• Kelso Mountain

    Mojave

    National Preserve California

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Springs & Seeps: Bighorn Basin (1:24,000)

BUDWEISER SPRING GROUP (BUD)
Budweiser Spring
MOJA Spring ID(s):
BIBA14Q, BIBA14T
General Location: Budweiser Wash
Elevation: 1162 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of Spring: Qanat
Vegetation: The lower wash is full of Chilopsis linearis, which forms a woodland. Above the Chilopsis is an upper valley floor full of Baccharis, Catclow, and Isomeris. The Chilopsis woodland area in the lower wash encompasses approx 2 acres.
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic Biota: NA
Ephemeral: NA
Discharge: 0.3 l/m
Water quality: pH 7.99, Conductivity 412 (µS/cm)
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: On the slope outside the lower wash, a large qanat was excavated by ranchers. Approximately 150 meters downslope from the qanat, a large circular, intact cattle trough exists within a beefy corral. The qanat is constructed as 2 chambers. The outer chamber is a shaft approx 15’ deep into the hillside and 5-6’ wide by 4’ high. At the end of this chamber is a reinforced timber opening to the inner chamber: approx 12’ deeper into the hillside, and about 3’wide by 6‘high. The water appears to be 1–2’ deep in the inner chamber. An old metal pipe laying on the outside surface has an old valve knob on the unused pipe.
Photos: Yes

BULL CANYON CREEK (BCC) GROUP
Barnes Spring, Bull Canyon Creek Spring, Fork Spring, Sidedraw Spring, Unnamed Springs #15, 16, 17, 27 &28
MOJA Spring ID(s): MSCN2; BIBA1, BIBA3, BIBA32, BIBA36, BIBA2, BIBA41, BIBA42, BIBA44, BIBA45
General Location: Bull Canyon
Elevation: 925-1696 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of Spring: Tinaja, Ephemeral Creek
Vegetation: Moss, Junipers, Willows, Tamarisk (Sidedraw Spring only), Grass, Cattail (Unnamed Spring # 17 only)
Animal Use: Livestock (Bull Canyon Creek Spring, Fork Spring, Sidedraw Spring, Unnamed Spring #15, 17), Burros (Fork Spring, Sidedraw Spring, Unnamed Spring #17, 27, 28)
Aquatic Biota: NA
Ephemeral: NA
Discharge: Trickle to streamflow
Water Quality: NA
Site Condition: undisturbed (Barnes Spring, Unnamed Spring #16), slightly disturbed (Bull Canyon Creek Spring, Fork Spring, Unnamed Spring #15, 27, 28) moderately disturbed (Sidedraw Spring, Unnamed Spring #17)
Type of disturbance: livestock, (Bull Canyon Creek Spring, Fork Spring, Unnamed Spring #15, 17) burros (Sidedraw Spring, Unnamed Spring # 17, 27, 28), invasive plant species (Sidedraw Spring)
Type of infrastructure/diversion: None
Photos: No

COTTONWOOD WASH GRANITES (CWG)
Cottonwood Spring, (east), (west), Mine Spring, Ruff Spring
MOJA Spring IDs:
BIBA15-17, 34, 35
General Location: Cottonwood Wash Basin
Elevation:
1300 - 1450 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
Annual grasses on banks of drainage; perennial grass species as well. Carex, juneus, baccharris in drainage (Ruff Spring). Willows (Mine Spring).
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
undisturbed (Cottonwood Spring west, Ruff Spring); slightly disturbed (Cottonwood Spring east, Mine Spring)
Type of disturbance: diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: At Mine Spring is an old water storage dam here that has filled with silt. Water was flowing down through the dam and filling many pools both above and below the dam. A pipe leads from this area clear up the canyon to the spring source. Looks like a qanat may have been constructed at one time, but there are no obvious signs of excavation in the area.
Photos: Yes (Cottonwood Granites)

COYOTE SPRINGS - GRANITES (CSG)
Coyote Springs – seep, #2, #3, bottom pool, upper

MOJA Spring IDs:
BIBA18-22
General Location: Granites northern slopes (Bighorn Basin)
Elevation:
948 – 1236 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
This is large basin of fractured granite. A perched water table seeps into the stream channel.
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Prunus fasciculata, Acacia greggii infected w/Phoradendron californica, Rhamnus illicifolia (rare) Echinocereus engelmanni, Gutierrezia, Eriogonum fasciculatum. Sysrinchium halophilum with "mowed" juncus & B. serg.; Carex Sp. with B. serg.; Bromus madratensis rubens in dry soil with B. serg.; Salix exigua with Rhus trilobata & B. serg.; Rhus trilobata; Baccharis sergiloides; Chara sp.; Lotus rigidus; Typha; moss; Bromus sp.; Polypogon (rabbit); Mirabilis bigelovi; Artemesia ludoviciana; Cirsium neomexicanum; Sphaeralcea sp.; Mimulus guttatus wet soil (Coyote Seep). Upper canyon area mixed desert scrub. #2 has cattails and Baccharis.
Animal Use: Burros, Hummingbird
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
0-50 l/m
Water quality at Coyote Seep -
pH: 8.00, Conductivity: 899 (µS/cm), DO: 7.37 mg/l, Salinity 0.44 (0/00), TDS: 441 mg/l; Coyote Spring bottom pool - pH: 8.35, Conductivity 969 (µS/cm), Salinity 0.48 (0/00), DO: 9.35 mg/l; #2 - pH: 8.18, Conductivity: 1040 (µS/cm), DO: 7.77 mg/l, Salinity: 0.52 (0/00), TDS: 513 mg/l; #3 - pH 7.63, Conductivity: 843 (µS/cm), DO: 5.25 mg/l, Salinity: 0.41 (0/00), TDS: 413 mg/l
Site Condition: undisturbed except #2 which is moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance: diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
livestock tank
Photos:
Yes

FALLS CANYON SPRINGS (FCS)
Lower Falls Canyon Spring, Upper Falls Canyon Spring (west fork, east fork, east fork above)
MOJA Spring IDs: BIBA33, 46-48
General Location: South of Devils Playground
Elevation:
1050 – 1132 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seeps
Vegetation:
A number of dry pools with dry algae remaining and lots of baccharis in drainage (Upper West Fork). Dry algae, moss cling to rocks at waterline edge. (Upper East Fork)Small stand of salix. Baccharis sergilordes in understory (Upper East Fork - above).
Animals Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
undisturbed
Type of disturbance:
none
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
none
Photos: No

SNAKE SPRING (SNS)
Snake Spring (grotto/source; bottom/intermit;bottom of springbrook)
MOJA Spring IDs:
BIBA37-39
General Location: Granite Mountains eastside
Elevation:
1204 – 1238 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Rheocrene
Vegetation:
Quercus, Salix gooddingii,Carex with Juncus mexicanus. Other plants noted: Agave, Dudleya, Baccharis sergiloides, Bromus rubens, Clatonia perfoliata, Claytonia parviflora, Rhus trilobata, Quercus chrysolepis, Pinus monophylla, Salix gooddingii, Quercus turbinella, Ericameria cuneata, Purshia glandulosa, Phacelia, Brickelia, ferns, Galium, Amsinckia tesselata, Dichelostemma, Plagiobothrys/Cryptantha.
Animal Use:
Numerous birds, including black-throated sparrow, canyon wren, owl, doves, others unidentified. Burros
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
<1 l/m
Water quality: pH: 6.58, Conductivity: 502 (µS/cm), DO 21.9%, TDS: 243 mg/l, Salinity: 0.2 (0/00)
Site Condition: slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: An old 7/8” o.d. metal pipe, twisted and out of shape and broken is still present. Lots of black plastic hose, too, especially below the pools. Plastic pipe is stuck into the ground inside the grotto and just above the grotto, but carries no water.
Photos: No

TWIN SPRINGS (TWS)
Twin Springs, Unnamed Spring #30

MOJA Spring IDs:
BIBA40, 52
General Location:
NE Granites
Elevation:
1128 & 1122 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
The area is heavily vegetated with some baccharis, but primarily with a large woody, thorny willow like plant (not catclaw) (Twin Springs). Willows, grasses (Unnamed Spring #30).
Animal Use: Coyote, multiple bird species Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
undisturbed
Type of disturbance:
none
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
none
Photos:
Yes

WILLOW SPRING BASIN (WSB) GROUP
Basalt Spring et al., Pine Seep, Lower Dad Spring et al., Upper Dad Spring , Willow Spring et al., Unnamed #18-26
MOJA Spring ID(s): MSCN27; BIBA4-13, 29-31, 43, 49-51
General Location: Willow Spring Basin; South side of Granite Mountains
Elevation: 1013-1565 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of springs: Rheocrene, Tenaja, Ephemeral streams
Vegetation: Baccharis, Typha, tamarisk, Rhus trilobata, Euphorbia incisa, Yucca schidigera, Gutierrezia, Primula, Moss, shrub willows, Willow Trees, Eleocharis montevidensis, Polypogon monspeliensis, Juncus sp., Juncus Mexicana, Alga, Isomeris arborea, Acacia greggii infested with Phoradendron californicum, Ephedra sp., Sphaeraclea sp., Gutierrezia sp., Lotus rigidus, Larrea tridentate, Echinocereus engelmanni, Ferocactus, Ephedra, Lotus rigidus, Rhus trilobata.
Animals Use: Black chinned sparrows, deer, bats
Aquatic Biota: NA
Ephemeral: NA
Discharge (l/m): .125 - .0625 (Lower Dad Spring), 0.33 (Upper Dad Spring), 0.75 (Willow Spring)
Water quality: below Basalt Spring: pH 7.8 Conductivity 1312 (µS/cm) Willow Spring: pH 7.37 Conductivity 850 (µS/cm)
Site Condition: undisturbed (Lower Dad Spring, unnamed Springs, Willow Springs), slightly disturbed (upper Dad Spring), highly disturbed (Basalt Spring)
Type of disturbance: spring box, fenced, shade cover (Basalt Spring), Diversion (Upper Dad Spring)
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Basalt Spring: A metal pipe exclosure surrounds a rock walled spring box in the center. The spring box has a redwood shade cover that is still in good condition. Bank has been shored up with a rock wall. Still some natural seepage occuring just above the wall. A pool, approximately 2'x3'x2' deep is at the spring box. Only other surface water was located in the canyon approximately 25 yards below the exclosure.
Photos: Yes (Basalt & Willow Spring)

Did You Know?

photo of rattlesnake

The venom of the Mojave rattlesnake is extremely toxic and causes more respiratory distress than that of any other North American rattlesnake. Due to its unique hue, it is known locally as the Mojave green.