Due to the Industrial Rope Access Project at the Gateway Arch
Visitors may enter the Arch at the south leg only. Tram rides to the top are still available, the observation deck at the top will have restrictions. Usual walking paths may be closed; please look for signage or a Ranger for walking directions.
Shawnee and Delaware
Information on the Shawnee and Delaware Indians
The following excerpts from the journals of Lewis and Clark and their men present a picture of the Shawnee and Delaware people as the Anglo-Americans saw them. The modern reader must be careful to understand that what these white men saw and recorded was not necessarily correct from the Indian perspective. At the time of Lewis and Clark, the Shawnee had been driven from their homelands in what is today Ohio, Tennessee and Kentucky by the whites, and had moved across Illinois to take refuge in what was then Spanish Upper Louisiana, today's State of Missouri. The Delaware had been pushed even farther, for their original homelands were in what is today Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Shawnee and the Delaware had sided often with the losing sides in wars against or between colonial powers in America, but had been very active in resistance to Anglo settlement west of the Appalachians. During the American Revolution, they fought against the United States, as they did during Little Turtle's War, which was lost in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Ohio. Due to these losses and the uprising of the Shawnee leader Tecumseh (1809-1811, which postdated the Lewis and Clark Expedition), the Shawnee were virtual refugees for a period of over 100 years. Today, these tribes are centered on a reservation in Oklahoma. Their flight before overwhelming numbers of white settlers and their efforts to preserve their cultures exemplify the history and tragedy of Native peoples and Anglo invasion in America.
The following passages have been freely adapted and excerpted from the original texts, and the spelling has been corrected to make them easier to read. For students wishing to quote these passages, the Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, edited by Gary Moulton and published by the University of Nebraska Press, is the recommended source. For those who wish more in-depth information about Lewis and Clark's relations with various Indian tribes, including background from the Indian perspective, the best book is James P. Ronda's Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. The very best way to obtain accurate information from the tribal perspective is to contact tribal councils for individual tribes - in other words, to consult the people themselves.
Governor, Absentee-Shawnee Executive Committee
Chief, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma
[Lewis, writing at an area near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in what is today southeast Missouri]:
[This settlement of the Absentee Shawnee was located near the later village of Old Appleton, on Apple Creek in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri. It may have contained as many as four hundred persons in 1803].
[Clark, encamped on the Wood River in modern-day Illinois, about 18 miles north of St. Louis]:
[Clark refers to and was apparently present at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Greenville on August 3, 1795, when General Anthony Wayne forced the Indians of the Northwest Territory to surrender much of present Ohio and parts of Indiana and Illinois].
Did You Know?
During the 19th Century St. Louis was the premier ironwork city. After the great fire, many of its buildings were made using iron framework topped off by beautiful iron ornamentation. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial showcases St. Louis architecture in the Old Courthouse. More...