, 12-15
General Location:
Winston Basin/Foshay Pass
Elevation:
1145 – 1300 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
The Baccharis in the channel grows in a linear pattern, plus some spillover beyond the confines of the channel. Pinyon and juniper were present and rare. Near the Baccharis was Ericameria, Prunus fasciculata, Rhus trilobata (few), Saliva dorrii (few), Penstemon sp. (few). Also noted: Thamnosma montana (few), Krameria in bloom, Coleogyne, Salizaria mexicana (common), Eriogonum fasciculatum (few), Bromus, Achnatherum hymenoides and moss. (Pipewrench) Some grass clumps (Springs A & B)
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water Quality:
NA
Site Condition:
undisturbed (Springs A, B & C), moderately disturbed (Pipewrench)
Type of disturbance: diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
The name “pipewrench” of this water development was found written into the cement trough on site. A pipewrench is also attached to one of the nearby tree branches. A short (less than 40’) pipeline leads up into a Baccharis-covered channel. An old, dry-appearing qanat is deep inside the Baccharis along the drainage. A round opening in the vegetation indicates use by animals.
Photos: Yes Adam Anna Ore Mine Spring
MOJA Spring ID: FOPE1
General Location: Southeast of Foshay Pass
Elevation: 1071 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of Spring: Wet weather seep
Vegetation:
None
Animals Use: Livestock, Burros
Aquatic Biota:
None
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge: Only in very wet years.
Water quality: NA
Site Condition: Located in wash
Type of disturbance: Livestock
Type of infrastructure/diversion: None
Photos: Yes

BLIND SPRINGS (BSP) GROUP
Blind Spring West & Blind Spring (aka Jennifer Spring)
MOJA Spring ID(s): FOPE2, FOPE3
General Location: Base of Providence Mountains
Elevation: 1252 m, 1268 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
dry (Blind Spring) Qanat (Blind Spring West)
Vegetation: Grass, large bacharris plants
Animals Use: Cows, Quail observed watering at the site.
Aquatic Biota: NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water Quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed (Blind Spring), highly disturbed (Blind Spring West)
Type of disturbance: livestock (Both) diversion, qanat (Blind Spring West)
Type of infrastructure/diversion: A trough is located approximately 200 feet below the spring. Source is located on a steep, rocky slope well above the wash. Qanat at the source is approximately 2 ft x 2 ft and no more than 3 or 4 feet deep. Approximately 20 gallons found in the qanat with some flow extending approximately 3 yards beyond the qanat entrance. Trough is dry, but with multiple old pipes leading up to the spring source.
Type of Disturbance: NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

CORNFIELD SPRING GROUP
Cornfield Creek, Cornfield Spring (west)
MOJA Spring ID:
FOPE4-6
General Location: Providence Mountains west side
Elevation: 978 -1080 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Rheocrene
Vegetation:
ferns
Animals Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
0.75 gpm
Water Quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed (Cornfield Spring)
Type of disturbance: diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Cement and rock structure covering open shaft where surface water starts at Cornfield Spring.
Photos: Yes

Finger Rock Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
FOPE8
General Location:
Vulcan Mine
Elevation: 1262 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
dense Bacharris
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: There was short section of pipe found in the canyon below the spring. Also, the remnants of a destroyed cabin are found in a grassy "clearing" on the opposite bank below the saddle.
Photos: No

Foshay Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
FOPE9
General Location: Foshay Pass
Elevation: 1286 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

GOLDSTONE SPRING (GSS)
Goldstone Spring (qanat & trough), Goldstone Canyon Seep (lower, mid & upper)

MOJA Spring IDs:
FOPE11, 10, 31, 32
General Location: Foshay Pass
Elevation: 1350 – 1422 m
History: Mining and grazing
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Salix est. 30 - 40' tall, furrowed, gray bark, with Ericameria linear ifolia, Senecio flaccidus, moss. Trough has wet algal scum at the bottom. Shrubs in the wash include Rhamnus (vegetative), Prunus fasciculata, Brickelia, Gutierrezia, Forestiera pubescens (Goldstone Spring). Many Juniper trees now grow on these slopes. Shrubs on the bench in addition to Ericameria and Senecio include Prunus fasciculata, Acacia, Lycium.
Animal Use: Cattle, burro and lots of birds of many varieties use this site (including chukars, small, tail-bobbing flycatcher, black throated sparrows, turkey vulture).
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
0.24 - 0.5 l/m
Water quality: Spring: DO: 6.3 mg/l, pH: 5.5, Conductivity: 1272 (µS/cm), TDS: 619 mg/l, Salinity: 0.6 (0/00); lower seep: DO: 6.6 mg/l, pH: 9.05, Conductivity: 1790 (µS/cm), TDS: 883 mg/l, Salinity: 0.9 (0/00); mid seep: DO: 8.6 mg/l, pH: 8.51, Conductivity: 1220 (µS/cm), TDS: 595 mg/l, Salinity: 0.6 (0/00); upper seep: DO: 4.93 mg/l, pH: 8.2, Conductivity: 1447 (µS/cm), TDS: 693 mg/l, Salinity: 0.7 (0/00)
Site Condition: highly disturbed (Spring & Trough), moderately disturbed (lower seep); undisturbed (upper & mid canyon seep)
Type of disturbance: livestock, diversion, historic mining
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
An 8’ diameter metal trough sits at grade just above the channel. A buried pipe drips into the trough. It is hard to determine the location of the qanat that supplies the trough with water. Someone plugged the input pipe with some dark gummy material. Trough storage is about 96 ft3. (Goldstone Spring). The bottom of the lower Goldstone Canyon seep is damed up and has a now broken pipe run into a lower trough.
Photos: Yes

Unnamed Spring #13
MOJA Spring ID:
FOPE16
General Location:
Foshay Pass
Elevation:
1390 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
The upper spring has some damp grassy spots with heavy baccharis growth.
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
There is a series of small dams that are not easily observed. A pipe emerges from a small cement dam that probably served more as a drinker than as a storage device. The lower spring is located just above a junction in the pipe. One pipe leads up to the dam at the upper spring, while the other pipe leads from the cement dam at the lower spring. The lower spring is no more than 300 yards up the canyon and there was surface water for approximately 10 yards about 40 feet below the drinker dam. The pipe ends are firmly attached to the dams at both spots. The dams were probably just shallow drinkers due to the location of the pipe at the top of the cement dams and must have routed excess water down into the valley below Foshay Pass.
Photos:
Yes

Vulcan Mine Pit Lake
MOJA Spring ID: FOPE34
General Location: West of Foshay Pass (Fountain Peak)
Elevation:
History: World War II Iron Mine Pit
Hydrogeology: This mining pit lake is situated on top of unfractured bedrock consisting of 100 ft of magnetite and hematite. Below that and on the edges is the contact zone between the intruded Paleozoic dolomite and the intruding Mesozoic quartz monzonite. The water in the lake consists of run-off from rain and snowmelt. There is also some seepage of neighboring perched aquifers along the quarry walls.
Type of spring: Artificial Lake
Vegetation: Tamarisk and Cattails.
Animals using spring: Bighorn Sheep
Aquatic biota: none
Ephemeral: no
Discharge: 0 l/m
Water quality: pH: 8.51, Conductivity: 8.17 (µS/cm), DO: 11.7 mg/l, Salinity: 6.88 (0/00)
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: mining
Type of infrastructure/diversion: road down to the pit lake
Photos: yes

WARM SPRINGS (WAS)
Warm Springs, (seep in Wash, seep in upper wash)
MOJA Spring IDs:
FOPE17-19
General Location:
Providence Mine
Elevation:
1236 – 1315 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seeps, well
Vegetation:
Salix exigua, Moss, Baccharis sergiloides. Baccharis sergiloides is common in the wash above and below the wells. There are scattered Isomeris arborea.
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota (e.g., Bufo, bugs): NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
025 gpm
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
Remnants of 2 windmills/pumps, a small diameter waterline and a manmade trough.
Photos: Yes

WINSTON BASIN (WBC)
Winston Basin (#1, #2, #3, #4, above #4, etc.)
MOJA Spring IDs:
FOPE20-30, 33
General Location: Winston Basin (Fountain Peak)
Elevation:
1280 – 1425 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring: Rheocrene, seep,tenaja
Vegetation: Salix exigua, Carex, moss, Pluchea, Baccharis sergiloides, Mimulus, Eleocharis and Typha, Juncus, Claytonia perfoliata along the main watercourse, and sections of flowing stream. There are several large Sambucus and Rhamnus in disjunct patches along the watercourse. Rhamnus tomentella pubescens with Sambucus. Sambucus on grassy bench with Rhamnus, Graminoid in very wet, organic mud with Mimulus. Baccharis sergiloides in gravelly soil among granite boulders with Rhus trilobata and Prunus fasciculate, Pluchea sericea over 3m with Salix exigua. Salix exigua line ca. 20 m long with Pluchea and Rhus trilobata, Sambucus, Bromus understory in channel. Eleocharis at granite margin of 2nd lowest pool, Salix goodingii, stamens, bract cream. Pinyon Juniper woodland in upland.
Animal Use: Burros, cattle, doves, mockingbirds.
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
0 -1 gpm
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance: livestock, recreation
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
historic road
Photos:
Yes

Did You Know?

photo of mojave mound cactus bloom

Mojave National Preserve was established in 1994 through the California Desert Protection Act. Now managed by the National Park Service, the area was known as the East Mojave Scenic Area, under the Bureau of Land Management.