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Works Cited For Doctors in the Wilderness

Ambrose, Stephen E. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the West:
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Anderson, Ann. Snake Oil Hustlers and Hambones: The American Medicine Show. North Carolina: McFarland
& Company, Inc. 2000.

Barth, Gunther. The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Selections from the Journals, Arranged by Topic. Boston:
Bedford/ St. Martin’s Press, 1998..

“Benjamin Rush”, 2004. University of Virginia Health System (On Line). 4 May, 2004.
<www.healthsystem.virginia.edu>.

Brodie, Janet Farrell. Contraception and Abortion in 19th Century America. New York: Cornell University
Press. pg. 205-211.

Chuinard, E. G., M.D. Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Glendale:
Arthur H. Clark Company, 1980.

DeVoto, Bernard. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981.

Jackson, Donald. Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: with related documents 1783-1854. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1962.

“Lewis and Clark” 2002. Lewis and Clark College, Portland Oregon. 4, April, 2004.
<www.lclark.edu/org/bicprog/200/060103.html>

Miller, Brandon and Marie. Just What the Doctor Ordered. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 1997.

Moulton, Gary. 2003. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: Introduction (on-line). 5 April 2004.
<http.lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu>.

Peck, D.O. David J. Or Perish in the Attempt: Wilderness Medicine in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Far
Country Press. 2002.

Porter, Roy. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W.W. Norton &
Company. 1997.

Risjord, Norman K. The Revolutionary Generation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2001.

Rush, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1948.

Tone, Andrea. Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

[1] Coues M.D., Elliot as quoted in: Chuinard, E. G., M.D. Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis
and Clark Expedition, Glendale: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1980. pg. 25. Cous: in subsequent notes.
[2]Coues, pg. 25.
[3] Wheeler, Olin D. as quoted in: Chuinard, E. G., M.D. Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis
and Clark Expedition, Glendale: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1980. pg. 25. Wheeler was writing in 1904.
Wheeler in subsequent notes.
[4] Moulton, Gary. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: Introduction (on-line). 5 April 2004.
<http.lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu> pg. 4. Moulton in subsequent notes.
[5] Moulton. pg. 4.
[6] Chuinard, E. G., M.D. Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Glendale:
Arthur H. Clark Company, 1980. pg. 27. Chuinard in subsequent notes.
[7] Ambrose, Stephen E. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the West:
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. pg. 40, 59. Ambrose in subsequent notes.
[8] Ambrose. pg. 23.
[9] Ambrose. pg. 23.
[10] Chuinard. pg. 107.
[11] DeVoto, Bernard. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981. pg. 135.
DeVoto in subsequent notes.
[12] De Voto. pg. 135.
[13] Peck, D.O. David J. Or Perish in the Attempt: Wilderness Medicine in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Far
Country Press. 2002. pg. 163. Peck in subsequent notes. and DeVoto. pg. 135.
[14] Clark’s Journal, as quoted in Chuinard. pg. 80.
[15] Chuinard. pg. 79.
[16] Tilton, James, in Economical Observations, as quoted in: Chuinard, E. G., M.D. Only One Man Died: The
Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Glendale: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1980. pg. 80.
[17] Tilton, in Chuinard. pg. 40.
[18] Chuinard. pg. 39.
[19] Chuinard. pg. 39.
[20] Peck. pg. 33.
[21] Peck. pg. 33.
[22] Anderson, Ann. Snake Oil Hustlers and Hambones: The American Medicine Show. North Carolina: McFarland
& Company, Inc. 2000. pg. 21. Anderson in subsequent notes.
[23] Anderson. pg. 21.
[24] Anderson. pg. 21.
[25] Anderson. pg. 27.
[26] Chuinard. pg. 52.
[27] Chuinard. pg. 51.
[28] Chuinard. pg. 51.
[29] Rush, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1948. pg. 35.
Rush in subsequent notes.
[30] Rush. pg. 36.
[31] Rush. pg. 36.
[32] Rush. pg. 38.
[33] Miller, Brandon and Marie. Just What the Doctor Ordered. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 1997, pg. 27.
Miller in subsequent notes.
[34] Miller. pg. 29.
[35] Miller. pg. 30.
[36] Peck. pg. 40.
[37] Anderson. pg. 21.
[38] Porter, Roy. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W.W. Norton &
Company. 1997. pg. 290. Porter in subsequent notes.
[39] Porter. pg. 290
[40] Risjord, Norman K. The Revolutionary Generation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2001.
pg. 183. Risjord in subsequent notes.
[41] Peck. pg. 41.
[42]Peck., pg. 180, and Porter. pg. 290.
[43] Risjord. pg. 187.
[44] Risjord. pg. 180.
[45] Risjord. pg. 180.
[46] Miller. pg. 36.
[47] Peck. pg. 45.
[48] Peck., pg. 45
[49] Anderson. pg. 23.
[50] Ambrose. pg. 89.
[51] Anderson. pg. 23.
[52] Miller. 39.
[53] Peck. pg. 45.
[54] Risjord. pg. 199.
[55] Risjord. pg. 199.
[56] Miller. pg. 39.
[57] Peck. pg. 46-47.
[58] “Benjamin Rush”, University of Virginia Health System (On Line). pg. 1.
[59] Peck. pg. 49.
[60] Peck. pg. 45.
[61] Peck. pg. 51.
[62] Peck. pg. 51.
[63] Peck. pg. 52.
[64] Peck. pg. 52. A list of the medical items gathered by Lewis can be found in Appendix B.
[65] Peck. pg. 55.
[66] Peck. pg. 55.
[67] Rush, uses the term “costiveness” in his list. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the term is defined as “constipation”.
[68] Jackson, Donald. Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: with related documents 1783-1854. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1962. pg. 54. The complete list of rules is found in Appendix C.
[69]Peck. pg. 93-95.
[70] Peck. pg. 93.
[71] Peck. pg. 129-130. and DeVoto. Pg. 78
[72] DeVoto. pg 141-146.
[73] DeVoto. pg 141.
[74] DeVoto. pg. 241.
[75] Barth, Gunther. The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Selections from the Journals, Arranged by Topic. Boston:
Bedford/ St. Martin’s Press, 1998. 165. Barth in subsequent notes.
[76] Barth. pg. 165.
[77] Barth. pg. 166-167.
[78] Barth. pg. 166-167.
[79] Barth. pg. 168.
[80] Barth. pg. 168.
[81] Barth. pg. 168.
[82] Barth. pg. 169
[83] Peck. pg. 118.
[84] Peck. pg. 118.
[85] Peck. pg. 118.
[86] Peck. pg. 118
[87] Peck. pg. 118
[88] Brodie, Janet Farrell. Contraception and Abortion in 19th Century America. New York: Cornell University
Press. pg. 205-211. and Tone, Andrea. Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America.
New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. pg. 51. Brodie and or Tone in subsequent notes.
[89] Brodie. pg. 205-211. Condom recipes allowed farmers who butchered their own animals to make the prophylactics from animal intestines and lye, the process was fairly simple.
[90] DeVoto. pg. 21.
[91] Chuinard. pg. 27.
[92] Journal of Patrick Gass as quoted in, Peck. pg. 103.

[93] Peck. pg. 60.

Did You Know?

Cartoon fiddle

Pierre Cruzatte and George Gibson brought their fiddles along on the Lewis and Clark expedition. Their music entertained the group on many evenings. Click here to learn more about Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery. More...