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Coastal Tribes

Information on the Coastal Indians
Recorded by Members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
1805-1806

The following excerpts from the journals of Lewis and Clark and their men present a picture of the people of the Pacific Coast as the Anglo-Americans saw them. The modern reader must be careful to understand that what these white men saw and recorded was not necessarily correct from the Indian perspective.

The following passages have been freely adapted and excerpted from the original texts, and the spelling has been corrected to make them easier to read. For students wishing to quote these passages, the Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, edited by Gary Moulton and published by the University of Nebraska Press, is the recommended source. For those who wish more in-depth information about Lewis and Clark's relations with various Indian tribes, including background from the Indian perspective, the best book is James P. Ronda's Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. The very best way to obtain accurate information from the tribal perspective is to contact tribal councils for individual tribes - in other words, to consult the people themselves.

The rainforest and ocean provided an Edenic paradise for the early inhabitants of the Pacific Coast. The ocean had fish, shellfish, seals, whales and sea birds, while the Columbia River and its tributaries was teeming with salmon and trout. The forests had deer, elk, game birds, berries and roots. Coastal peoples lived in longhouses, communal homes constructed of cedar and hemlock. Fishing and the gathering of food took place mostly in the spring and summer. During the mild winters, women wove fine baskets, clothing, canoe mats and even diapers from soft red cedar bark, while men carved dugout canoes, beautiful masks, and ceremonial items. Whale hunters were considered to be powerful tribal members. After elaborate rituals, chiefs and their sons hunted gray whales in canoes with harpoons made of yew wood, whalebone, elk antlers and sharpened mussel shells. Native Americans along the coast practiced - and many continue to practice today - the Potlatch. This was a social custom held to celebrate significant events such as a coming of age or name giving, or to affirm the power or status of a chief or tribe. The potlatch was a feast to which as many as 1,000 guests were invited. Potlatches would last several days, and on the last day rich gifts were given out to those attending. Potlatches really got going about 1800, when large amounts of European trade goods began to flow in. As a result they were a relatively new thing at the time of Lewis and Clark and they were not mentioned in the journals. These people were of the Chinookan language group. Lewis and Clark dealt primarily with the Chinook and Clatsop Indians, as well as the Tillamook who lived further down the Oregon coast. Today many of these people live on a reservation near Oakville, Washington. As will be seen from the large amount of information recorded about these people, Lewis and Clark spent a great deal of time with them and were quite interested in their cultural life. They were uncomfortable, however, with the sharp-trading ways of these tribes and that fact that they were not awed (as they felt some other tribes had been) by Anglo technology or Lewis and Clark's claims of representing a large government to the east.

Contact Information:

Chairperson, Yakima Tribal Council
P.O. Box 151
Toppenish, Washington 98948-0151
*****

Journal Excerpts:

[Clark]
November 11th Monday 1805
About 12 o'clock 5 Indians came down in a canoe, the wind very high from the S.W., with most tremendous waves breaking with great violence against the shores. Rain falling in torrents, we are all wet as usual and our situation is truly a disagreeable one. We purchased of the Indians 13 red char which we found to be an excellent fish. We have seen those Indians above and are of a nation who reside above and on the opposite side who call themselves (Calt-har-ma). They are badly clad & ill made, small and speak a language much resembling the last nation. One of those men had on a sailor's jacket and pantaloons and made signs that he got those clothes from the white people who lived below the point &c. Those people left us and crossed the river (which is about 5 miles wide at this place) through the highest waves I ever saw a small vessels ride. Those Indians are certainly the best canoe navigators I ever saw. Rained all day. [The Cathlamels or Kathlamets were a tribe that lived across the Columbia River from the Wahkiakums; both spoke the Kathlamet language. The Cathlamets lived on the south shore of the Columbia River from Tongue Point to Puget Island in Clatsop County, Oregon. About 1810 the Cathlamets moved across the Columbia and joined the Wahkiakums in a village at the present site of Cathlamet].

[Clark]
November 15th Friday 1805
Shannon & 5 Indians met me here. Shannon informed me he met Capt. Lewis some distance below & he took Willard with him & sent him to meet me. The Indians with him were rogues, they had the night before stolen both his and Willard's guns from under their heads. Capt. Lewis & party arrived at the camp of those Indians at so timely a period that the Indians were alarmed & delivered up the guns &c. 4 Indians in a canoe came down with wapato roots to sell, for which they asked blankets or robes, both of which we could not spare. I informed those Indians, all of which understood some English, that if they stole our guns &c. the men would certainly shoot them. I treated them with great distance, & the sentinel which was over our baggage alarmed them very much. They all promised not to take anything, and if anything was taken by the squaws & bad boys to return them &c.

[Clark]
November 15th Friday 1805
4 Indians of the War-ki a cum nation came down with (pap-pa-too) [NB: wapato] to sell &c. The Indians who accompanied Shannon from the village below speak a different language from those above, and reside to the north of this place. They call themselves Chinooks. I told those people that they had attempted to steal 2 guns &c., that if any one of their nation stole anything that the sentinel, whom they saw near our baggage with his gun, would most certainly shoot them. They all promised not to touch a thing, and if any of their women or bad boys took anything to return it immediately and chastise them for it. I treated those people with great distance. [The Chinooks lived on the north side of the Columbia River from Cape Disappointment east to Grays Bay in Pacific County, Washington, and north to coast to Willapa Bay. The Chinooks occupied villages along the Columbia River during the summer fishing season, and moved to villages on Willapa Bay during the winter].

[Clark]
November 16th Saturday 1805
An Indian canoe passed down today loaded with wapato roots. Several Indians came up today from below. I gave them smoke but allowed them no kind of privilege whatever in the camp. They, with the 4 which came down yesterday, encamped a short distance from us.

[Clark]
November 17th Sunday 1805
Several Chinook Indians followed Capt. Lewis and a canoe came up with roots, mats &c. to sell. Those Chinooks made us a present of a root boiled much resembling the common liquorice in taste and size. In return for this root we gave more than double the value to satisfy their craving disposition. It is a bad practice to receive a present from those Indians, as they are never satisfied for what they receive in return if ten times the value of the articles they gave. This Chinook Nation is about 400 souls, inhabited the country on the small rivers which run into the bay below us and on the ponds to the N.W. of us, live principally on fish and roots. They are well armed with fusees and sometimes kill elk, deer and fowl. The principal Chief of the Chinooks & his family came up to see us this evening.

[Clark]
November 18th Monday 1805
. . . A lodge or cabin of Chinooks passing on a wide sandbar, the bay to my left and several small ponds containing great numbers of water fowls to my right, with a narrow bottom of alder & small balsam between the ponds and the mountain. At the cabin I saw 4 women and some children, one of the women in a desperate situation, covered with sores, scabs & ulcers, no doubt the effects of venereal disorder which several of this nation which I have seen appear to have. Here we were set across all in one canoe by 2 squaws. To each I gave a small hook.

[Gass]
Monday 18th. The Indians still remained with us, and Capt. Lewis got a specimen of their language. Those who live about the seashore and on Rogue's Harbor Creek, a large creek that comes in on the north side of the bay, call themselves the Chinook nation.

[Clark]
Wednesday November the 20th 1805
On my way up I met several parties of Chinooks which I had not before seen; they were on their return from our camp. All those people appeared to know my determination of keeping every individual of their nation at a proper distance, as they were guarded and reserved in my presence &c. Found many of the Chinooks with Capt. Lewis, of whom there was 2 Chiefs, Com commo ly & Chil-lar-la-wil to whom we gave medals and one a flag. One of the Indians had on a robe made of 2 sea otter skins, the fur of them were more beautiful than any fur I had ever seen. Both Capt. Lewis & myself endeavored to purchase the robe with different articles. At length we procured it for a belt of blue beads which the squaw-wife [Sacagawea] of our interpreter Charbonneau wore around her waist.

[Clark]
Thursday November 21st 1805
Several Indians visited us today of different nations or bands, some of the Chiltz Nation who reside on the seacoast near Point Lewis, several of the Clatsops who reside on the opposite side of the Columbia immediately opposite to us, and a Chief from the grand rapid to whom we gave a medal. An old woman & wife to a Chief of the Chinooks came and made a camp near ours. She brought with her 6 young squaws I believe for the purpose of gratifying the passions of the men of our party and receiving for those indulgences such small [tokens] as she (the old woman) thought proper to accept of. Those people appear to view sensuality as a necessary evil, and do not appear to abhor it as a crime in the unmarried state. The young females are fond of the attention of our men and appear to meet the sincere approbation of their friends and connections for thus obtaining their favors. The women of the Chinook Nation have handsome faces, low and badly made, with large legs & thighs which are generally swelled from a stoppage of the circulation in the feet (which are small) by many strands of beads or curious strings which are drawn tight around the leg above the ankle. Their legs are also picked with different figures. I saw on the left arm of a squaw the following letters J. Bowmon. All those are considered by the natives of this quarter as handsome decorations, and a woman without those decorations is considered as among the lower class. They wear their hair loose, hanging over their back and shoulders. Many have blue beads (in) threaded & hung from different parts of their ears and about their neck and around their wrists. Their dress otherwise is precisely like that of the nation of Wa cl a cum as already described. A short robe, and tissue or kind of petticoat of the bark of cedar which fall down in strings as low as the knee behind and not so low before. Many of the men have blankets of red, blue or spotted cloth or the common three & 2½ point blankets, and sailor's old clothes which they appear to prize highly. They also have robes of sea otter, beaver, elk, deer, fox and cat common to this country, which I have never seen in the U. States. They also procure a robe from the natives above, which is made of the skins of a small animal about the size of a cat, which is light and durable and highly prized by those people. The greater numbers of the men of the Chinooks have guns and powder and ball. The men are low, homely and badly made, small crooked legs (and small thighs) large feet, and all of both sexes have flattened heads. The food of this nation is principally fish & roots. The fish they procure from the river by the means of nets and gigs, and the salmon which run up the small branches together with what they collect drifted up on the shores of the seacoast near to where they live. The roots which they use are several different kinds, the wapato which they procure from the natives above, a black root which they call Shaw-na tfih que & the wild licorice is the most common. They also kill a few elk, deer & fowl. Many of the Chinooks appear to have venerious and pustelus disorders. One woman whom I saw at the beach appeared all over in scabs and ulcers &c. We gave to the men each a piece of ribbon. We purchased cranberries, mats very neatly made of flags and rushes, some roots, salmon and I purchased a hat made of splits & strong grass, which is made in the fashion which was common in the U. States two years ago, also small baskets to hold water made of split and straw, for those articles we gave high prices. [The Clatsops lived on the south bank of the Columbia River from Point Adams to Tongue Point, and south along the Oregon coast to Tillamook Head, today in Clatsop County, Oregon. Their name means "those who have pounded salmon." The Clatsops on the south side of the Columbia and the Chinooks on the north side spoke dialects which were nearly identical. The Chehalis were a Salish-speaking tribe who lived in Grays Harbor and Pacific counties on the southern Washington coast].

[Clark]
Saturday November 23rd 1805
In the evening seven Indians of the Clatsop Nation came over in a canoe. They brought with them 2 sea otter skins, for which they asked blue beads &c. and such high prices that we were unable to purchase them without reducing our small stock of merchandize, on which we depended for subsistence on our return up this river. Merely to try the Indian who had one of those skins, I offered him my watch, handkerchief a bunch of red beads and a dollar of the American coin, all of which he refused and demanded "ti-d co-mo-shack" - which is Chief beads and the most common blue beads, but few of which we (happen to) have at this time. This nation is the remains of a large nation destroyed by the smallpox or some other [malady] which those people were not acquainted with. They speak the same language of the Chinooks and resemble them in every respect except that of stealing, which we have not caught them at as yet.

[Gass]
Saturday 23rd. The natives still stay with us, and have a few roots and berries to subsist on at present; but I cannot conjecture how they live during the winter. They have no moccasins or leggings of any kind; and scarce any other covering than the small robes, which were mentioned before. In the afternoon, 10 of the Clatsop Nation that live on the south side of the river came over to our camp. These are also naked, except the small robes which hardly cover their shoulders. One of these men had the reddest hair I ever saw, and a fair skin, much freckled.

[Clark]
Sunday November 24th 1805
A Chief and several men of the Chinook nation came to smoke with us this evening. One of the men brought a small sea otter skin for which we gave some blue beads.

[Clark]
November 26th Tuesday 1805
5 miles to the Calt-har-mar Village of 9 large wood houses on a handsome elevated situation near the foot of a spur of the high land behind a large low island separated from the southerly shore by a channel of about 200 yards wide. This nation appears to differ very little either in language, customs, dress or appearance from the Chinooks & War-c a cum, live principally on fish and pappato. They have also other roots, and some elk meat. We purchased some green fish, & wapato for which we gave immoderate prices. A short distance below the Calt har mer Village on the island which is opposite I observed several canoes scaffolded in which contained their dead. As I did not examine this mode of deposing the dead, must refer it to a description hereafter.

[Clark]
Wednesday 27th November 1805
3 canoes and 11 Indians came from the village with roots, mats, skins &c. to sell. They asked such high prices that we were unable to purchase anything of them. As we were about to set out missed one of our axes, which was found under an Indian's robe. I shamed this fellow very much and told them they should not proceed with us.

[Clark]
Saturday 30th of November 1805
The Chinooks Cath lah mah & others in this neighborhood bury their dead in their canoes. For this purpose 4 pieces of split timber are set erect on end, and sunk a few feet in the ground, each brace having their flat sides opposite to each other and sufficiently far asunder to admit the width of the canoe in which the dead are to be deposited. Through each of those perpendicular posts, at the height of 6 feet, a mortise is cut, through which two bars of wood are inserted. On those cross bars a small canoe is placed, in which the body is laid after being carefully rolled in a robe of some dressed skins. A paddle is also deposited with them. A larger canoe is now reversed, overlaying and embracing the small one, and resting with its gunwales on the cross bars. One or more large mats of flags or rushes are then rolled around the canoe and the whole securely lashed with a long cord usually made of the bark of the arbor vita or white cedar. On the cross bars which support the canoes is frequently hung or laid various articles of clothing, culinary utensils &c. We cannot understand them sufficiently to make any inquiries relative to their religious opinions, from their depositing various articles with their dead, believe in a state of future existence.

[Clark]
Tuesday 3rd December 1805
An Indian canoe of 8 Indians came to. Those Indians are on their way down to the Clatsops with wapato to barter with that nation. I purchased a few of those roots for which I gave small fishhooks. Those roots I ate with a little elk's soup which I found gave me great relief. I found the roots both nourishing and as a check to my disorder. The Indians proceeded on down through immense high waves. Many times their canoe was entirely out of sight before they were ½ a mile distance.

[Clark]
Monday 9th December 1805
Crossed and kept down about one mile and met 3 Indians loaded with fresh salmon which they had gigged in the creek I crossed yesterday in the hills. Those Indians made signs that they had a town on the seacoast at no great distance, and invited me to go to their town, which invitation I accepted and accompanied them. They had a canoe hid in the creek which I had just before rafted which I had not observed. We crossed in this little canoe just large enough to carry 3 men and their loads. After crossing 2 of the Indians took the canoe on their shoulders and carried it across to the other creek about ½ of a mile. We crossed the 2nd creek and proceeded on to the mouth of the creek which makes a great bend above the mouth of this creek, or to the south is 3 houses and about 12 families of the Clatsop Nation. We cross to those houses, which were built on the southern exposure of the hill, sunk into the ground about 4 feet. The walls, roof & gable ends are of split pine boards, the doors small with a ladder to descend to the inner part of the house. The fires are 2 in the middle of the house. Their beds are all around, raised about 2½ feet from the bottom floor, all covered with mats, and under those beds was stored their bags, baskets and useless mats. Those people treated me with extraordinary friendship. One man attached himself to me as soon as I entered the hut, spread down new mats for me to sit on, gave me fish, berries, roots &c. on small neat platters of rushes to eat which was repeated. All the men of the other houses came and smoked with me. Those people appeared much neater in their diet than Indians are commonly, and frequently wash their faces and hands. In the evening an old woman presented [in] a bowl made of a light colored horn a kind of syrup made of dried berries which is common to this country which the natives call She e wele. This syrup I thought was pleasant. They gave me cockle shells to eat, a kind of soup made of bread of the shel well, berries mixed with roots which they presented in neat trenchers made of wood. Those people have a singular game which they are very fond of and is performed with something about the size of a large bean which they pass from one hand into the other with great dexterity, during which time they sing, and occasionally hold out their hands for those who choose to risk their property to guess which hand the bean is in. The individual who has the bean is a banker & opposed to all in the room. On this game they risk their beads & other parts of their most valuable effects. This amusement has occupied about 3 hours of this evening. Several of the lodge in which I am in have lost all the beads which they had about them. They have one other game which a man attempted to show me, I do not property understand it. They make use of many pieces about the shape and size of backgammon pieces which they roll through between two pins stuck up at certain distances. When I was disposed to go to sleep the man who had been most attentive named Cus-ka-lah produced 2 new mats and spread them near the fire, and directed his wife to go to his bed, which was the signal for all to retire, which they did immediately. I had not been long on my mats before I was attacked most violently by the fleas and they kept up a close siege during the night.

[Clark]
Tuesday 10th December 1805
I saw Indians walking up and down the beach which I did not at first understand the cause of. One man came to where I was and told me that he was in search of fish which is frequently thrown up on shore and left by the tide, and told me the "Sturgeon was very good" and that the water when it retired left fish which they eat. This was conclusive evidence to me that this small band depended in some measure for their winter's subsistence on the fish which is thrown on shore and left by the tide. After amusing myself for about an hour on the edge of the raging seas I returned to the houses. One of the Indians pointed to a flock of brant sitting in the creek at a short distance below and requested me to shoot one. I walked down with my small rifle and killed two at about 40 yards distance. On my return to the houses two small ducks set at about 30 steps from me. The Indians pointed at the ducks; they were near together. I shot at the ducks and accidentally shot the head of one off. This duck and brant was carried to the house and every man came around examined the duck, looked at the gun, the size of the ball which was 100 to the pound and said in their own language Clouch Musket, wake, com ma-tax Musket which is, a good musket, do not understand this kind of musket &c. I entered the same house I slept in. They immediately set before me their best roots, fish and syrup. I attempted to purchase a small sea otter skin for red beads which I had in my pockets. They would not trade for those beads, not prizing any other color than blue or white. I purchased a little of the berry bread and a few of their roots, for which I gave small fish hooks, which they appeared fond of. I then set out on my return by the same route I had come out, accompanied by Cus-ka lah and his brother as far as the (second) 3rd creek, for the purpose of setting me across, from which place they returned, and I proceeded on through a heavy rain to the camp at our intended fort.

[Clark]
Thursday 12th December 1805
In the evening two canoes of Clatsops visit us. They brought with them wapato, a black sweet root they call Sha-na toe qua, and a small sea otter skin, all of which we purchased for a few fishing hooks and a small sack of Indian tobacco which was given by the Snake Indians. Those Indians appear well disposed. We gave a medal to the principal Chief named Con-ny-au or Coni mo-wol [Coboway] and treated those with him with as much attention as we could. I can readily discover that they are close dealers, & stickle for a very little, never close a bargain except they think they have the advantage. Value blue beads highly, white they also prize but no other color do they value in the least. The wapato they sell high, this root they purchase at a high price from the natives above.

[Clark]
Friday 13th December 1805
The Clatsops leave us today after a breakfast on elk which they appeared to be very fond of. Before they left us they sold me two robes of the skins of a small animal about the size of a cat, and to Captain Lewis 2 cat or loucirvia skins for the purpose of making a coat.

[Clark]
Friday 20th of December 1805
3 Indians arrive in a canoe. They brought with them mats, roots & sacka comas berries to sell, for which they asked such high prices that we did not purchase any of them. Those people ask generally double and treble the value of what they have to sell, and never take less than the real value of the article in such things as is calculated to do them service, such as blue & white beads, with which they trade with the natives above; files which they make use of to sharpen their tools, fishhooks of different sizes and tobacco. Tobacco and blue beads they do prefer to everything.

[Clark]
Tuesday 24th December 1805
Cuscalah the Indian who had treated me so politely when I was at the Clatsop village came up in a canoe with his young brother & 2 squaws. He laid before Capt. Lewis and myself each a mat and a parcel of roots. Sometime in the evening two files were demanded for the presents of mats and roots. As we had no files to part with, we each returned the present which we had received, which displeased Cuscalah a little. He then offered a woman to each of us which we also declined accepting of, which displeased the whole party very much. The female part appeared to be highly disgusted at our refusing to accept of their favors &c.

[Clark]
Friday 27th December 1805
In the evening Comowool the Chief and 4 men of the Clatsop Nation. They presented us a root which resembles the licorice in size and taste, which they roast like a potato which they call Cul ho-mo, also a black root which is cured in a kiln like the pash-a-co above; this root has a sweet taste and the natives are very fond of it. They call this root shaw-na-tah-que. Also a dried berry about the size of a cherry which they call shelwell. All those roots those Indians value highly and give them very sparingly. In return for the above roots Capt. Lewis gave the chief a small piece of sheep skin to wear on his head. I gave his son a pair of ear bobs and a piece of ribbon, and a small piece of brass for which they were much pleased. Those roots and berries are timely and extremely grateful to our stomachs, as we have nothing to eat but spoiled elk meat. I showed Capt. Lewis 2 mosquitoes today, or an insect so much the size, shape and appearance of a mosquito that we could observe no kind of difference.

[Clark]
Sunday 29th December I805
I gave the chief a razor, and himself and party left us after begging us for many articles, none of which they received as we could not spare the articles they were most in want of. This evening a young chief, 4 men and 2 women of the Warciacum Nation arrived, and offered for sale dressed elkskins and wapato. The chief made us a present of about ½ a bushel of those roots and we purchased about 1½ bushels of those roots for which we gave some blue & red beads, small pieces of brass wire & old check [cloth]? Those roots proved a grateful addition to our spoiled elk, which has become very disagreeable both to the taste & smell. We gave this chief a medal of a small size and a piece of red ribbon to tie around the top of his hat, which was of a singular construction. Those people will not sell all their wapato to us. They inform us that they are on their way to trade with the Clatsops. The nations above carry on a very considerable interchange of property with those in this neighborhood. They pass altogether by water, they have no roads or paths through the country which we have observed, except across portages from one creek to another. All go lightly dressed, wear nothing below the waist in the coldest of weather, a piece of fur around their bodies and a short robe composes the sum total of their dress, except a few hats, and beads about their necks, arms and legs. Small, badly made and homely generally. The fleas are so numerous and hard to get rid of that the Indians have different houses which they resort to occasionally. Notwithstanding all their precautions they never step into our house without leaving swarms of those tormenting insects; and they torment us in such a manner as to deprive us of half the night's sleep frequently.

[Clark]
Monday 30th December 1805
This morning the sun shone for a short time. Four Indians came down from the Warciacum Village. They offered us roots which we did not think proper to accept of as in return they expect 3 or 4 times as much as the roots as we could purchase the roots for, and are never satisfied with what they receive. Those 4 Indians & these that came yesterday stayed all day. Our fortification is completed this evening, and at sunset we let the natives know that our custom will be in future to shut the gates at sunset at which time all Indians must go out of the fort and not return into it until next morning after sunrise, at which time the gates will be opened. Those of the Warciacum Nation who are very forward left the houses with reluctance.

[Clark]
Tuesday 31st December 1805
All the Indians continue at their camp near us. Two other canoes arrived, one from the Warciacum Village with 3 Indians and the other of 3 men & a squaw from higher up the river and are of the Watlala nation. Those people brought with them some wapato roots, mats made of flags and rushes, dried fish and a few shaw-na-tah-que and dressed elk skins, all of which they asked enormous prices for, particularly the dressed elk skins. I purchased of those people some wapato, two mats and about 3 pipes of their tobacco in a neat little bag made of rushes. This tobacco was much like what we had seen before with the Shoshone or Snake Indians. For those articles I gave a large fishing hook and several other small articles, the fishing hooks they were very fond of. Those Watlalas are much better behaved than the Warciacum, indeed we found a great alteration in the conduct of them all this morning. The sight of our sentinel on his post at the gate, together with our determined procedure of putting all out at sunset has made this reform in those Warciacums who is forward, impertinent and thievish. The natives all leave us the fort this evening before sunset without being told or desired to do so. A Watlala brought a gun which he requested me to have repaired. It only wanted a screw flattened so as to catch. I put a flint into his gun & he presented me in return a peck of wapato for payment. I gave him a piece of a sheep skin and a small piece of blue cloth to cover his lock for which he was much pleased and gave me in return some roots &c. With the party of Clatsops who visited us last was a man of much lighter color than the natives are generally. He was freckled with long dusky red hair, about 25 years of age, and must certainly be half white at least. This man appeared to understand more of the English language than the others of his party, but did not speak a word of English. He possessed all the habits of the Indians.

[Clark]
[undated, December 1805-January 1806]
A list of the tribes near the mouth of the Columbia River as given by the Indians, the places they reside, the names of the tribes and principal chiefs of each all of which speak the same language.

1st Clatsop Tribe in several small villages on the seacoast to the southeast of the mouth & on the southeast bank of the Columbia River - not numerous.
1st Chief Con-ni a Co-mo-wool
2nd do Sha-no-ma
3rd do War-ho-lote

2nd Chinook Tribe reside opposite on the northwest side & in small villages & single houses made of split boards on a creek of Haley's Bay, and on small lakes or ponds at no great distance from the river or bay. Tolerably numerous - so said Chinook.

1st Chief is Stock-home
2d do Com-com-mo-ley
3 do Shil-lar-la-wit
4 do Nor-car-te
5 do Chin-ni-ni

3rd Chiltch Tribe reside (on) near the seacoast & north of the Chinooks. Live in houses and is said to be numerous. Speak same language

1st Chief Mar-lock-ke
2d do Col-chote
3rd do Ci-in-twar

4th Tillamook Tribe reside on the seacoast to the southeast of the Columbia River and on a small river, and as I am informed by the Clatsops inhabit 10 villages, 6 of them on the ocean & 4 on the little river. Those Tillamooks are said not to be numerous, speak the Clatsop language.

1st Chief O-co-no

5th Calt-har-mar Tribe reside in one village of large houses built of split boards and neatly made, on the southeast side of the Columbia River behind an island in a deep bend of the river to the southeast. They are not numerous, and live as the others do on fish, black roots, licorice berries, and wapato roots, and is as low as those wapato roots grow, which is about 15 miles on a direct line from the sea.

1st Chief Clax-ter at war against the Snake Indians to the south of the falls.
2nd do Cul-te-ell
3 do [blank] at war Do.

6th Clax-ter Nation. This nation reside on [blank] side of the Columbia River in [blank] villages above about [blank] and are (said to be) numerous they latterly (resided) flogged the Chinooks, and are a dastardly set.

1st and Great Chief Qui oo

7th (Scum as qua up) War-ci-a-cum Tribe reside on the northwest side of the Columbia in the great bend behind some islands. This tribe is not numerous, reside in 2 villages of houses.

The Chief Scum ar-qua-up

[Clark]
January 1st 1806
A list of the names of sundry persons who visit this part of the coast for the purpose of trade &c. &c. in large vessels; all of which speak the English language &c. - as the Indians inform us.

Moore Visit them in a large 4 masted ship, they expect him in 2 moons to trade.-
1 Eyd. Skellie In a large ship, long time gone.
Youin In a large Ship, and they expect him in 1 moon to trade with them.
Swepeton In a ship, they expect him in 3 months back to trade.
Mackey In a ship, they expect him back in 1 or 2 moons to trade with them.
Meship In a ship, the[y] expect him 2 moons to trade.
Jackson Visit them in a ship and they expect him back in 3 months to trade.
Balch In a ship and they expect him in 3 months to trade.
Mr. Haley Visits them in a ship & they expect him back to trade with them in 3 moons to trade. He is the favorite of the Indians (from the number of presents he gives) and has the trade principally with all the tribes.
Washilton In a schooner, they expect him in 3 months to return and trade with them. A favorite.
Lemon In a sloop, and they expect him in 3 moons to trade with them.
Davidson Visits this part of the coast and river in a brig for the purpose of hunting the elk. Returns when he pleases; he does not trade any, kills a great many elk &c. &c.
(Washilton) Fallawan In a ship with guns he fired on & killed several Indians, he does not trade now and they do not know when he will return, well done.

A list of the names as given by the Indians of the traders names and the quality of their vessels which they say visit the mouth of the Columbia 2 [times] a year for the purpose of trading with the natives, and from their accounts spring and autumn.

Mr. Haley Their favorite trader visits them in a 3 masted vessel.
Youens Visits in a 3 masted vessel.
Tallamon do 3 do no trade
Swipton do 3 do Trader
Moore do 4 do do
Mackey do 3 do do
Washington do 3 do do
Meship do 3 do do
Davidson do 2 do Hunts elk
Jackson do 3 do Trader
Bolch do 3 do do
Skelley has been along time gone; one eye
Callallamet do 3 Trader has a wooden Leg.

[Lewis]
Friday January 3rd 1806.
At 11 A.M. we were visited by our near neighbors, Chief or Tid Comowool; alias Conia and six Clatsops. They brought for sale some roots, berries and three dogs, also a small quantity of fresh blubber. This blubber they informed us they had obtained from their neighbors the Callamucks who inhabit the coast to the southeast, near whose village a whale had recently perished. This blubber the Indians eat and esteem it excellent food. I gave the Chief Comowool a pair of satin breeches with which he appeared much pleased.

[Lewis]
Saturday January 4th 1806.
Comowool and the Clatsops who visited us yesterday left us in the evening. These people, the Chinooks and others residing in this neighborhood and speaking the same language have been very friendly to us; they appear to be a mild, inoffensive people but will pilfer if they have an opportunity to do so where they conceive themselves not liable to detection. They are great higlers in trade and if they conceive you anxious to purchase will be a whole day bargaining for a handful of roots. This I should have thought proceeded from their want of knowledge of the comparative value of articles of merchandise and the fear of being cheated, did I not find that they invariably refuse the price first offered them and afterwards very frequently accept a smaller quantity of the same article. In order to satisfy myself on this subject I once offered a Chinook my watch, two knives and a considerable quantity of beads for a small inferior sea otter's skin which I did not much want. He immediately conceived it of great value, and refused to barter except I would double the quantity of beads. The next day with a great deal of importunity on his part I received the skin in exchange for a few strands of the same beads he had refused the day before. I therefore believe this trait in their character proceeds from an avaricious, all-grasping disposition. In this respect they differ from all Indians I ever became acquainted with, for their dispositions invariably lead them to give whatever they are possessed of no matter how useful or valuable, for a bauble which pleases their fancy, without consulting its usefulness or value.

[Lewis]
Sunday January 5th 1806.
At 5 P.M. Willard and Weiser returned, they had not been lost as we apprehended. They informed us that it was not until the fifth day after leaving the fort that they could find a convenient place for making salt; that they had at length established themselves on the coast about 15 miles southwest from this, near the lodge of some Tillamook families; that the Indians were very friendly and had given them a considerable quantity of the blubber of a whale which perished on the coast some distance southeast of them. Part of this blubber they brought with them. It was white & not unlike the fat of pork, though the texture was more spongy and somewhat coarser. I had a part of it cooked and found it very palatable and tender, it resembled the beaver or the dog in flavor.

[Clark]
Sunday 5th of January 1806
I determined to set out early tomorrow with two canoes & 12 men in quest of the whale, or at all events to purchase from the Indians a parcel of the blubber. For this purpose I made up a small assortment of merchandize, and directed the men to hold themselves in readiness &c.

[Lewis]
Monday January 6th 1806.
The Clatsops, Chinooks, Tillamooks &c. are very loquacious and inquisitive; they possess good memories and have repeated to us the names, capacities of the vessels &c. of many traders and others who have visited the mouth of this river. They are generally low in stature, proportionally small, rather lighter complected and much more illy formed than the Indians of the Missouri and those of our frontier. They are generally cheerful but never gay. With us their conversation generally turns upon the subjects of trade, smoking, eating or their women; about the latter they speak without reserve in their presence, of their every part, and of the most familiar connection. They do not hold the virtue of their women in high estimation, and will even prostitute their wives and daughters for a fishing hook or a strand of beads. In common with other savage nations they make their women perform every species of domestic drudgery, but in almost every species of this drudgery the men also participate. Their women are also compelled to gather roots and assist them in taking fish, which articles form much the greatest part of their subsistence. Notwithstanding the survile manner in which they treat their women they pay much more respect to their judgment and opinions in many respects than most Indian nations. Their women are permitted to speak freely before them, and sometimes appear to command with a tone of authority. They generally consult them in their traffic and act in conformity to their opinions. I think it may be established as a general maxim that those nations treat their old people and women with most deference and respect where they subsist principally on such articles that these can participate with the men in obtaining them; and that, that part of the community are treated with least attention, when the act of procuring subsistence devolves entirely on the men in the vigor of life. It appears to me that nature has been much more deficient in her filial tie than in any other of the strong affections of the human heart, and therefore think, our old men equally with our women indebted to civilization for their ease and comfort. Among the Sioux, Assiniboins and others on the Missouri who subsist by hunting it is a custom when a person of either sex becomes so old and infirm that they are unable to travel on foot from camp to camp as they roam in search of subsistence, for the children or near relations of such person to leave them without compunction or remorse. On those occasions they usually place within their reach a small peace of meat and a platter of water, telling the poor old superannuated wretch for his consolation, that he or she had lived long enough, that it was time they should die and go to their relations who can afford to take care of them much better than they could. I am informed that this custom prevails even among the Hidatsas, Arahamis and Arikaras when attended by their old people on their hunting excursions; but in justice to these people I must observe that it appeared to me at their villages, that they provided tolerably well for their aged persons, and several of their feasts appear to have principally for their object a contribution for their aged and infirm persons.

[Clark]
Tuesday 7th of January 1805 [1806]
A short distance up this river on the northeast side is the remains of an old village of Clatsops. I entered a house where I found a man, 2 women & 3 children. They appeared wretchedly poor & dirty. I hired the man to set us across the river which I call after the Nation Clatsop River, for which I gave 2 fishing hooks. I hired a young Indian to pilot me to the whale, for which service I gave him a file in hand and promised several other small articles on my return . . . Here we met 14 Indians, men and women, loaded with the oil & blubber of the whale. In the face of this tremendous precipice immediately below us, there is a strata of white earth (which my guide informed me) the neighboring Indians use to paint themselves, and which appears to me to resemble the earth of which the French porcelain is made.

[Lewis]
Tuesday [NB: Wednesday] January 8th 1806.
The Clatsops, Chinooks and others inhabiting the coast and country in this neighborhood, are excessively fond of smoking tobacco. In the act of smoking they appear to swallow it as they drain it from the pipe, and for many draughts together you will not perceive the smoke which they take from the pipe. In the same manner also they inhale it in their lungs until they become surcharged with this vapor, when they puff it out to a great distance through their nostrils and mouth. I have no doubt the smoke of the tobacco in this manner becomes much more intoxicating and that they do possess themselves of all its virtues in their fullest extent. They frequently give us sounding proofs of its creating a dismorallity of order in the abdomen, nor are those light matters thought indelicate in either sex, but all take the liberty of obeying the dictates of nature without reserve. These people do not appear to know the use of spirituous liquors, they never having once asked us for it. I presume therefore that the traders who visit them have never indulged them with the use of it. From whatever cause this may proceed, it is a very fortunate occurrence, as well for the natives themselves, as for the quiet and safety of those whites who visit them.

[Clark]
Wednesday 8th January 1805 [1806]
After taking the courses and computed the distances in my own mind, I proceeded on down a steep descent to a single house, the remains of an old Tillamook Town, in a niche immediately on the sea coast, at which place a great number of irregular rocks are out and the waves come in with great force. Near this old town I observed large canoes of the neatest kind on the ground, some of which appeared nearly decayed, others quite sound. I examined those canoes and found they were the repository of the dead. This custom of securing the dead differs a little from the Chinooks. The Tillamook secure the dead bodies in an oblong box of plank, which is placed in an open canoe resting on the ground, in which is put a paddle and sundry other articles, the property of the deceased. The coast in the neighborhood of this old village is slipping from the sides of the high hills in immense masses; fifty or a hundred acres at a time give way and a great proportion of an instant precipitated into the ocean. Crossed a creek 50 yards near 5 cabins, and proceeded to the place the whale had perished. Found only the skeleton of this monster on the sand between 2 of the villages of the Tillamook Nation; the whale was already pillaged of every valuable part by the Tillamook Indians, in the vicinity of whose villages it lay on the strand where the waves and tide had driven up & left it. This skeleton measured 105 feet. I returned to the village of 5 cabins on the creek which I shall call E co-la or Whale Creek. Found the natives busily engaged boiling the blubber, which they performed in a large square wooden trough by means of hot stones. The oil when extracted was secured in bladders and the guts of the whale. The blubber from which the oil was only partially extracted by this process, was laid by in their cabins in large flakes for use. Those flakes they usually expose to the fire on a wooden spit until it is pretty well warmed through and then eat it either alone or with roots of the rush. Shaw na tak we or dipped in the oil. The Tillamook, although they possessed large quantities of this blubber and oil, were so penurious that they disposed of it with great reluctance and in small quantities only; insomuch that my utmost exertion aided by the party with the small stock of merchandize I had taken with me were not able to procure more blubber than about 300 weight and a few gallons of oil. The Tillamook in their habits, customs, manners dress & language differ but little from the Clatsops, Chinooks and others in this neighborhood. [Their houses] are of the same form of those of the Clatsops with a door at each end & two fire places, i.e. the house is double as long as wide and divided into 2 equal parts with a post in the middle supporting the ridge pole, and in the middle of each of those divisions they make their fires, doors small & houses sunk 5 feet.

[Lewis]
Friday [NB: Thursday] January 9th 1806.
The persons who usually visit the entrance of this river for the purpose of traffic or hunting I believe are either English or Americans; the Indians inform us that they speak the same language with ourselves, and give us proofs of their veracity by repeating many words of English, as musket, powder, shot, knife, file, damned rascal, son of a bitch &c. Whether these traders are from Nootka sound, from some other late establishment on this coast, or immediately from the U. States or Great Britain, I am at a loss to determine, nor can the Indians inform us. The Indians whom I have asked in what direction the traders go when they depart from hence, or arrive here, always point to the southwest, from which it is presumable that Nootka cannot be their destination; and as from Indian information a majority of these traders annually visit them about the beginning of April and remain with them six or seven months, they cannot come immediately from Great Britain or the U. States, the distance being too great for them to go and return in the balance of the year. From this circumstance I am sometimes induced to believe that there is some other establishment on the coast of America southwest of this place of which little is but yet known to the world, or it may be perhaps on some island in the Pacific Ocean between the continents of Asia and America to the southwest of us. This traffic on the part of the whites consists in vending guns, (principally old British or American muskets), powder, balls and shot, copper and brass kettles, brass teakettles and coffee pots, blankets from two to three point, scarlet and blue cloth (coarse), plates and strips of sheet copper and brass, large brass wire, knives, beads and tobacco with fishing hooks, buttons and some other small articles; also a considerable quantity of sailor's clothes, as hats, coats, trousers and shirts. For these they receive in return from the natives, dressed and undressed elkskins, skins of the sea otter, common otter, beaver, common fox, 3 spuck, and tiger cat, also dried and pounded salmon in baskets, and a kind of biscuit, which the natives make of roots called by them shappelell. The natives are extravagantly fond of the most common cheap blue and white beads, of moderate size, or such that from 50 to 70 will weigh one pennyweight. The blue is usually preferred to the white; these beads constitute the principal circulating medium with all the Indian tribes on this river; for these beads they will dispose any article they possess. The beads are strung on strands of a fathom in length and in that manner sold by the breadth or yard.

[Clark]
Thursday 9th of January 1805 [1806]
Last night about 10 o'clock while smoking with the natives I was alarmed by a loud shrill voice from the cabins on the opposite side. The Indians all run immediately across to the village; my guide, who continued with me, made signs that someone's throat was cut. By inquiry I found that one man, McNeal, was absent. I immediately sent off Sergt. Nathaniel Pryor & 4 men in quest of McNeal, who they met coming across the creek in great haste, and informed me that the people were alarmed on the opposite side at something but what he could not tell. A man had very friendly invited him to go and eat in his lodge, that the Indian had locked arms with him and went to a lodge in which a woman gave him some blubber, that the man invited him to another lodge to get something better, and the woman held him by the blanket which he had around him (and) another ran out and hollowed and his pretended friend disappeared. I immediately ordered every man to hold themselves in a state of readiness and sent Sergt. Pryor & 4 men to know the cause of the alarm which was found to be a premeditated plan of the pretended friend of McNeal to assassinate for his blanket and what few articles he had about him, which was found out by a Chinook woman who alarmed the men of the village who were with me in time to prevent the horrid act. This man was of another band at some distance and ran off as soon as he was discovered. Met several parties of men & women of the Chinook and Clatsop nations on their way to trade with the Tillamooks for blubber and oil. On the steep decent of the mountain I overtook five men and six women with immense loads of the oil and blubber of the whale. Those Indians had passed by some route by which we missed them as we went out yesterday. One of the women, in the act of getting down a steep part of the mountain, her load by some means had slipped off her back, and she was holding the load by a strap which was fastened to the mat bag in which it was in one hand and holding a bush by the other. As I was in front of my party, I endeavored to relieve this woman by taking her load until she could get to a better place a little below, & to my astonishment found the load as much as I could lift and must exceed 100 weight. The husband of this woman who was below soon came to her relief.

[Lewis]
Saturday [Friday] January 10th 1806.
About 10 A.M. I was visited by Tia Shdh-hdr-wcir-cap and eleven of his nation in one large canoe. These are the Cuth-lah-mah nation who reside first above us on the south side of the Columbia River. This is the first time that I have seen the Chief, he was hunting when we passed his village on our way to this place. I gave him a medal of the smallest size; he presented me with some Indian tobacco and a basket of wapato, in return for which I gave him some thread for making a skimming net and a small piece of tobacco. These people speak the same language with the Chinooks and Clatsops, whom they also resemble in their dress, customs, manners &c. They brought some dried salmon, wapato, dogs, and mats made of rushes and flags, to barter; their dogs and a part of their wapato they disposed off, an remained all night near the fort.

[Clark]
Friday the 10th of January 1806
T[he] natives in this neighborhood are excessively fond of smoking tobacco. In the act of smoking they appear to swallow it as they draw it from the pipe, and for many draughts together you will not perceive the smoke they take from the pipe. In the same manner they inhale it in their lungs until they become surcharged with the vapor, when they puff it out to a great distance through their nostrils and mouth. I have no doubt that tobacco smoked in this manner becomes much more intoxicating, and that they do possess themselves of all its virtues to the fullest extent. They frequently give us sounding proofs of its creating a dismorality of order in the abdomen, nor are those light matters thought indelicate in either sex, but all take the liberty of obeying the dictates of nature without reserve. Those people do not appear to know the use of spirituous liquors, they never having once asked us for it. I presume therefore that the traders who visit them have never indulged them with the use of it.

[Lewis]
Sunday [Saturday] January 11th 1806.
The Cuthlahmahs left us this evening on their way to the Clatsops, to whom they propose bartering their wapato for the blubber and oil of the whale, which the latter purchased for beads &c. from the Tillamooks. In this manner there is a trade continually carried on by the natives of the river, each trading some article or other with their neighbors above and below them; and thus articles which are vended by the whites at the entrance of this river find their way to the most distant nations inhabiting its waters.

[Lewis]
Tuesday [Monday] January 13th 1806.
The traders usually arrive in this quarter, as has been before observed, in the month of April, and remain until October, when here they lay at anchor in a bay within Cape Disappointment on the north side of the river. Here they are visited by the natives in their canoes who run alongside and barter their commodities with them, there being no houses or fortification on shore for that purpose. The nations who repair thither are first, those of the seacoast southeast of the entrance of the river, who reside in the order in which their names are mentioned, beginning at the entrance of the river (viz): the Clatsop, Tillamook, Ne-cost, Nat-ti, Nat-chies, Tarl-che, E-slitch, You-cone and So-see. Secondly those inhabiting the northwest coast beginning at the entrance of the river and mentioned in the same order; the Chinook and Chiltch, the latter very numerous; and thirdly the Cathlamet, and Watlalas, the latter numerous and inhabiting the river from a few miles above the marshy islands, where the Cuth-lahmahs cease, to the grand rapids. These last may be esteemed the principal carriers or intermediate traders between the whites and the Indians of the seacoast, and the E-ne-shurs, the E-chee-lutes, and the Chil-luckkit-te quaws, who inhabit the river above, to the grand falls inclusive, and who prepare most of the pounded fish which is brought to market. The bay in which this trade is carried on is spacious and commodious, and perfectly secure from all except the south and southeast winds, these however are the most prevalent and strong winds in the winter season. Fresh water and wood are very convenient and excellent timber for refitting and repairing vessels.

[Lewis]
Thursday [Wednesday] January 15th 1806.
The implements used by the Chinooks, Clatsops, Cuthlahmahs &c. in hunting are the gun, the bow & arrow, deadfalls, pits, snares, and spears or gigs. Their guns are usually of an inferior quality, being old refuse American & British muskets which have been repaired for this trade. There are some very good pieces among them, but they are invariably in bad order; they appear not to have been long enough accustomed to firearms to understand the management of them. They have no rifles. Their guns and ammunition they reserve for the elk, deer and bear, of the two last however there are but few in their neighborhood. They keep their powder in small japanned tin flasks which they obtain with their ammunition from the traders; when they happen to have no ball or shot, they substitute gravel or pieces of potmetal, and are insensible of the damage done thereby to their guns. The bow and arrow is the most common instrument among them, every man being furnished with them whether he has a gun or not; this instrument is employed indiscriminately in hunting every species of animal on which they subsist. Their bows are extremely neat and very elastic, they are about two and a half feet in length, and two inches in width in the center, thence tapering gradually to the extremities where they are half an inch wide. They are very flat and thin, formed of the heart of the arbor vita or white cedar, the back of the bow being thickly covered with sinews of the elk laid on with a glue which they make from the sturgeon; the string is made of sinews of the elk also. The arrow is formed of two parts, usually though sometimes entire; those formed of two parts are unequally divided, that part on which the feathers are placed occupies four fifths of its length and is formed of light white pine, rather larger than a swan's quill. In the lower extremity of this is a circular mortise secured by sinews rolled around it; this mortise receives the one end of the 2nd part which is of a smaller size than the first and about five inches long. In the end of this the barb is fixed and confined with sinew. This barb is either stone, iron or copper, if metal in this form forming at its point a greater angle than those of any other Indians I have observed. The shorter part of the arrow is of harder wood as are also the whole of the arrow when it is of one piece only. As these people live in a country abounding in ponds, lakes &c. and frequently hunt in their canoes and shoot at fowl and other animals where the arrow missing its object would be lost in the water, they are constructed in the manner just described in order to make them float should they fall in the water, and consequently can again be recovered by the hunter. The quiver is usually the skin of a young bear or that of a wolf, invariably open at the side instead of the end as the quivers of other Indians generally are. This construction appears to answer better for the canoe than if they were open at the end only. Many of the elk we have killed since we have been here have been wounded with these arrows, the short piece with the barb remaining in the animal and grown up in the flesh. The deadfalls and snares are employed in taking the wolf, the raccoon and fox of which there are a few only. The spear or gig is used to take the sea otter, the common otter, spuck, and beaver. Their gig consists of two points or barbs and are the same in their construction as those described before as being common among the Indians on the upper part of this river. Their pits are employed in taking the elk, and of course are large and deep, some of them a cube of 12 or 14 feet. These are usually placed by the side of a large fallen tree which as well as the pit lie across the roads frequented by the elk. These pits are disguised with the slender boughs of trees and moss; the unwary elk in passing the tree precipitates himself into the pit which is sufficiently deep to prevent his escape, and is thus taken.

[Lewis]
Friday [NB: Thursday] January 16th 1806.
The Clatsops, Chinooks &c. in fishing employ the common straight net, the scooping or dipping net with a long handle, the gig, and the hook and line. The common net is of different lengths and depths usually employed in taking the salmon, carr and trout in the inlets among the marshy grounds and the mouths of deep creeks. The skimming or scooping net to take small fish in the spring and summer season; the gig and hook are employed indiscriminately at all seasons in taking such fish as they can procure by their means. Their nets and fishing lines are made of the silk-grass or white cedar bark; and their hooks are generally of European manufactory, though before the whites visited them they made hooks of bone and other substances formed in the following manner: A C, and C.B. are two small pieces of bone about the size of a strong twine, these are flattened and leveled off of their extremities near C. where they are firmly attached together with sinews and covered with rosin. C A. is reduced to a sharp point at A where it is also bent in a little; C B. is attached to the line, for about half its length at the upper extremity B., the whole forming two sides of an acute angled triangle.

[Lewis]
Saturday [Friday] January 17th 1806
This morning we were visited by Comowool and 7 of the Clatsops our nearest neighbors, who left us again in the evening. They brought with them some roots and berries for sale, of which however they disposed of but very few as they asked for them such prices as our stock in trade would not license us in giving. The Chief Comowool gave us some roots and berries for which we gave him in return a moccasin awl and some thread; the latter he wished for the purpose of making a skimming net. One of the party was dressed in three very elegant sea otter skins which we much wanted; for these we offered him many articles but he would not dispose of them for any other consideration but blue beads, of these we had only six fathoms left, which being 4 less than his price for each skin he would not exchange nor would a knife or an equivalent in beads of any other color answer his purposes. These coarse blue beads are their favorite merchandise and called chief beads. The culinary articles of the Indians in our neighborhood consist of wooden bowls or troughs, baskets, wooden spoons and wooden skewers or spits. Their wooden bowls and troughs are of different forms and sizes, and most generally dug out of a solid piece; they are either round or semi globular, in the form of a canoe, cubic, and cubic at top terminating in a globe at bottom; these are extremely well executed and many of them neatly carved, the larger vessels with hand-holes to them. In these vessels they boil their fish or flesh by means of hot stones which they immerse in the water with the article to be boiled. They also render the oil of fish or other animals in the same manner. Their baskets are formed of cedar bark and beargrass so closely interwoven with the fingers that they are watertight without the aid of gum or rosin; some of these are highly ornamented with strands of beargrass which they dye of several colors and interweave in a great variety of figures. This serves them the double purpose of holding their water or wearing on their heads; and are of different capacities from that of the smallest cup to five or six gallons. They are generally of a conic form or rather the segment of a cone of which the smaller end forms the base or bottom of the basket. These they make very expeditiously and dispose off for a mere trifle. It is for the construction of these baskets that the beargrass becomes an article of traffic among the natives. This grass grows only on their high mountains near the snowy region; the blade is about 3/8 of an inch wide and 2 feet long, smooth pliant and strong. The young blades which are white from not being exposed to the sun or air are those most commonly employed, particularly in their neatest work. Their spoons are not remarkable nor abundant, they are generally large and the bowl broad. Their meat is roasted with a sharp skewer, one end of which is inserted in the meat with the other is set erect in the ground. The spit for roasting fish has its upper extremity split, and between its limbs the center of the fish is inserted with its head downwards and the tail and extremities of the skewer secured with a string. The sides of the fish, which was in the first instance split on the back, are expanded by means of small splinters of wood which extend crosswise the fish. A small mat of rushes or flags is the usual plate or dish on which their fish, flesh, roots or berries are served. They make a number of bags and baskets not watertight of cedar bark, silk-grass, rushes, flags and common coarse sedge. In these they secure their dried fish, roots, berries, &c.

[Lewis]
Sunday [NB: Saturday] January 18th 1806.
The Clatsops, Chinooks &c. construct their houses of timber altogether. They are from 14 to 20 feet wide and from 20 to 60 feet in length, and accommodate one or more families; sometimes three or four families reside in the same room. These houses a[re] also divided by a partition of boards, but this happens only in the largest houses as the rooms are always large compared with the number of inhabitants. These houses are constructed in the following manner; two or more posts of split timber agreeably to the number of divisions or partitions are first provided. These are sunk in the ground at one end and rise perpendicularly to the height of 14 or 18 feet. The tops of them are hollowed in such manner as to receive the ends of a round beam of timber which reaches from one to the other, most commonly the whole length of the building, and forming the upper part of the roof. Two other sets of posts and poles are now placed at proper distances on either side of the first, formed in a similar manner and parallel to it. These last rise to the intended height of the eves, which is usually about 5 feet. Smaller sticks of timber are now provided and are placed by pairs in the form of rafters, resting on, and reaching from the lower to the upper horizontal beam, to both of which they are attached at either end with the cedar bark. Two or three ranges of small poles are now placed horizontally on these rafters on each side of the roof and are secured likewise with strings of the cedar bark. The ends, sides and partitions are then formed with one range of wide boards of about two inches thick, which are sunk in the ground a small distance at their lower ends and stand erect with their upper ends lapping on the outside of the eve poles and end rafters to which they are secured by an outer pole lying parallel with the eve poles and rafters being secured to them by chords of cedar bark which pass through holes made in the boards at certain distances for that purpose. The roof is then covered with a double range of thin boards, and an aperture of 2 by 3 feet left in the center of the roof to permit the smoke to pass. These houses are sometimes sunk to the depth of 4 or 5 feet, in which case the eve of the house comes nearly to the surface of the earth. In the center of each room a space of six by eight feet square is sunk about twelve inches lower than the floor, having its sides secured with four sticks of square timber. In this space they make their fire, their fuel being generally pine bark. Mats are spread around the fire on all sides, on these they sit in the day and frequently sleep at night. On the inner side of the house on two sides and sometimes on three, there is a range of upright pieces about 4 feet removed from the wall; these are also sunk in the ground at their lower ends, and secured at top to the rafters. From these other pieces are extended horizontally to the wall and are secured in the usual method by bark to the upright pieces which support the eve poles. On these short horizontal pieces of which there are sometimes two ranges one above the other, boards are laid, which either form their beds or shelves on which to put their goods and chattels of almost every description. Their uncured fish is hung on sticks in the smoke of their fires as is also the flesh of the elk when they happen to be fortunate enough to procure it, which is but seldom.

[Lewis]
Monday [Sunday] January 19th 1806.
We were visited today by two Clatsop men and a woman who brought for sale some sea otter skins of which we purchased one, giving in exchange the remainder of our blue beads consisting of 6 fathoms and about the same quantity of small white beads and a knife. We also purchased a small quantity of train oil for a pair of brass armbands and a hat for some fishing hooks. These hats are of their own manufactory and are composed of cedar bark and bear grass interwoven with the fingers and ornamented with various colors and figures. They are nearly waterproof, light, and I am convinced are much more durable than either chip or straw. These hats form a small article of traffic with the Clatsops and Chinooks, who dispose of them to the whites. The form of the hat is that which was in vogue in the United States and Great Britain in the years 1800 & 1801 with a high crown rather larger at the top than where it joins the brim; the brim narrow or about 2 or 2½ inches. Several families of these people usually reside together in the same room; they appear to be the father & mother and their sons with their son's wives and children; their provision seems to be in common and the greatest harmony appears to exist among them. The old man is not always respected as the head of the family, that duty most commonly devolves on one of the young men. They have seldom more than one wife, yet the plurality of wives is not denied them by their customs. These families when associated form nations or bands of nations, each acknowledging the authority of its own chieftain who does not appear to be hereditary, nor his power to extend further than a mere reprimand for any improper act of an individual. The creation of a chief depends upon the upright deportment of the individual & his ability and disposition to render service to the community; and his authority or the deference paid him is in exact equilibrium with the popularity or voluntary esteem he has acquired among the individuals of his band or nation. Their laws, like those of all uncivilized Indians, consist of a set of customs which have grown out of their local situations. Not being able to speak their language we have not been able to inform ourselves of the existence of any peculiar customs among them.

[Lewis]
Saturday [Friday], January 24th 1806.
Drewyer and Baptiste Lepage returned this morning in a large canoe with Comowool and six Clatsops. They brought two deer and the flesh of three elk & one elk's skin, having given the flesh of one other elk which they killed and three elk's skins to the Indians as the price of their assistance in transporting the balance of the meat to the fort. These elk and deer were killed near Point Adams and the Indians carried them on their backs about six miles, before the waves were sufficiently low to permit their being taken on board their canoes. The Indians remained with us all day. The Indians witnessed Drewyer's shooting some of those elk, which has given them a very exalted opinion of us as marksmen and the superior excellence of our rifles compared with their guns; this may probably be of service to us, as it will deter them from any acts of hostility if they have ever meditated any such. My air gun also astonishes them very much, they cannot comprehend its shooting so often and without powder; and think that it is great medicine which comprehends everything that is to them incomprehensible.

[Lewis]
Sunday [Saturday] January 25th 1806.
I have lately learned that the natives whom I have heretofore named as distinct nations, living on the sea coast southeast of the Tillamooks, are only bands of that numerous nation, which continues to extend itself much further on that coast than I have enumerated them, but of the particular appellations of those distant bands I have not yet been enabled to inform myself. Their language also is somewhat different from the Clatsops, Chinooks and Cathlamets; but I have not yet obtained a vocabulary which I shall do the first opportunity which offers.

[Lewis]
Tuesday [NB: Monday] January 27th 1806.
Goodrich has recovered from the Louis veneri which he contracted from an amorous contact with a Chinook damsel. I cured him as I did Gibson last winter by the use of mercury. I cannot learn that the Indians have any simples which are sovereign specifics in the cure of this disease; and indeed I doubt very much whether any of them have any means of effecting a perfect cure. When once this disorder is contracted by them it continues with them during life; but always ends in decrepitude, death, or premature old age; though from the use of certain simples together with their diet, they support this disorder with but little inconvenience for many years, and even enjoy a tolerable share of health; particularly so among the Chippewas who I believe to be better skilled in the use of those simples than any nation of savages in North America. The Chippewas use a decoction of the root of the Lobelia, and that of a species of sumac common to the Atlantic states and to this country near and on the Western side of the Rocky Mountains. This is the smallest species of the sumac, readily distinguished by its winged rib, or common footstalk, which supports its oppositely pinnate leaves. These decoctions are drank freely and without limitation. The same decoctions are used in cases of the gonorrhea and are efficacious and sovereign. Notwithstanding that this disorder does exist among the Indians on the Columbia, yet it is witnessed in but few individuals, at least the males who are always sufficiently exposed to the observations or inspection of the physician. In my whole route down this river I did not see more than two or three with the gonorrhea and about double that number with the pox.

[Lewis]
Friday [Thursday] January 30th 1806.
The dress of the Clatsops and others in this neighborhood differs but little from that described of the Watlalas. They never wear leggings or moccasins which the mildness of this climate I presume has rendered in a great measure unnecessary; and their being obliged to be frequently in the water also renders those articles of dress inconvenient. They wear a hat of a conic figure without a brim confined on the head by means of a string which passes under the chin and is attached to the two opposite sides of a secondary rim within the hat. The hat at top terminates in a pointed knob of a conic form also, or in this shape. These hats are made of the bark of cedar and beargrass wrought with the fingers so closely that it casts the rain most effectually in the shape which they give them for their own use or that just described. On these hats they work various figures of different colors, but most commonly only black and white are employed. These figures are faint representations of whales, the canoes and the harpoonneers striking them, sometimes squares, diamonds, triangles &c. The form of knife which seems to be preferred by these people is a double edged and double pointed dagger; the handle being in the middle, and the blades of unequal lengths, the longest usually from 9 to ten inches (long) and the shorter one from four to five. These knives they carry with them habitually and most usually in the hand, sometimes exposed but most usually, particularly when in company with strangers, under their robes. With this knife they cut and cleanse their fish make their arrows &c. This is somewhat the form of the knife; A is a small loop of a strong twine through which they sometimes insert the thumb in order to prevent its being wrested from their hand.

[Lewis]
Saturday February 1st 1806.
The canoes of the natives inhabiting the lower portion of the Columbia River make their canoes remarkably neat, light and well adapted for riding high waves. I have seen the natives near the coast riding waves in these canoes with safety and apparently without concern where I should have thought it impossible for any vessel of the same size to lived a minute. They are built of white cedar or arborvitae generally, but sometimes of the fir. They are cut out of a solid stick of timber, the gunwales at the upper edge fold over outwards and are about 5/8 of an inch thick and 4 or five broad, and stand horizontally forming a kind of rim to the canoe to prevent the water beating into it. They are all furnished with more or less crossbars in proportion to the size of the canoe. These bars are round sticks about half the size of a man's arm, which are inserted through holes (just) made in either side of the canoe just below the rim of the gunwale and are further secured with strings of way tape; these crossbars serve to lift and manage the canoe on land. When the natives land they invariably take their canoes on shore, unless they are heavily laden, and then even, if they remain all night, they discharge their loads and take the canoes on shore. Some of the large canoes are upwards of 50 feet long and will carry from 8 to 10 thousand lbs. or from 20 to thirty persons, and some of them particularly on the sea coast, are waxed, painted and ornamented with curious images at bow and stern. Those images sometimes rise to the height of five feet; the pedestals on which these images are fixed are sometimes cut out of the solid stick with the canoe, and the imagery is formed of separate small pieces of timber firmly united with tenons and mortises without the assistance of a single spike of any kind. When the natives are engaged in navigating their canoes one sits in the stern and steers with a paddle, the others sit by pairs and paddle over the gunwale next them, they all kneel in the bottom of the canoe and sit on their feet. Their paddles are of a uniform shape of which this is an imitation. These paddles are made very thin and the middle of the blade is thick and hollowed out suddenly and made thin at the sides while the center forms a kind of rib. The blade occupies about one third of the length of the paddle, which is usually from 4½ to 5 feet. I have observed four forms of canoe only in use among the nations below the grand cataract of this river; they are as follows. This is the smallest size, about 15 feet long and calculated for one or two persons, and are most common among the Cathlamets and Waukiacums among the marshy islands. A the bow; B, the stern; these 4 are from twenty to thirty five feet, and from two ½ to 3 feet in the beam and about 2 feet in the hold; this canoe is common to all the nations below the grand rapids. It is here made deeper and shorter in proportion than they really are. The bowsprit from C to D is brought to a sharp edge tapering gradually from the sides. This is the most common form of the canoe in use among the Indians from the Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw inclusive to the ocean and is usually about 30 or 35 feet long, and will carry from ten to twelve persons. 4 men are competent to carry them a considerable distance, say a mile without resting. A is the end which they use as the bow, but which on first sight I took to be the stern; C. D. is a comb cut of the solid stick with the canoe and projects from the center of the end of the canoe being about 1 inch thick, its sides parallel and edge at C D. sharp. It is from 9 to 11 inches in length and extends from the underpart of the bowsprit at A to the bottom of the canoe at D. The stern B. is merely rounding and gradually ascending. 1 2 3 represents the rim of the gunwales about 4 inches wide, rather ascending as they recede from the canoe. 4 5 6 7 8 are the round holes through which the crossbars are inserted. This form of canoe we did not meet with until we reached tidewater or below the grand rapids. From thence down it is common to all the nations but more particularly the Tillamooks and others of the coast. These are the largest canoes. B. is the bow and comb. C. the stern and comb. Their images are representations of a great variety of grotesque figures, any of which might be safely worshiped without committing a breach of the commandment. They have but few axes among them, and the only two usually employed in felling the trees or forming the canoe, carving &c. is a chisel formed of an old file about an inch or an inch and a half broad. This chisel has sometimes a large block of wood for a handle; they grasp the chisel just below the block with the right hand, holding the edge down while with the left they take hold of the top of the block and strike backhanded against the wood with the edge of the chisel. A person would suppose that the forming of a large canoe with an instrument like this was the work of several years; but these people make them in a few weeks. They prize their canoes very highly; we have been anxious to obtain some of them for our journey up the river but have not been able to obtain one as yet from the natives in this neighborhood.

[Lewis]
Sunday February 2nd 1806.
One of the games of amusement and risk of the Indians of this neighborhood, like that of the Shoshones, consists in hiding in the hand some small article about the size of a bean. This they throw from one hand to the other with great dexterity, accompanying their operations with a particular song which seems to have been adapted to the game. When the individual who holds the piece has amused himself sufficiently by exchanging it from one hand to the other, he holds out his hands for his competitors to guess which hand contains the piece. If they hit on the hand which contains the piece they win the wager; otherwise lose. The individual who holds the piece is a kind of banker and plays for the time being against all the others in the room. When he has lost all the property which he has to venture, or thinks proper at any time, he transfers the piece to some other who then also becomes banker. The Shoshone and Hidatsas &c. have a game of a singular kind but those divide themselves in two parties and play for a common wager to which each individual contributes to form the stock of his party. One of them holds the piece and some one of the opposite party guesses which hand contains [it]. If he hits on the hand which contains it the piece is transferred to the opposite party and the victor counts one, if he misses the party still retain the piece and score one but the individual transfers the piece to some other of his own party. The game is set to any number they think proper, and like the natives of this quarter they always accompany their operations with a particular song. The natives here have also another game which consists in bowling some small round pieces about the size of backgammon men between two small upright sticks placed a few inches asunder, but the principles of the game I have not learned, not understanding their language sufficiently to obtain an explanation. Their boys amuse themselves with their bows and arrows, as those do of every Indian nation with which I am acquainted. These people are excessively fond of their games of risk and bet freely every species of property of which they are possessed. They have a small dog which they make useful only in hunting the elk.

[Lewis]
Thursday February 20th 1806.
This forenoon we were visited by Tah-cum, a principal Chief of the Chinooks, and 25 men of his nation. We had never seen this chief before. He is a good looking man of about 50 years of age, rather larger in statue than most of his nation. As he came on a friendly visit we gave himself and party something to eat and plied them plentifully with smoke. We gave this chief a small medal with which he seemed much gratified. In the evening at sunset we desired them to depart, as is our custom, and closed our gates. We never suffer parties of such number to remain within the fort all night; for notwithstanding their apparent friendly disposition, their great avarice and hope of plunder might induce them to be treacherous. At all events we determined always to be on our guard as much as the nature of our situation will permit us, and never place ourselves at the mercy of any savages. We well know that the treachery of the aborigines of America and the too great confidence of our countrymen in their sincerity and friendship has caused the destruction of many hundreds of us. So long have our men been accustomed to a friendly intercourse with the natives, that we find it difficult to impress on their minds the necessity of always being on their guard with respect to them. This confidence on our part we know to be the effect of a series of uninterrupted friendly intercourse, but the well known treachery of the natives by no means entitles them to such confidence, and we must check its growth in our own minds, as well as those of our men, by recollecting ourselves, and repeating to our men, that our preservation depends on never losing sight of this trait in their character, and being always prepared to meet it in whatever shape it may present itself.

[Lewis]
Friday February 21st 1806.
Visited this morning by 3 Clatsop who remained with us all day; they are great beggars; I gave one of them a few needles with which he appeared much gratified. In the evening late they departed.

[Lewis]
Saturday February 22nd 1806.
We were visited today by two Clatsop women and two boys who brought a parcel of excellent hats made of cedar bark and ornamented with beargrass. Two of these hats had been made by measures which Capt. Clark and myself had given one of the women some time since with a request to make each of us a hat; they fit us very well, and are in the form we desired them. We purchased all their hats and distributed them among the party. The woodwork and sculpture of these people as well as these hats and their waterproof baskets evince an ingenuity by no means common among the aborigines of America. In the evening they returned to their village and Drewyer accompanied them in their canoe in order to get the dogs which the Clatsops have agreed to give us in payment for the elk they stole from us some weeks since. These women informed us that the small fish began to run, which we suppose to be herring from their description. They also informed us that their Chief, Conia or Comowool, had gone up the Columbia to the valley in order to purchase wapato, a part of which he intended trading with us on his return.

[Lewis]
Saturday March 1st 1806.
Kuskelar and wife left us about noon. He had a good looking boy of about 10 years of age with him who he informed us was his slave. This boy had been taken prisoner by the Tillamooks from some nation on the coast to the southeast of them at a great distance. Like other Indian nations they adopt their slaves in their families and treat them very much as their own children.

[Lewis]
Saturday March 15th 1806.
We were visited this afternoon by Delashshelwilt, a Chinook chief, his wife and six women of his nation which the old bawd his wife had brought for market. This was the same party that had communicated the venereal to so many of our party in November last, and of which they have finally recovered. I therefore gave the men a particular charge with respect to them which they promised me to observe. Late this evening we were also visited by Catel, a Clatsop man and his family. He brought a canoe and a sea otter skin for sale, neither of which we purchased this evening. The Clatsops who had brought a canoe for sale last evening left us early this morning.

[Lewis]
Tuesday March 18th 1806.
Comowool and two Cathlamets visited us today; we suffered them to remain all night. This morning we gave Delashelwilt a certificate of his good deportment &c. and also a list of our names, after which we dispatched him to his village with his female band. These lists of our names we have given to several of the natives and also pasted up a copy in our room. The Indians repeated to us the names of eighteen distinct tribes residing on the southeast coast who spoke the Tillamooks language, and beyond those six others who spoke a different language which they did not comprehend.

[Lewis]
Wednesday March 19th 1806.
We gave Comowool, alias Conia, a certificate of his good conduct and the friendly intercourse which he has maintained with us during our residence at this place; we also gave him a list of our names do not. The Tillamooks, Clatsops, Chinooks, Cathlamets and Wac ki-a-cums resemble each other as well in their persons and dress as in their habits and manners. Their complexion is not remarkable, being the usual copper brown of most of the tribes of North America. They are low in stature, rather diminutive, and illy shapen; possessing thick broad flat feet, thick ankles, crooked legs, wide mouths, thick lips, nose moderately large, fleshy, wide at the extremity with large nostrils, black eyes and black coarse hair. Their eyes are sometimes of a dark yellowish brown, the pupil black. I have observed some high aquiline noses among them but they are extremely rare. The nose is generally low between the eyes. The most remarkable trait in their physiognomy is the peculiar flatness and width of forehead which they artificially obtain by compressing the head between two boards while in a state of infancy and from which it never afterwards perfectly recovers. This is a custom among all the nations we have met with west of the Rocky Mountains. I have observed the heads of many infants, after this singular bandage had been dismissed, or about the age of 10 or eleven months, that were not more than two inches thick about the upper edge of the forehead and rather thinner still higher. From the top of the head to the extremity of the nose is one straight line. This is done in order to give a greater width to the forehead, which they much admire. This process seems to be continued longer with their female than their male children, and neither appear to suffer any pain from the operation. It is from this peculiar form of the head that the nations east of the Rocky Mountains call all the nations on this side, except the Aliahtans or Snake Indians, by the generic name of Flatheads. I think myself that the prevalence of this custom is a strong proof that those nations having originally proceeded from the same stock. The nations of this neighborhood or those recapitulated above, wear their hair loosely flowing on the back and shoulders; both men and women divide it on the center of the crown in front and throw it back behind the ear on each side. They are fond of combs and use them when they can obtain them; and even without the aid of the comb keep their hair in better order than many nations who are in other respects much more civilized than themselves. The large or apparently swollen legs particularly observable in the women are obtained in a great measure by tying a cord tight around the ankle. Their method of squatting or resting themselves on their hams which they seem from habit to prefer to sitting, no doubt contributes much to this deformity of the legs by preventing free circulation of the blood. The dress of the man consists of a small robe, which reaches about as low as the middle of the thigh and is attached with a string across the breast and is at pleasure turned from side to side as they may have occasion to disencumber the right or left arm from the robe entirely, or when they have occasion for both hands. The fixture of the robe is in front with its corners loosely hanging over their arms. They sometimes wear a hat which has already been described. This robe is made most commonly of the skins of a small animal which I have supposed was the brown mungo, though they have also a number of the skins of the tiger cat, some of those of the elk which are used principally on their war excursions, others of the skins of the deer, panther and bear, and a blanket woven with the fingers of the wool of the native sheep. A mat is sometimes temporarily thrown over the shoulders to protect them from rain. They have no other article of clothing whatever, neither winter nor summer, and every part except the shoulders and back is exposed to view. They are very fond of the dress of the whites, which they wear in a similar manner when they can obtain them, except the shoe, which I have never seen worn by any of them. They call us pah-shish'issue, e-ooks, or cloth men. The dress of the women consists of a robe, tissue, and sometimes when the weather is uncommonly cold, a vest. Their robe is much smaller than that of the men, never reaching lower than the waist nor extending in front sufficiently far to cover the body. It is like that of the men, confined across the breast with a string and hangs loosely over the shoulders and back. The most esteemed and valuable of these robes are made of strips of the skins of the sea otter net together with the bark of the white cedar or silk-grass. These strips are first twisted and laid parallel with each other a little distance asunder, and then net or wove together in such manner that the fur appears equally on both sides, and unites between the strands. It makes a warm and soft covering. Other robes are formed in a similar manner of the skin of the raccoon, beaver &c. At other times the skin is dressed in the hair and worn without any further preparation. In this way one beaver skin, or two of those of the raccoon or tiger cat, forms the pattern of the robe. The vest is always formed in the manner first described of their robes and covers the body from the armpits to the waist, and is confined behind, and destitute of straps over the shoulder to keep it up. When this vest is worn the breast of the woman is concealed, but without it, which is almost always the case, they are exposed, and from the habit of remaining loose and unsuspended grow to great length, particularly in aged women, in many of whom I have seen the bubby reach as low as the waist. The garment which occupies the waist, and from thence as low as nearly to the knee before and the ham behind, cannot properly be denominated a petticoat, in the common acceptation of that term; it is a tissue of white cedar bark, bruised or broken into small shreds, which are interwoven in the middle by means of several cords of the same materials, which serve as well for a girdle as to hold in place the shreds of bark which form the tissue, and which shreds confined in the middle hang with their ends pendulous from the waist, the whole being of sufficient thickness when the female stands erect to conceal those parts usually covered from familiar view, but when she stoops or places herself in many other attitudes, this battery of Venus is not altogether impervious to the inquisitive and penetrating eye of the amorite. This tissue is sometimes formed of little twisted cords of the silk grass knotted at their ends and interwoven as described of the bark. This kind is more esteemed and last much longer than those of bark. They also form them of flags and rushes which are worn in a similar manner. The women as well as the men sometimes cover themselves from the rain by a mat worn over the shoulders. They also cover their heads from the rain sometimes with a common water cup or basket made of the cedar bark and beargrass. These people seldom mark their skins by puncturing and introducing a coloring matter. Such of them as do mark themselves in this manner prefer their legs and arms on which they imprint parallel lines of dots either longitudinally or circularly. The women more frequently than the men mark themselves in this manner. The favorite ornament of both sexes are the common coarse blue and white beads which the men wear tightly wound around their wrists and ankles many times until they obtain the width of three or more inches. They also wear them in large rolls loosely around the neck, or pendulous from the cartilage of the nose or rims of the ears which are perforated for the purpose. The women wear them in a similar manner except in the nose which they never perforate. They are also fond of a species of wampum which is furnished them by a trader whom they call Swipton. It seems to be the native form of the shell without any preparation. This shell is of a conic form, somewhat curved, about the size of a raven's quill at the base, and tapering to a point which is sufficiently large to permit to hollow through which a small thread passes; it is from one to 1½ inches in length, white, smooth, hard and thin. These are worn in the same manner in which the beads are; and furnish the men with their favorite ornament for the nose. One of these shells is passed horizontally through the cartilage of the nose and serves frequently as a kind of ring to prevent the string which suspends other ornaments at the same part from chafing and fretting the flesh. The men sometimes wear collars of bear's claws, and the women and children the tusks of the elk variously arranged on their necks arms &c. Both males and females wear bracelets on their wrists of copper, brass or iron in various forms. I think the most disgusting sight I have ever beheld is these dirty naked wenches. The men of these nations partake of much more of the domestic drudgery than I had at first supposed. They collect and prepare all the fuel, make the fires, assist in cleansing and preparing the fish, and always cook for the strangers who visit them. They also build their houses, construct their canoes, and make all their wooden utensils. The peculiar province of the woman seems to be to collect roots and manufacture various articles which are prepared of rushes, flags, cedar bark, bear grass or waytape. The management of the canoe for various purposes seems to be a duty common to both sexes, as also many other (domestic) occupations which with most Indian nations devolves exclusively on the woman. Their feasts, [of] which they are very fond, are always prepared and served by the men.

[Lewis]
Saturday March 22nd 1806
At 12 o'clock we were visited by Comowool and 3 of the Clatsops. To this chief we left our houses and furniture. He has been much more kind and hospitable to us than any other Indian in this neighborhood. The Indians departed in the evening.

[Lewis]
Sunday March 23rd 1806.
At 1 P.M. we bid a final adieu to Fort Clatsop. We had not proceeded more than a mile before we met Delashelwilt and a party of 20 Chinook men and women. This Chief learning that we were in want of a canoe some days past, had brought us one for sale, but being already supplied we did not purchase it. I obtained one sea otter skin from this party.

[Clark]
Sunday 23rd March 1806
Soon after we had set out from Fort Clatsop we were met by Delashelwilt & 8 men of the Chinooks, and Delashelwilt's wife the old bawd and his six girls. They had a canoe, a sea otter skin, dried fish and hats for sale. We purchased a sea otter skin and proceeded on through Meriwether's Bay.

[Whitehouse]
Sunday March 23rd
We found that bands of the Flathead Nation of Indians are far more numerous than we expected, they extending from the headwaters of the Kro-me-num River to the mouth of the Columbia River, & to the head of all the rivers, which runs into the north fork of Columbia River, & to the head of the same. This information we received from numbers of Indians belonging to the different bands of that nation. They are called Flatheads from the custom they have among them of binding flat pieces of wood on the foreheads & back parts of the heads of their children when born, which occasions their foreheads & back part of their heads to be flat. End of first volume.

[Lewis]
Monday March 24th 1806.
At 1 P.M. we arrived at the Cathlahmah village where we halted and purchased some wapato, a dog for the sick, and a hat for one of the men. On one of the Seal Islands opposite to the village of these people they have scaffolded their dead in canoes elevating them above tidewater mark. These people are very fond of sculpture in wood of which they exhibit a variety of specimens about their houses. The broad pieces supporting the center of the roof and those through which the doors are cut seem to be the pieces on which they most display their taste. I saw some of these which represented human figures sitting and supporting the burden on their shoulders. At half after 3 P.M. we set out and continued our route among the Seal Islands. Not paying much attention we mistook our route, which an Indian perceiving pursued, overtook us and put us in the right channel. This Cathlahmah claimed the small canoe which we had taken from the Clatsops; however he consented very willingly to take an elk's skin for it which I directed should be given him and he immediately returned. We continued our route along the south side of the river and encamped at an old village of 9 houses opposite to the lower Wahkiakum village. The night was cold though wood was abundant. After dark two Chinook men came to us in a small canoe. They remained with us all night.

[Clark]
Monday 24th of March 1806
After taking a slight breakfast we set out at half past 9 A.M. and proceeded to the Cathlahmah Village at 1 P.M. and remained until 1/2 after 3 P.M. At this village we purchased a few wapato and a dog for our sick men Willard and Bratton who are yet in a weak state. At this village I saw two very large elegant canoes inlaid with shells. Those shells I took to be teeth at first view, and the natives informed several of the men that they take the teeth of their enemies which they had killed in war. In examining of them closely, having taken out several pieces, we found that [they] were seashells which yet contained a part of the inner [blank]. They also decorate their smaller wooden vessels with those shells which have much the appearance of human teeth. Capt. Cook may have mistaken those shells very well for human teeth without a close examination. The village of these people is the dirtiest and stinkingest place I ever saw in any shape whatever, and the inhabitants partake of the characteristic of the village. We proceeded on through some difficult and narrow channels between the Seal Islands and the south side to an old village on the south side opposite to the lower Wahkiakum village, and encamped. To this old village a very considerable deposit of the dead at a short distance below, in the usual and customary way of the natives of this coast in canoes raised from the ground as before described. Soon after we made our camp 2 Indians visited us from the opposite side. One of them spoke several words of English and repeated the names of the traders, and many of the sailors.

[Whitehouse]
Monday March 24th
At half past 9 o'clock A.M. we embarked & proceeded on to an Indian Village of the Cathlamet Tribe, which lay on the south side of the river. This village consisted of about 9 lodges & about 100 inhabitants. We delayed at this village about 2 hours, and proceeded on, & passed through a number of islands called the Seal Islands, which lay on the south side of the river, and came to where stood an old Indian village which is on the south side of the river opposite to the lower Tar-kra Cum Village. We continued on about one mile & encamped on the south side of the river. Towards evening two of the natives came to our camp. These natives could speak some words of English & mentioned the names of some of the traders, sailors &c. who had been trading among them. We saw a large burying place of the natives a short distance below where we were encamped. The method that the natives take to deposit their dead is by placing them in a canoe. The body of the deceased is rolled up in skins of some kind of animal. The canoe is raised on forks & poles some distance up from the ground, & all the property that the deceased died possessed of is put into the canoe, with the body of the deceased Indian.

[Lewis]
Tuesday March 25th 1806.
Here some Clatsops came to us in a canoe loaded with dried anchovies, which they call Olthen, Wapato and Sturgeon. They informed us that they had been up on a trading voyage to the Skillutes. After dinner we passed the river to a large island and continued our route along the side of the same about a mile when we arrived at a Cathlahmah fishing camp of one lodge. Here we found 3 men 2 women and a couple of boys, who from appearances had remained here some time for the purpose of taking sturgeon, which they do by trolling. They had ten or dozen very fine sturgeon which had not been long taken. We offered to purchase some of their fish but they asked us such an extravagant price that we declined purchase. One of the men purchased a sea otter skin at this lodge, for which he gave a dressed elkskin and a handkerchief. Near this lodge we met some Cathlahmahs who had been up the river on a fishing excursion. They had a good stock of fish on board, but did not seem disposed to sell them. We remained at this place about half an hour and then continued our route up the island to its head and passed to the south side. Here we found another party of Cathlahmahs, about 10 in number, who had established a temporary residence for the purpose of fishing and taking seal. They had taken a fine parcel of sturgeon and some seal. They gave us some of the fleece of the seal which I found a great improvement to the poor elk.

[Lewis]
Wednesday March 26th 1806.
We gave a medal of small size to a man by the name of Wallalle, a principal man among the Cathlahmahs. He appeared very thankful for the honor conferred on him and presented us a large sturgeon. We continued our route up the river to an old village on the starboard side where we halted for dinner. We met on the way the principal chief of the Cathlahmahs, Sah-hih-weh-cap, who had been up the river on a trading voyage. He gave us some wapato and fish; we also purchased some of the latter. Soon after we halted for dinner the two Wahkiakums who have been pursuing us since yesterday morning with two dogs for sale, arrived. They wish tobacco in exchange for their dogs which we are not disposed to give as our stock is now reduced to a very few carrots.

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