National Park Service
A 1912 map of Lowell shows five major immigrant communities scattered in clusters around the city. Little Canada, which bordered the Northern Canal, had become the primary neighborhood for French Canadians. Greeks concentrated in the Acre along Market Street, while Poles, Portuguese, and Russian Jews had their own enclave within each of these areas, ethnic institutions evolved that catered to the needs of the immigrant group. Ethnic churches were the foremost of these, with a French-Canadian Catholic Church and a Greek Orthodox Church, among others, serving their communities. Parochial schools passed on the native tongue and insured that the American-born generation did not stray too far from the ways of the homeland. Adults also had their cultural institutions: Greek coffee houses and French-Canadian social clubs contributed to the cosmopolitan air of pre-World War I Lowell.
Source: Lowell National Historical Park Handbook 140
Did You Know?
The factory bells dominated daily life in Lowell. They woke the workers at 4:30 a.m., called them into the mill at 4:50, rang them out for breakfast and back in, out and in for dinner, out again at 7 p.m. at the day's close. The whole city, it seemed, moved together and did the mills' bidding.