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    Keweenaw

    National Historical Park Michigan

Keweenaw National Historical Park General Management Plan

General Management Plan Environmental Impact Statement

Vision Statement and Summary

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR THE PLAN

Introduction 5
Brief Description of the Park 5
Establishment of the National Historical Park and the Advisory Commission 7
The Park 7
The Commission and Its Operating Authorities 7
Cooperating Sites 8

Planning Considerations and Process 13
Purpose of and Need for the Plan 13
Purposes of the National Historical Park 13
Significance of the Park 14
Current Issues 14
The Commission's Operating Authorities 14
Resource Management 15
Park Integrity and Community Growth 15
Community Impacts 15
Park Staffing 15
Partnership Coordination 15
Cooperative Agreements 16
Visitor Experience 16
Boundary Concerns 16
NPS Acquisition or Management of Contaminaled Property 16
Planning Assumptions 17
Management Objectives 17
Inteterpretation 17
Resource Preservation 17
Education 17
Visitor Safety 18
Partnerships 18
Research 18
Interpretive Goals 18
Primary Interpretive Themes 19
People's Lives 19
Labor Management Relations 20
Corporate Paternalism 20
Mining Technology 20
Geology and Mining 20
Natural Resources 20
Desired Visitor Experience 20
Orientation 20
Quincy 21
Calumet 21
Cooperating Sites 24
Relationship to Other Planning Efforts 24

THE ALTERNATIVES, INCLUDING THE PROPOSED ACTION

Introduction 29

Actions Common to All Alternatives 30
Commission Operating Authority 30
Cooperating Sites / Cooperative Agreements 30
Cooperating Sites 30
Cooperative Agreements 30
Acquisition of Property 31
Relationship to Isle Royale National Park 32
Osceola #13 Complex 32
Management Zoning 32
Carrying Capacity 32

Alternative 1 - Continuation of Existing Management Circumstances (No Action) 33
Concept 33
Visitor Experience and Interpretation 33
Financial and Technical Assistance 33
Local Preservation Ordinances 33
Other Assistance Efforts 33
NPS Acquisition of Properties 33
Development and Use of Acquired Structures 33
Park Administration and Operation 34
Implementation, Staffing, and Costs 34
Implementation 34
Staffing 34
Costs 34

Alternative 2 - Community Assistance 35
Concept 35
Visitor Experience and Interpretation 35
Financial and Technical Assistance 36
Local Preservation Ordinances 36
Other Assistance Efforts 36
NPS Acquisition of Properties 36
Development and Use of Acquired Structures 37
Park Administration and Operation 37
Implementation, Staffing, and Costs 37
Implementation 37
Staffing 37
Costs 38

Alternative 3 - Traditional Park in the Core Industrial Areas 43
Concept 43
Visitor Experience and Interpretation 43
Financial and Technical Assistance 43
Local Preservation Ordinances 43
Other Assistance Efforts 43
NPS Acquisition of Properties 44
Development and Use of Acquired Structures 44
Park Administration and Operation 44
Implementation, Staffing, and Costs 49
Implementation 49
Staffing 49
Costs 49

Alternative 4 - The Proposed Action 50
Concept 50
Visitor Experience and Interpretation 50
Financial and Technical Assistance 51
Local Preservation Ordinances 51
Other Assistance Efforts 51
NPS Acquisition of Properties 52
Development and Use of Acquired Structures 52
Park Administration and Operation 52
Implementation, Staffing, and Costs 57
Implementation 57
Staffing 57
Costs 57

A Partnership for the Park and Peninsula - the Foundation 67
The Basis for the Partnership - Legislated Responsibilities of the Advisory Commission 67
The Concept of Partnership 68
An Adjunct, Not-for-Profit Corporation 70

Future Plans and Studies Needed 71

Alternative Considered and Rejected - Major NPS Ownership 76

AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT

Physical Setting and Description 79
Location 79
Access 79
Physiography 79
The Keweenaw Peninsula 79

Cultural Resources and Related Areas 80
The Quincy Unit 80
Industrial Core Area 80
The Quincy Smelter 82
Management-Related Buildings 82
Worker Housing Areas 83
The Calumet Unit 83
Calumet and Hecla (C & H) Mining Company 84
Corporate and Industrial Core Area 84
Worker Housing Districts 89
Calumet Village Civic and Commercial Area 89
Calumet Village Residential Area 91
Related Areas 92
Torch Lake 92
Cliff Mine Site 92
Painesdale National Historic District 92

Natural Resources 93
Climate 93
Geology 93
Soils/Vegetation 93
Wetlands/Floodplains 93
Wildlife 94
Threatened and Endangered Species 94
Air Quality 94
Hazardous Substances 94

Regional Visitor Use and Facilities 96
Current Visitor Use and Interpretation 96
Cooperating Sites 97
Visitor Use Statistics and Analysis 97
Future Visitor Use of the Park 97
Major Recreational Resources of the Keweenaw Peninsula 99

Regional Land Use 102
Ownership Patterns 102
Local Historic District Ordinances 102
Future Potential Land Uses 103
Potential for Coordinated Planning of Resource and/or Visitor Use Management with Adjacent Land Management Agencies 103

The Socioeconomic Environment 105
County and Regional Characteristics - Overview 105
Population 105
Economy 105
Transportation/Access 109

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES

Impacts Common to All Alternatives 113
Impacts on Cultural Resources 113
Impacts on Natural Resources 113
Threatened and Endangered Species 113
Soils and Hydrology 113
Impacts on the Socioeconomic Environment 114
Impacts on Visitor Experience and Interpretation 114
Impacts on Park Administration and Management 114
Proposed Legislative Changes 114
Possible Acquisition or Management of Contaminated Properties 114

Impacts of Implementing Alternative 1 - No Action 117
Impacts on Cultural Resources 117
Impacts on Natural Resources 117
Impacts on the Socioeconomic Environment 117
Impacts on Visitor Experience and Interpretation 117
Impacts on Park Administration and Management 118

Impacts of Implementing Alternative 2 - Community Assistance 119
Impacts on Cultural Resources 119
Impacts on Natural Resources 119
Impacts on the Socioeconomic Environment 119
Impacts on Visitor Experience and Interpretation 120
Impacts on Park Administration and Management 121

Impacts of Implementing Alternative 3 - Traditional Park 122
Impacts on Cultural Resources 122
Impacts on Natural Resources 122
Impacts on the Socioeconomic Environment 122
Impacts on Visitor Experience and Interpretation 123
Impacts on Park Administration and Management 123

Impacts of Implementing Alternative 4 - Proposed Action 124
Impacts on Cultural Resources 124
Impacts on Natural Resources 124
Impacts on the Socioeconomic Environment 124
Impacts on Visitor Experience and Interpretation 125
Cumulative Impacts 125
Impacts on Park Administration and Management 126
Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitments of Resources 126
Relationship Between the Local Short-term Use of the Environment and the Maintenance and
Enhancement of Long-term Productivity 126
Unavoidable Adverse Impacts 127
Energy Requirements and Conservation Potential 127
Compliance with Federal and State Laws, Executive Orders, and Regulations 128
Consultation and Coordination 133

APPENDIXES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

A: History and Cultural Resources: Copper on the Keweenaw 163
B: Legislation 173
C: Cooperating Sites 181
D: Primary and Secondary Interpretive Themes and Supporting Stories 183
E: Interpretive Planning - The Next Steps 186
F: Quincy Mine Hoist Association Development Plan 188
G: Calumet Village and Calumet Township Concept Development Plan 191
H: Some Thoughts for the Commission and Partnership to Consider during Preparation of a
Comprehensive Management Plan for the Commission 211

Selected Bibliography 213

Preparers and Consultants 216

Index 218

Did You Know?

Ruins of the boiler house for the No. 4 mine shaft are preserved today in the Quincy Mine National Historic Landmark District.

Keweenaw National Historical Park is home to two National Historic Landmark Districts related to copper mining history. National Historic Landmarks contain one or more properties that exhibit exceptional values or qualities in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States.