Cottonwood Trails Closed
Trail access remains closed to Cottonwood Spring Oasis, Lost Palms Oasis, and Mastodon Peak. More »
Pinto Basin Road Under Construction; Expect 30+ Minute Travel Delays
Visitors should expect 30+ minute waits when heading north and sound bound on the Pinto Basin Road. Due to construction activity around Cottonwood Visitor Center, additional waits of 30 minutes may be in place when leaving the visitor center parking lot. More »
Deteriorating conditions of Black Rock Canyon Road
The road leading to Black Rock campground has deep potholes, is deeply rutted, and can be difficult to negotiate, especially in large vehicles. Please drive with caution.
As the Pleistocene Epoch drew to a close ten thousand years ago, and the rivers of glacial ice melted, people lived in an environment dramatically different from today—both cooler and wetter. Lakes and swamps existed where no water remains now. Lush grasslands covered the plains, supporting mammoths, mastodons, horses, camels, and, in some areas, bison.
The Campbells believed that there had been a river flowing through Pinto Basin but more recent research by geologists dispels the notion that there was either a river or a lake in Pinto Basin by the time humans occupied the area. The points collected by the Cambells are thick and triangular in shape, with notched shoulders and a broad stem. Pinto hunters attached the points to a wooden spear shaft and used a spear thrower, or atlatl, to propel the spear. Based on the relatively large number of Pinto points—as well as cutting and scraping tools—compared with the few seed-processing implements found at these early sites, it is believed that Pinto Culture was a mobile population dependent upon large game hunting and seasonal plant gathering.
The period of Pinto Culture occupation was an era of decreasing moisture, and by the end the environment was probably close to what we have today. As the Pleistocene water sources dried up, only desert adapted plants and animals survived. The archeological evidence suggests that the human population gradually adapted as well, by hunting smaller game and processing small seeds.
Today’s Tribal Groups
Did You Know?
The reptiles of Joshua Tree National Park include one tortoise, 18 lizards, and 25 varieties of snakes. More...