Grade 9–12 Ecology (Life Science): Ecology: 6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms, and is affected by alterations of habitats, b. how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of non-native species, or changes in population size, c. how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death, f. at each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment as heat and this can be represented in a food pyramid.
Investigation and Experimentation: 1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will: a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. d. Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence. h. Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps. k. Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence. l. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science. m. Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings. Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California.
Grade 9–12 Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills: In addition to the standards for grades nine through twelve, students demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, and research skills. Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned. 2. Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs. 3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods. 4. Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions. Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View 1. Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations. 4. Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations. Historical Interpretation 1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments. 2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect. 5. Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
Grade 10 World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World: Students in grade ten study major turning points that shaped the modern world, from the late eighteenth century through the present, including the cause and course of the two world wars. They trace the rise of democratic ideas and develop an understanding of the historical roots of current world issues, especially as they pertain to international relations. They extrapolate from the American experience that democratic ideals are often achieved at a high price, remain vulnerable, and are not practiced everywhere in the world. Students develop an understanding of current world issues and relate them to their historical, geographic, political, economic, and cultural contexts. Students consider multiple accounts of events in order to understand international relations from a variety of perspectives.
Grade 11 United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change in the Twentieth Century: Students in grade eleven study the major turning points in American history in the twentieth century. Following a review of the nation’s beginnings and the impact of the Enlightenment on U.S. democratic ideals, students build upon the tenth grade study of global industrialization to understand the emergence and impact of new technology and a corporate economy, including the social and cultural effects. They trace the change in the ethnic composition of American society; the movement toward equal rights for racial minorities and women; and the role of the United States as a major world power. An emphasis is placed on the expanding role of the federal government and federal courts as well as the continuing tension between the individual and the state. Students consider the major social problems of our time and trace their causes in historical events. They learn that the United States has served as a model for other nations and that the rights and freedoms we enjoy are not accidents, but the results of a defined set of political principles that are not always basic to citizens of other countries. Students understand that our rights under the U.S. Constitution are a precious inheritance that depends on an educated citizenry for their preservation and protection. 11.11:Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues in contemporary American society, in terms of 5.the impact, need and controversies associated with environmental conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of environmental protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction between environmental protection and property rights.