Pinto Basin Road Under Construction; Expect travel delays up to 30-minutes
The ongoing construction project to improve Pinto Basin Road will impact travel between the northern portion of the park and the Cottonwood/I-10 area. Please plan accordingly. The project is expected to be completed in August 2014. More »
Deteriorating conditions of Black Rock Canyon Road
The road leading to Black Rock campground has deep potholes, is deeply rutted, and can be difficult to negotiate, especially in large vehicles. Please drive with caution.
Access to some Cottonwood trails remains closed
Trail access remains closed to Cottonwood Spring Oasis, Lost Palms Oasis, and Mastodon Peak. More »
Oasis of Mara
In deserts the presence of water, that rarest of desert commodities, allows life to flourish and provides an oasis for natural and human activity. The Oasis of Mara is a cornerstone of the Joshua Tree National Park story.
The Serrano planted 29 palm trees
Indians, miners, & cowboys all used the oasis
By 1870, prospectors attracted to California by the discoveries at Sutter's Mill had drifted into the desert looking for gold. The Anaconda Mine began operation south of the Oasis in 1874. The Lost Horse, the Desert Queen, and other claims soon followed. Trees began to be cut at the Oasis, and water siphoned away to support the growing mining operations.
On the heels of the miners, cattlemen moved to the area in the 1880s to take advantage of the high desert grasslands of the Pinto and Little San Bernardino Mountains. The McHaney brothers ran an active cattle trade that was alleged to include stolen cattle that they pastured in isolated rocky coves near Hidden Valley.
Bill McHaney became the first non-Indian to live at the Oasis in 1879. Later, Jack Rankin and Billy Neaves built an adobe house at the east end of the Oasis. It stood for over 40 years and served as a residence, a stage line stop, and a meeting place. The Barker and Shays Cattle Company dug a 600-gallon well around 1900 for use by the growing population. A 1902 census found 37 Serrano and Chemehuevi living at the Oasis. As more non-Indians arrived, the Indian families began to drift away, and by 1913, the Serrano and Chemehuevi were all gone.
Following World War I, the town of Twentynine Palms saw an influx of veterans suffering from the effects of gas inhalation, drawn to the area by its warm, arid climate. The establishment in 1936 of a vast stretch of the desert above town as Joshua Tree National Monument drew more people to the area. The Twentynine Palms Corporation donated the Oasis of Mara to the National Park Service in 1950 to use as its headquarters and primary visitor center.
Today, more than 140,000 people annually visit the Oasis Visitor Center where they receive information about the park and learn about its natural and human history. Many visitors also take the opportunity to walk the Oasis of Mara nature trail.
Did You Know?
In the high desert country that was to become Joshua Tree National Park, rugged individuals tried their luck at cattle ranching, mining, and homesteading. William Keys and his family are particularly representative of the hard work and ingenuity it took to settle and prosper in the Mojave Desert. More...