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Mojave Tribe: Culture
Clans, Great Chiefs, Dreams, and The Center Of Existence
The land of the Mojave, the most northern of the Yuman tribes, stretched from Black Canyon to the Picacho Mountains below today’s Parker Dam, straddling the Colorado River.
In the 16th Century, the time the Spanish arrived in the territory, the Mojaves were the largest concentration of people in the Southwest. The people who made up the Mojave Tribe lived in three groups - the northern Matha lyathum lived from Black Canyon to the Mojave Valley; the central Hutto-pah inhabited the central Mojave Valley; the territory of the southern Kavi lyathum extended from the Mojave Valley to below Needles Peaks.
The Mojaves live within a clan system that was given to them in First Time by Mastamho. They were named for things above the Earth - the sun, clouds and birds: and for things of the Earth and below the Earth. Mastamho gave the Mojaves 22 patrilinear clans (today that number is reduced to 18), and the children took the name of their father’s clan, though only women used the clan name.
A hereditary chief, called the aha macav pina ta’ahon, along with leaders from the three regional groups of the Mojave, governed the people, but only with their continued support and approval.
The Mojaves were a people of dreams and visions. The dreams, su’mach, were viewed as the source of knowledge. Through them the dreamer could return to the time of creation where the origin of all things would be revealed. Great dreams and visions were related to the tribe as Great Tellings and Sings. They shared the history and legends of the people, deeds of bravery and war, magic and heroes.
And through sumach a’hot, a person was given a gift to do one thing better than others, or called upon to receive a gift of knowledge to know how to cure or treat a special kind of illness. A person called to receive such a gift had to go through much fasting and other trials, sometimes not passing the test and remaining like ordinary people. For those who passed such a test, the Mojaves say of them, "sumach a’hot," they are gifted.
For the Aha Macav, the river was the center of existence. They practiced a dry farming method, relying on the regular overflow of the Colorado River to irrigate crops planted along the banks. Preparation was painstaking; trees were felled, brush cleared. After planting, there was constant weeding and watching for pests. They supplemented this with wild seeds and roots, especially mesquite beans, game and fish taken from the river with traps and nets.
Traders, Potters The Afterlife
And back along the banks of the river, they made pottery from sedimentary clay and crushed sandstone. The material was coiled into shape, dried, painted and fired in either open pits or rudimentary kilns. They created pots, bowls, ladles and dishes decorated with geometric designs. And the women took the crafts further by making unique pottery dolls for the children, dressing and decorating them like people, complete with human hair.
The art of tattoo was important to the Mojave. They tattooed their faces with lines and dots - a cosmetic, fashionable practice.
And at death, the Mojaves used cremation to enter the spirit world. The property and belongings of the deceased were placed on a pyre along with the body, to accompany the spirits. Mourners often contributed their own valuables as a showing of love. The names of the dead were never again spoken
Did You Know?
The venom of the Mojave rattlesnake is extremely toxic and causes more respiratory distress than that of any other North American rattlesnake. Due to its unique hue, it is known locally as the Mojave green.