• Boott Cotton Mills Museum with Trolley

    Lowell

    National Historical Park Massachusetts

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  • Folk Festival Parking and Schedule Changes

    While the park helps the city prepare for and celebrate the Lowell Folk Festival, the Visitor Center parking lot at 304 Dutton St. will be closed Wed July 23-Mon July 28. Also check our Operating Hours page for changes to tour and exhibit schedules. More »

Water Power

 
Graphic showing differences between waterwheels, wooden gearing, turbines and bevel gears

National Park Service

The use of water as a source of motive power dates at least to Greek and Roman civilizations. In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, waterpower seems to have been limited largely to irrigation and the grinding of grains for bread. In colonial America, waterwheels commonly provided power for sawing timber, fulling cloth, grinding grains, and making iron products. Until the second half of the 19th century, waterpower was the major mechanical power source in the United States.

The principles behind waterpower are simple. Basically, a waterpower system taps the potential energy stored in water and turns it into kinetic energy by controlling its natural fall. Water is channeled out of a river at a certain height in a power canal and brought to a point where it is permitted to fall to a lower level. During its fall, it fills the buckets in a waterwheel, its weight driving the wheel around.

Falling water also powers the more efficient turbine, driving it by pressure as well as weight. In the first turbines designed by Uriah Boyden and adapted by James B. Francis to power Lowell's mills, the water entered the wheel at its center and was directed outward by stationary vanes to turn another set of moving vanes. By 1858, 56 Boyden turbines (drawing at right), rated at 35 to 650 horsepower, helped drive Lowell's mills. In both the waterwheel and turbine, the power was transferred by gears to the mill's main power shaft or drive pulley.

Source: Lowell National Historical Park Handbook 140

 

Did You Know?

Mile of Mills, Lowell, MA

Francis Cabot Lowell died before his colleagues began planning the industrial city of unprecedented order and scale that would eventually be named Lowell, Massachusetts.