Lesson Plan

Homesteading by the Numbers

A map of the United States with the 30 homesteading states indicated in brown.

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Subject:
Agriculture, Government, Immigration, Law, Social Studies, Statistics, Transportation, U.S. Presidents, Westward Expansion
Duration:
45-50 minutes
Group Size:
Up to 36 (6-12 breakout groups)
Setting:
classroom

Overview

In "Homesteading by the Numbers" students utilize statistics to discover the impacts of the Homestead Act of 1862.

The Homestead Act and President Lincoln unit is broken up into five lesson plans, taking 45-50 minutes to complete, targeting sixth through eighth grade students.  A class does not have to complete every lesson in the unit - each lesson comes with its own set of objectives and resources.  This is lesson 3 of the unit. 

Objective(s)

Guiding Question:
What impacts did the Homestead Act of 1862 on westward expansion, the nation, and the world.

Critical Content:
The Homestead Act of 1862.

Student Objectives:
Students will:

  • analyze statistics.
  • using their analysis discuss impacts of the Homestead Act of 1862.


Background

President Abraham Lincoln made the Homestead Act a law by signing it on May 20, 1862. This law gave 160 acres of land away to individuals who met certain requirements. In order to file a claim, an individual had to be at least 21 years of age or be the head of household. This law allowed women to file claims and own land. The act also required a person to be a citizen of the United States or declare intention to gain citizenship. This allowed many European immigrants, African-Americans and others to stake claims as well. Many railroads and western towns sent representatives to European countries to entice people to move to the United States. These representatives showed pictures of beautiful towns with tree-lined streets and rich soil for farming.

The applicant of a claim had to file an affidavit with the local land office stating they met the conditions required by the law. At this time, the claimant would pay a fee of $12 for filing the paperwork.

Once the filing was complete, there were additional requirements to meet in order to receive the patent and title to the land. A person had to build a home, live on the land, make the land his/her permanent residence, and work the land for a period of 5 years.

Many people who came to claim land paid for the services of a locator. This person would assist them in finding an unclaimed tract of land. Many locators showed individuals land near their own claim in order to "settle" the country and have neighbors nearby.

After living on the land, building a home, and farming the land for 5 years, it was time to "prove up." This simply required the homesteader to find two individuals who would serve as witnesses. These witnesses had to state they had known the homesteader for 5 years, knew the claimant had tilled the land and grown crops. With witnesses in tow, a claimant would proceed to the land office to "prove up," paying another small filing fee of $6 and having both witnesses sign the final documents. Afterwards, the claimant would receive a final certificate or patent to the land, having met all the conditions.

Homesteading by the Numbers

10 Percent of U.S. land given away under the Homestead Act.

30 Number of states in which homestead lands were located.

40 Percent of homesteaders that "proved up" their claims earned a deed from the federal government.

123 Years the Homestead Act was in effect.

160 Acres in a typical homestead claim.

4,000,000 Approximate number of claims made under the Homestead Act.

27,000,000 Total number of acres distributed by the Homestead Act.



Materials

For this lesson you will need:

Copies of the Homestead Statistics Worksheets

*Note these are available online if access is available.



Procedure

Ask students to brainstorm laws that they know have changed or influenced American history. Students are then to describe how those laws impacted the nation. Explain that students will learn today how the Homestead Act of 1862 influenced the nation.

Students are to complete the Homestead statistics worksheets in order to develop an understanding of the effect of the Homestead Act of 1862 upon the United States. This assignment could be used as group or all-class activity with the charts being transferred to a presentation program and projected onto a large screen.

Assessment

Bring students back together and have them discuss as a class the information that they have reviewed and how the Homestead Act influenced the nation as a whole.



Extensions

Impacts of the Homestead Act (4:26)
Produced by Homestead National Monument of America, this video describes the impacts of the Homestead Act of 1862.

Enrichment Activity

While Homesteading offered millions of acres of land for settlement, Homesteaders were not the largest recipients of western lands. Millions of acres of land were offered to the railroads for sale and use in building rail lines and communities. Research the role that the railroads played in the settlement of the west and write a comparative essay between the railroads and homesteaders.



Additional Resources

Other Lesson Plans

This lesson plan is part of a larger curriculum unit on the Homestead Act and President Lincoln for grades sixth through eighth. To view the entire curriculum or other individual lesson plans, please click the links below.

The Homestead Act and President Lincoln (entire unit)

Lesson 1: Getting to Know the Homestead Act
Lesson 2: Homestead Act Paperwork
Lesson 3: Homesteading by the Numbers 
Lesson 4: Legacy of the Homestead Act
Lesson 5: The Legacy of Abraham Lincoln

 

Additional ONLINE Lesson Plans created by Homestead National Monument of America in partnership with the National Archives and Records Administration.

The Homestead Act of 1862
Students will examine congressional laws and homesteading records while searching for clues as to what order to put them in. The documents used in the activity should be examined carefully as to their correct order. The names and dates are of no significance. It is the type of document that is significant and what order they would have been done to claim land under the Homestead Act of 1862.

Beginning of a Dream, Homestead Act Made Law Part 1
Beginning of a Dream, Homestead Act Made Law Part 2
Students will examine primary sources to help them understand relationships among events. After each document or set of documents students will be asked to make the connection between the documents.

Videos to complement activities

Beginning of a the Dream: Homestead Act Made Law (21:31)
Beginning of the Dream, Homestead Act Made Law is a short film on the Homestead Act of 1862. It was done in the partnership with Homestead National Monument of America and the National Archives and Records Administration. This film covers a brief history of the Homestead Act of 1862 and its impacts. The film discusses the document itself; where it is kept, how it is preserved and its current condition. It also discusses the National Archives and their role in preserving documents and materials such as the Homestead Act of 1862 for generations to come.

Filled with Stories: Homestead Records Project (11:10)
Filled With Stories: The Homestead Records Digitization Project is a short film on how the original records of those who claimed land under the Homestead Act of 862 are being digitized. This film was done in partnership with Homestead National Monument of America and the National Archives and Records Administration. This film covers the digitization process from beginning to end. It also gives an in-depth look at how records are restored/preserved by paper conservators.