HARD DRIVE TO THE KLONDIKE: PROMOTING SEATTLE DURING THE GOLD RUSH Historic Resource Study for Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Bibliography
Alaska and Polar Regions Archives, Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Bellingham Public Library
British Library, London
The Richard F. McCurdy Historical Research Library, Jefferson County Historical Society Museum, Port Townsend
Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Seattle
Museum of History and Industry, Seattle
Oregon History Center, Portland
Scrapbook No. 9, Alaska Clippings
Seattle Office of Urban Conservation
Seattle Department of Construction and Land Use
Seattle Public Library
Tacoma Public Library
University of Washington, Seattle
Special Collections DivisionsBooks
Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia
Board of Trade Records
Washington State Archives, Puget Sound Regional Branch
King County Property Cards
Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma
Books and Reports
Adney, Tappan. The Klondike Stampede of 1897-98. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995.
[As a correspondent for Harper's Illustrated Weekly, Adney provided worthwhile firsthand observations of the Gold Rush. Numerous reprints from a variety of publishers are available.]
Alaskan Intelligence Bureau. The Klondyker: A Compendium of Useful and Authentic Information Concerning the Gold Fields of Alaska and Northwest Territories. Seattle, 1897.
[Good primary source pertaining to promotions of the Far North.]
Bagley, Clarence Booth. History of King County Washington. 3 vols. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1929.
[Available at the Special Collections Division, University of Washington and at the Seattle Public Library, this is an excellent source of information on the history of early Seattle.]
_____. History of Seattle from the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. 3 vols. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1916.
[Available at the Special Collections Division, University of Washington and at the Seattle Public Library, this is an excellent source of information on the history of early Seattle.]
_____. Pioneer Seattle and Its Pioneers. Seattle, 1928.
[Available at the Seattle Public Library, this book provides information about early leaders in Seattle.]
Bailey, Thomas A., and David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, ninth edition. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company. 1991.
[Provides general historical context for America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.]
Beaton, Welford. The City That Made Itself: A Literary and Pictorial Record of the Building of Seattle. Seattle: Terminal Publishing Company, 1914.
[This book provides useful illustrations -- particularly of early Seattle buildings -- but modern readers might find the purple prose distracting. The copy in the Special Collections Division at the University of Washington is in very fragile condition.]
Berner, Richard C. Seattle 1900-1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration. Seattle: Charles Press.
[Provides general context for the Klondike Gold Rush, and briefly discusses stampede.]
Berton, Pierre. Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896-1899. Revised Edition. Toronto, Canada: McClelland & Stewart, Inc., 1997.
[Originally published in 1958, this book focuses on the Yukon. It provides a useful section labeled "Note on the Sources," which lists government documents from Canada and the United States, along with a variety of published materials.]
Billington, Ray Allen. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier, fifth edition. New York: MacMillan, 1982.
[Standard text on history of the American West; provides context.]
Binns, Archie. Northwest Gateway: The Story of the Port of Seattle. Portland, OR: Binfords & Mort, 1941.
[Provides general context for the Klondike Gold Rush, and briefly discusses the stampede.]
_____. Mirrors of Seattle's Old Hotels. Seattle: Dogwood Press, 1965.
[Provides information on development of buildings in early Seattle.]
Boswell, Sharon A., and Lorraine McConaghy. Raise Hell and Sell Newspapers: Alden J. Blethen and The Seattle Times. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1996.
[Lively, well-illustrated history of early Seattle. focusing on the role of newspapers.]
Boyer, Glenn G. I Married Wyatt Earp: The Recollections of Josephine Sarah Marcus Earp. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1981.
[Provides some information on the Klondike Gold Rush from the perspective of gold seekers.]
Broderick, Henry. Seattle's Old Saloons. Seattle: Dogwood Press, 1966.
[This book provides a general context for the development of infrastructure in Seattle.]
Burke, Edward and Elizabeth. Seattle's Other History: Our Asian-American Heritage. Seattle: Profanity Hill Press, c. 1979.
[Provides general context for Seattle's Asian community.]
Clarridge, David, and Clarridge, Judie. A Ton of Gold -- The Seattle Gold Rush, 1897-98. Seattle: privately printed, 1972.
[Provides a strong interpretation of the stampede, focusing on Seattle.]
Cohen, Stan. A Klondike Centennial Scrapbook. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, Inc., 1996.
[Includes numerous illustrations depicting advertisements, films, and artifacts.]
Crowley, Walt. National Trust Guide, Seattle: America's Guide for Architecture and History Travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998.
[Offers an excellent outline of the development of Seattle's infrastructure.]
Dorpat, Paul. Seattle: Now and Then. Vols. 1-3. Seattle: Tortu Publications, 1984.
[These pictorial histories offer text as well as photographs and illustrations pertaining to historical buildings and structures in Seattle.]
Haskell, William B. Two Years in the Klondike and Alaskan Gold-Fields, 1896-1898. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1998.
[One of the best memoirs of the gold rush, this book is written in lively, colorful prose and offers numerous interesting anecdotes.]
Ingersoll, Ernest. Gold Fields of the Klondike. Langley, British Columbia: Mr. Paperback, 1981.
[Originally published in 1897, this book includes useful chapters on outfitting gold seekers.]
Johansen, Dorothy O., and Charles M. Gates. Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.
[A classic history of the region that briefly describes the Klondike Gold Rush.]
Jones, Nard. Seattle. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1972.
[This book offers general context as well as a flamboyant interpretation of the Gold Rush.]
Konopa, Charles. A Bibliography of the Klondike Gold Rush, 1979.
_____. Seattle Bibliography: The Early and Turn of the Century Gold Rush Days, 1979.
Kreisman, Lawrence. Historic Preservation in Seattle. Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority, 1985.
[Offers information on the development of infrastructure in Seattle.]
Little, James R. "Squaw Kate," Alaska Life, March 1943, vol. 3, p.17-18.
[Provides information on the discovery of gold in the Yukon, and on early Seattle hotels.]
MacColl, E. Kimbark. Merchants, Money and Power: The Portland Establishment. Portland, OR: The Georgian Press, 1988.
[Offers a brief description of Portland's role in the Klondike Gold Rush.]
_____. The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon, 1885-1915. Portland, OR: The Georgian Press Company, 1976.
[Offers a description of Portland's role in the Klondike Gold Rush, which is more detailed than that provided in Merchants, Money and Power.]
Marks, Paula Mitchell. Precious Dust: The American Gold Rush Era, 1848-1900. New York: William Morrow Company, 1994.
[Places the Klondike stampede in historical context along with other gold rushes.]
Mayer, Melanie. Klondike Women: True Tales of the 1897-1898 Gold Rush, 1989.
[This book provides information about outfitting women.]
Meany, Edmond. History of the State of Washington. New York: MacMillan Company, 1910.
[This source offers one of the earliest interpretations of the Klondike stampede.]
Medill, Robert B. Klondike Diary: True Account of the Klondike Rush of 1897-1898. Portland, OR: Beattie and Company, 1949.
[Described by the author as "a homely narrative of a gigantic undertaking," this book provides general context for events in the Yukon, and it includes lively descriptions of Seattle during the stampede.]
Morgan, Murray. One Man's Gold Rush. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.
[This book includes photographs -- mostly of the Yukon -- by E.A. Hegg.]
_____. Skid Road: An Informal Portrait of Seattle. New York: Viking Press, 1960.
[Morgan's book provides context and interpretation.]
Mumford, Esther Hall. Seattle's Black Victorians, 1852-1901. Seattle: Ananse Press, 1980.
[Provides general context and a brief description of the Klondike Gold Rush.]
Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind. 3rd edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
[An intellectual history, this book offers important context for understanding the 1890s and the Klondike Gold Rush.]
Nelson, Gerald B. Seattle: The Life and Times of an American City. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.
[Offers general context for early development of Seattle.]
Nesbit, Robert C. "He Built Seattle": A Biography of Judge Thomas Burke. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1961.
[A history of one of Seattle's most prominent leaders.]
Nordstrom, John W. The Immigrant in 1887. Seattle: Dogwood Press, 1950.
[This book provides information on the development of one of Seattle's most prominent businesses.]
Norris, Frank B. Legacy of the Gold Rush: An Administrative History of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. Anchorage: National Park Service, 1996.
[This history of the Klondike Gold Rush focuses on the Yukon, but offers an especially worthwhile bibliography.]
Nyberg, Folke and Victor Steinbreuck, Greenlake: An Inventory of Buildings and Urban Design Resources, Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority, 1975.
[Provides an overview of historical architecture in the Greenlake area.]
Ogilvie, William. The Klondike Official Guide: Canada's Great Gold Field, The Yukon District. Toronto: The Hunter, Rose Co., Limited, 1898.
[Available at the Special Collections Division at the University of Washington, this book is in very fragile condition. It discusses outfitting in Canada, and offers interesting photographs, maps, and advertisements. It also includes the Regulations Governing Placer Mining in the Provisional District of Yukon, Northwest Territories.]
Oschner, Jeffery Karl, Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994.
[A detailed history of Seattle's leading architects and architectural styles.]
Pomeroy, Earl. The Pacific Slope: A History of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Nevada. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965.
[This book discusses the development of Seattle and other cities on the West Coast.]
Porsild, Charlene. Gamblers and Dreamers: Women, Men, and Community in the Klondike. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1998.
[This book focuses on the Yukon, but has useful information regarding the nationality of the miners.]
Prosch, Thomas W. A Chronological History of Seattle from 1850 -1897, vol. 2 (c. 1900).
[Provides general context for early Seattle.]
Robinson, Marilyn Druck. Washington State Statistical Abstract. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1952.
[Offers useful population figures.]
Sale, Roger. Seattle: Past to Present. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976.
[This book presents an interesting and unusual interpretation of the Klondike Gold Rush.]
Satterfield, Archie. Klondike Park: from Seattle to Dawson City. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 1993.
[Although it does not focus on Seattle, this book provides an excellent description of the 1890s.]
Sayre, J. Willis. The Early Waterfront of Seattle. Pamphlet. Seattle, 1937.
[This source provides information on the development of infrastructure.]
Schmid, Calvin F. Social Trends in Seattle. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1944.
[This book provides useful population and demographic information.]
Schwantes, Carlos. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History, revised edition. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
[This book offers an excellent context for the development of Seattle and the region.]
Seattle Chamber of Commerce. Seattle and Western Washington: A Statement of Resources. 1909.
[This source offers an interesting summary of the gold rush era and the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition.]
Spector, Robert and Patrick D. McCarthy. The Nordstrom Way: The Inside Story of America's #1 Customer Service Company. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.
[Chapter 2, "After the Gold Rush," is especially useful for analyzing the stampede's impact on an important local business.]
Speidel, William C. Seattle Underground: A Pictorial Story with Historical Footnotes and Interesting Anecdotes about the Forgotten City beneath Modern Seattle. Booklet. Seattle: Seattle Guide, 1967.
[An interesting look at the fire and its aftermath.]
_____. Sons of the Profits. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company, 1967.
[Speidel's books provide information on the early development of Seattle. They are written in a flamboyant style, and documentation is not strong, but they provide colorful stories and interesting interpretations.]
Thomson, R. H. That Man Thomson. Grant H. Redgord, editor. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1950.
[Includes City Engineer Thomson's useful descriptions of the regrades and the Cedar River Water System.]
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "Statement of the Frontier Thesis," in Ray Billington, editor, The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? Huntington, New York: Robert E. Kreiger Publishing Company, 1977.
[An important primary source for understanding late nineteenth-century America.]
Wallace, James and Jim Erickson. Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992.
[Conveys the story of the founding and development of Microsoft and its corporate culture.]
Warren, James R. The Day Seattle Burned. (published by the author), 1989.
[A brief history of the fire and rebuilding of Seattle.]
Wells, E. Hazard. Magnificence and Misery: A First-Hand Account of the 1897 Klondike Gold Rush. Randall M. Dodd, editor. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1984.
[This source provides an inside view of the Gold Rush.]
Wharton, David. The Alaska Gold Rush. Bloomington, Indiana, 1972.
[Provides important context for understanding the stampede to the Far North.]
White, Richard. "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
[A textbook for the "New Western History" that includes a very brief description of the Klondike Gold Rush.]
Whyard, Flo, editor, Martha Louise Black, My Ninety Years. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, c. 1976.
[Useful firsthand description of the gold rush.]
Willingham, William F. Northwest Passages: A History of the Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1896-1920. Seattle: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1992.
[Offers a brief description of labor shortages in the Puget Sound region resulting from the stampede to the Far North.]
Wing, Warren W. To Seattle by Trolley: The Story of the Seattle-Everett Interurban and the "Trolley That Went to Sea." Edmonds, WA: Pacific Fast Mail, 1988.
[Provides a useful history of the Interurban Rail Line.]
Woodbridge, Sally B. and Roger Montgomery, A Guide to Architecture in Washington State, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.
[Provides an overview of architecture of Washington, including a section on Pioneer Square.]
Adams, G.E. "Where the Klondike Gold Is Valued." Cosmopolitan, February 1900.
"American Survey: The Heirs of the Klondike." The Economist. 342 (February 15, 1997), pp. 25-26.
Anderson, Ross. "Poor Man, Rich Man," The Seattle Times Magazine, July 13, 1997, p. 22.
Backhouse, Frances M. "Women of the Klondike." Beaver. 67 (1987).
Brainerd, Erastus. "Outfitting for the Klondike." Harper's Weekly 41 (October 2, 1897).
_____. "Seattle." Harper's Weekly 41 (November 13, 1897).
Bush, Sam Stone. "The Rush to the Klondike: Alaska's New Gold-Fields -- Their Present Output and Future Promise." American Monthly Review of Reviews (March 1898).
Carter, Charles W. "Memories of the Alaska Gold Rush." Family Heritage 1 (1978), pp. 113-117.
Cole, Terrence. "Home of the Arctic Club: The Alaska and Arctic Buildings in Seattle." The Alaska Journal 15 (Winter 1985), pp. 8-12.
_____. "Klondike Visions: Dreams of a Promised Land," The Alaska Journal 16 (1986), pp. 82-93.
_____, editor. "Wheels on Ice: Bicycling in Alaska, 1898-1908." Book Insert, The Alaska Journal 15 (Winter 1985), pp. 1-64.
Conover, Charles T. "Yukon Goldrush Speeded Shipbuilding." The Seattle Times. 11 May 1960.
Cushman, Herbert Ernest. "Professor August Weismann", Outlook. January 16, 1897, p. 253.
Emanual, Richard P. "The Golden Gamble." Alaska Geographic 24 (1997).
Gates, Bill. The Internet 'Gold Rush': Where's the Gold?" Microsoft Internet Column, http://www.microsoft.com/BillGates_L/column/1995essay/12-6-95.htm, p.1.
Gates, Charles M. "Human Interest Notes on Seattle and the Alaskan Gold Rush." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 34 (April 1943), pp. 205-211.
Griffith, D.C. "When Seattle Went Mad." The Seattle Times. 20 July 1947.
Hittell, John S. "The Boom in Western Washington." Overland Monthly 16 (September 1890), pp. 225-231.
Jonasson, Jonas A. "Portland and the Alaska Trade." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 30 (April 1939), pp. 132-144.
Kelcey, Barbara E. "What to Wear to the Klondike: Outfitting Women for the Gold Rush." Material History Review. 37 (1993), pp. 20-29.
"Klondike Gold Discoverer is Called by Death," Seattle Times, June 14, 1998.
Leithead, J. Edward. "The Klondike Stampede in Dime Novels." American Book Collector 21 (1971), pp. 23-29.
Lotter, Jane. "The Life and Hard Times of the Moore Theatre." The Weekly. April 29-May 5 1981. pp. 19-20.
MacDonald, Alexander Norbert. "The Business Leaders of Seattle., 1880-1910." Pacific Northwest Quarterly (January 1959).
_____. "Seattle, Vancouver, and the Klondike." Canadian Historical Review. 49 (1968), pp. 234-246.
Marlowe, Kimberly. "Seattitude." Pacific Northwest, The Seattle Times. August 16, 1998, pp. 8-15.
Merrell, Bruce. "`A Wild, Discouraging Mess': John Muir Reports on the Klondike Gold Rush." Alaska History. 7 (Fall 1992).
Newell, Dianne. "The Importance of Information and Misinformation in the Making of the Klondike Gold Rush." Journal of Canadian Studies. 21 (1987), pp. 95-111.
Nichols, Jeannette Paddock. "Advertising and the Klondike." Washington Historical Quarterly 13 (January 1922), pp. 20-26.
Ostrogorsky, Michael. "Women Were Everywhere: Female Stampeders to the Klondike and Alaska." Columbia 8 (1994).
Pierce, Kingston J. "Words of Gold: Reporters Bring the World News of the Klondike Stampede." Columbia 12 (Spring 1998), pp. 5-11.
Pratt, John W. "Seattle: The Queen City." Pacific Monthly 14 (1905).
Ross, E.A. "Turning Towards Nirvana," Arena 4. November 1891, pp. 739 and 742.
Rumley, Larry. "When Gold Poured into Seattle from the North." The Seattle Times. Sunday Magazine, 1 May 1966.
Satterfield, Archie. "He Sold the Klondike." The Seattle Times Magazine, January 2, 1972.
Sayford, Irving. "The Klondike Put Seattle on the Map." Travel. March 1939.
Seattle City Directories, Seattle: Polk's Seattle Directory Co., 1889-1909.
Shipley, Mark R. "The Impact of the Klondike Gold Rush on Seattle," Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Library, n.p.
Tarbill, V.V. "Mountain-Moving in Seattle." Harvard Business Review. July 1930, pp. 482-489.
"Wreckers Fell 1890 Mansion," Seattle Post Intelligencer, January 11, 1966.
The Blade [Bellingham], 1897-1898
Theses and Dissertations
Cole, Terrence. "A History of the Nome Gold Rush: The Poor Man's Paradise." Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, 1983.
Kimmons, Neil C. "The Historical Development of Seattle as a Metropolitan Area." Master's Thesis, University of Washington, 1942.
Livingston, Victoria Hartwell. "Erastus Brainerd: The Bankruptcy of Brilliance." Master's Thesis, University of Washington, 1967.
MacDonald, Alexander Norbert. "Seattle's Economic Development, 1880-1910." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, 1959.
Morse, Kathryn Taylor. "The Nature of Gold: An Environmental History of the Alaska Gold Rush." Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, 1997.
Porsild, Charlene L. "Culture, Class and Community: New Perspectives on the Klondike Gold Rush, 1896-1905." Ph.D. Dissertation. Carleton University, Canada, 1996.
Reiff, Janice L. "Urbanization and the Social Structure: Seattle, Washington, 1852-1910." Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, 1981.
Sheridan, Frances Amelia. "Apartment House Development on Seattle's Queen Ann Hill Prior to World War II," Master's Thesis. University of Washington, 1994.
Still, Richard Ralph. "Historical and Competitive Aspects of Grocery Wholesaling in Seattle," Washington. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington., 1953.
Webb, Melody Rae. "Yukon Frontiers: The Westward Movement to the North Country (Alaska)." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1983.
Anderson, O.P. and Company, Map of the City of Seattle, 1889.
_____. Anderson's New Guide Map of the City of Seattle, 1892.
_____. Anderson's Street and Guide Map of the City of Seattle, 1896.
Bouillon, Arthur M. Polk's New Guide Map of the City of Seattle, 1899.
Candrian, H.A. The Daily Gazette Hand Guide Map of Seattle, 1902.
Chapman, H.D. Latest Official Map of the City of Seattle, 1902.
Fredericksen, Neil M. Bird's Eye View of Old Seattle. Seattle: Pioneer Square Association, 1972.
McKee, R. H. McKee's Correct Road Map of Seattle and Vicinity, 1894.
Sanborn Map Company. Fire Insurance Maps, 1888-1916.
Sanders, Fred. Bird's Eye View Seattle and Environs. Seattle, WA. 1891.
Seattle, City of. Original Incorporation and Annexations, 1938.
Washington Map & Blue Print Company. Sectional Atlas of the City of Seattle, Washington, 1907.
Nomination Forms and Historic Preservation Reports
Corley, Margaret. Pioneer Square Historic District National Register Nomination, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Olympia, 1969.
_____. Colman Building National Register Nomination, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Olympia, 1969.
_____. National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, Moore Theatre and Hotel. Washington State Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, 1973.
_____. National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, German Club, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, 1973.
Deering, Roberta. Landmark Designation/Staff Recommendation to the Board, U.S. Assay Office. Seattle Office of Urban Conservation, 1983.
Holstine, Craig. Multiple Property Documentation Form, Single Room Occupancy Hotels in the Central Business District of Spokane, WA, 1900-1910, 1993.
King County Assessor's Records, History Card for 1932 Second Avenue, Seattle, Puget Sound Regional Branch of the Washington State Archives, Bellevue, WA.
Krafft, Kathryn H. Pioneer Square Historic District Boundary Increase National Register Nomination, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, 1987.
Layman, Earl, Landmarks Preservation Board Seattle Historic Building Data Sheet, Seattle Office of Urban Conservation, 1975.
Office of Urban Conservation, Landmark Nomination Form, Colman Building, Seattle Office of Urban Conservation, n.d.
Office of Urban Conservation, First Avenue Groups National Register Nomination, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, 1980.
Pioneer Square Planning Committee, Draft 1998 Pioneer Square Neighborhood Plan, 1998.
Potter, Elizabeth W. Pioneer Square Historic District National Register Nomination, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Olympia, 1976.
Susman, Nancy, Holyoke Building National Register Nomination, Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Olympia, 1976.
Washington State Department of Trade and Economic Development, Historic Places in Washington: National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, and Washington Heritage Register, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Olympia, 1997.
Did You Know?
Seattle's success as the main outfitting port for Klondike stampeders was due to the marketing campaign led by Erastus Brainerd.