• Boott Cotton Mills Museum with Trolley

    Lowell

    National Historical Park Massachusetts

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Immigrant Communities

 
Map showing immigration patterns in Lowell, MA

Map depicting areas of Lowell, MA settled by different immigrant groups.

National Park Service

The failure of mill owners in early Lowell to accommodate the Irish in company housing set a precedent that significantly influenced community life in the city. Immigrant groups resided away from the mills in their own neighborhoods, where old-world cultures came to terms with the demands of American urban-industrial life. By the turn of the century, Lowell was a microcosm of the broader society an uneasy blend of many ethnic groups living in distinct neighborhoods.

A 1912 map of Lowell shows five major immigrant communities scattered in clusters around the city. Little Canada, which bordered the Northern Canal, had become the primary neighborhood for French Canadians. Greeks concentrated in the Acre along Market Street, while Poles, Portuguese, and Russian Jews had their own enclave within each of these areas, ethnic institutions evolved that catered to the needs of the immigrant group. Ethnic churches were the foremost of these, with a French-Canadian Catholic Church and a Greek Orthodox Church, among others, serving their communities. Parochial schools passed on the native tongue and insured that the American-born generation did not stray too far from the ways of the homeland. Adults also had their cultural institutions: Greek coffee houses and French-Canadian social clubs contributed to the cosmopolitan air of pre-World War I Lowell.

Source: Lowell National Historical Park Handbook 140

 

Did You Know?

Industrial Canyon, Lowell, MA

Protests came to Lowell in the mid-1830s. Mill management...twice reduced the take-home pay of women workers. Faced with growing inventories and falling prices, owners believed the only way to sustain profits was to cut labor costs. The mill workers were not willing to accept this logic.