Information on the Plains Cree Indians
The following excerpts from the journals of Lewis and Clark and their men present a picture of the Plains Cree people as the Anglo-Americans saw them. The modern reader must be careful to understand that what these white men saw and recorded was not necessarily correct from the Indian perspective.
The following passages have been freely adapted and excerpted from the original texts, and the spelling has been corrected to make them easier to read. For students wishing to quote these passages, the Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, edited by Gary Moulton and published by the University of Nebraska Press, is the recommended source. For those who wish more in-depth information about Lewis and Clark's relations with various Indian tribes, including background from the Indian perspective, the best book is James P. Ronda's Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. The very best way to obtain accurate information from the tribal perspective is to contact tribal councils for individual tribes - in other words, to consult the people themselves.
The name Cree was an abbreviated form of Kristinaux, the French version of a Cree name for themselves, Kenistenoag. They were of the Algonquian language family. The Plains Crees were buffalo-hunting people whose range was almost entirely in Canada, north of the Assiniboins and the Sioux. Clark's statement that they "Speak the Chippewa" refered to the Chippewas, or Ojibways, who also spoke an Algonquian tongue. The Crees were important trading partners with the French and later the British in Canada. The adoption Clark refers to was apparently to insure good treatment of the visitors during trading. The Crees live in several Canadian provinces today and also share a reservation in Montana with the Chippewas.
Chairperson, Chippewa Cree Business Committee
Did You Know?
The Museum of Westward Expansion at the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial contains over 150 quotes from diaries, journals, letters and speeches. The designers of the museum felt the actual words of nineteenth century pioneers were the most powerful way to tell their story. Click to learn more. More...