• Mt. Williamson and cemetery monument


    National Historic Site California


Confinement and Ethnicity is an overview of World War II Japanese American relocation sites. It was published in 1999 by Western Archeological and Conservation Center, a branch of the National Park Service. It features an essay by Eleanor Roosevelt and a chapter about Manzanar.


Manzanar Historic Resource Study is a study of the Manzanar War Relocation Center written by Harlan D. Unrau in 1996 for the National Park Service. It originally came out as a two volume set.


Personal Justice Denied is the Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. This is a comprehensive examination of the internemenht experience, resulting from hundreds of interviews held before Congress.

Did You Know?

Map of Hawaii, 1927.

Hours after Pearl Harbor the Hawaiian territorial governor declared martial law. With the exception of about 2,000 people confined in Hawaii or on the mainland, Japanese Americans were not forcibly removed from the islands. They comprised one-third of the population and their labor was essential for the war effort.