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SEAC: Appendix D


Appendix D
Biographies of Confederate Commanders


General Joseph Eggleston Johnston (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Army of Tennessee, Departments of Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, Florida, and North Carolina

Age: 58
Born: Virginia
Education: United States Military Academy, class of 1829
Branch: Artillery
Occupation: Professional soldier

Service Record:
1830, Artillery
1838, Topographical Engineers
Seminole War, Brevetted
Mexican War, Brevetted twice
Cerro Gordo, Wounded
Chapultepec, Wounded
28 June 1860, Appointed Quartermaster General, U.S.A.
1861, Remained on duty until Virginia seceded
April 1861, Appointed Major General, Virginia Volunteers
14 May 1861, Appointed Brigadier General, C.S.A.
30 June 1861, Commanding, Army of the Shenandoah
20 July 1861, Commanding, Army of the Potomac
31 August 1861, Promoted to General, C.S.A.
22 October 1861, Commanding, Department of Northern Virginia
4 December 1862, Commanding, Department of the West
27 December 1863, Commanding, Army of Tennessee
18 July 1864, Relieved of command
25 February 1865, Commanding, Army of Tennessee and the Departments of Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina and Florida
16 March 1865, Department of North Carolina added to command

Battles and Campaigns:
Harper’s Ferry, First Manassas, Peninsula Campaign, Williamsburg, Chickahominy River, Seven Pines, Fair Oaks (WIA), Relief of Vicksburg, Jackson, Atlanta Campaign (until 18 July 1864), Defense of North Carolina

Profile:
General Johnston was the highest ranking officer to resign from the United States Army and join the Confederacy. He was rated by many as more capable than General Robert E. Lee. Disagreements early in the war caused bad blood between General Johnston and Confederate President Jefferson Davis. General Johnston was eventually relieved after fighting what many consider a brilliant delaying action against a superior force from Chattanooga to Atlanta. In 1865, with General Sherman moving virtually unopposed through the Carolinas, the Confederate Congress convinced President Davis to reinstate General Johnston to command. While under the command of General John Bell Hood, General Johnston’s old command, the Army of Tennessee, had been virtually destroyed at the battles of Spring Hill, Franklin, and Nashville. In late February 1865, the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and Lieutenant General William J. Hardee’s Corps moved rapidly into North Carolina to join their old commander, General Johnston. With some concern, he had been placed in command to serve as a scapegoat for failure, General Johnston again prepared to meet his old adversary, General Sherman.


Lieutenant General Wade Hampton (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Cavalry, Johnston’s Command

Age: 47
Born: Charleston, South Carolina
Education: South Carolina College, class of 1836
Occupation: Plantation owner, state legislator

Service Record:
Organized, equipped and offered for service a legion of infantry, cavalry, and artillery
July 1861, Colonel, Hampton’s (S.C.) Legion
Fall 1861, Commanding, Brigade, Whiting’s–Smith’s Division, Department of Northern Virginia
23 May 1862, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
28 June 1862, Commanding, 3rd Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command, Army of Northern Virginia
28 July 1862, Commanding, Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army of Northern Virginia
3 August 1863, Promoted to Major General, C.S.A.
December 1863, Commanding Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
11 August 1864, Commanding, Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
February 1865, Commanding, Cavalry, Johnston’s Command
15 February 1865, Promoted to Lieutenant General, C.S.A.

Battles and Campaigns:
First Manassas (WIA), Seven Pines (WIA), Antietam, Stuart’s Ride around McClellan, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg (WIA), The Wilderness, Trevilian Station, Petersburg,

Profile:
Lieutenant General Hampton was owner of one of the largest plantations in the South. In 1861, he organized and equipped, at his own expense, the Hampton Legion. Without any formal military training, he proved to be an excellent field commander. As a result of the death of Major General J.E.B. Stuart at Yellow Tavern, Lieutenant General Hampton assumed command of the Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. He was one of three "civilians"to attain the rank of Lieutenant General in the Confederate Army.


Lieutenant General Joseph Wheeler (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps

Age: 29
Born: Georgia
Education: United States Military Academy, class of 1859
Branch: Cavalry
Occupation: Professional soldier

Service Record:
22 April 1861, Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, Mounted Rifles, U.S.A.
1861, Appointed 1st Lieutenant, Artillery, C.S.A.
4 September 1861, Colonel, 19th Alabama
14 September 1862, Commanding, Cavalry Brigade, Left Wing, Army of the Mississippi
30 October 1862, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
20 November 1862, Commanding, Cavalry Brigade, Polk’s Corps, Army of Tennessee
22 November 1862, Commanding, Cavalry Brigade, Hardee’s Corps, Army of Tennessee
December 1862, Commanding, Cavalry Division, Army of Tennessee
30 January 1863, Promoted to Major General, C.S.A.
16 March 1863, Commanding, Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
Fall 1864, Commanding, Cavalry Corps, Departments of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
28 February 1865, Promoted to Lieutenant General, C.S.A.
March 1865, Commanding, Corps, Hampton’s Cavalry Command, Army of Tennessee

Battles and Campaigns:
Shiloh, Corinth, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Atlanta Campaign, March to the Sea, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
Twenty-one months after resigning from the United States Army as 2nd Lieutenant Joseph Wheeler, he was Confederate Major General ‘Fightin’ Joe’ Wheeler, commanding a Corps of Cavalry. On appointment by General Braxton Bragg in July 1862 as Chief of Cavalry, Army of Mississippi, he was in nearly constant combat until the end of the war. Known for his bravery in battle, he was wounded three times. Thirty-six staff officers fell by his side and 16 horses were shot under him. Operating independently, he opposed General Sherman’s March to the Sea. During this period and during operations in South Carolina, the command began to be criticized for lack of discipline. Their ragged appearance, a result of having operated some 18 months without refitting or resupply, probably contributed to this opinion. Lieutenant General Wheeler became one of two former Confederate generals to hold the rank of general in the U.S. Army after the Civil War. He rejoined the Army in 1898 during the War with Spain, and served in Cuba, commanding a division of regular and volunteer cavalry during the Santiago Campaign.


Brigadier General William Young Conn Humes (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Hume’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps

Age: 35
Born: Abingdon, Virginia
Education: Virginia Military Institute, graduated 2nd in the class of 1851
Occupation: Tennessee lawyer

Service Record:
April 1861, Lieutenant, Artillery
13 May 1861, Lieutenant, Bankhead’s Tennessee Battery
June 1861, Captain, Artillery
March 1863, Chief of Artillery, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
16 November 1863, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
November 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Armstrong’s Division, Martin’s Detachment, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of East Tennessee
January 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Kelly’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
5 March 1864, Commanding, Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
Late 1864, Commanding, Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
Spring 1865, Commanding, Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee

Battles and Campaigns:
New Madrid, Island #10 (POW), Chickamauga, Knoxville, Atlanta Campaign, March to the Sea, Carolinas Campaign

Profile
After his capture at Island #10 and exchange, he became Wheeler’s Chief of Artillery. Lieutenant General Wheeler, impressed with Brigadier General Humes’ abilities, gave him command of a mounted brigade.


Brigadier General Thomas Harrison (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Harrison’s Texas Brigade, Humes’ Division

Age: 42
Born: Jefferson County Alabama, raised in Monroe County Mississippi, moved to Texas in 1843
Education: Studied law in Brazoria County, Texas
Occupation: Texas lawyer, state legislator

Service Record:
Mexican War, 1st Mississippi Rifles
1861, Captain, 8th Texas Cavalry
1862, Major, 8th Texas Cavalry
18 November 1862, Colonel, 8th Texas Cavalry
July 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Wharton’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
November 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Wharton’s Division, Martin’s Detachment of Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of East Tennessee
February 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
Fall 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
14 January 1865, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.

Battles and Campaigns:
Shiloh, Corinth, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Tullahoma Campaign, Chickamauga, Knoxville, Atlanta Campaign, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
Brigadier General Harrison entered Confederate service as a Company Commander, 8th Texas Cavalry, "Terry’s Texas Rangers".


Colonel Henry M. Ashby (Hood 1906; McDowell et al. 1906)
Commanding, Ashby’s Brigade, Humes’ Division

Age: 24
Born: Knox County, Tennessee

Service Record:
Spring 1861, Assisted in raising a Cavalry Company from Knox County, elected Captain, C.S.V.
Summer 1861, Commanding, Squadron, 3rd Battalion, Tennessee Cavalry
May 1862, elected Colonel
May 1862, Commanding, 2nd Regiment, Tennessee Cavalry
December 1862, Commanding, 2nd Regiment, under General Braxton Bragg
Spring–Summer 1863, Commanding, 2nd Regiment, under E. Kirby-Smith
Autumn 1863, Commanding, 2nd Regiment, Army of Tennessee
Winter 1863, Commanding, 2nd Regiment, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
May 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee

Battles and Campaigns:
East Tennessee and Kentucky, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, participated in three raids into Kentucky (WIA, right heel bone shot away), Atlanta Campaign, March to the Sea, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
"From the first to the last of his service Col. Ashby was on the front, always in the face of the enemy; and his ability, vigilance, and efficiency are attested by the fact that at no time during the four years of service was any body of troops, large or small, under his command surprised by the enemy. No officer of any rank was more devotedly loved or implicitly trusted by his troops. Whether in camp, on the march, or in battle, Henry M. Ashby was a born soldier" (Hood 1906; McDowell et al. 1906)
.

— 1st Lt. James P. Coffin
Acting Assistant Adjutant General
Ashby’s Brigade


Major General William Wirt Allen (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Allen’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps

Age: 30
Born: New York, raised in Montgomery County, Alabama
Education: Princeton, class of 1854
Occupation: Alabama planter

Service Record:
1861, 1st Lieutenant, Company A, Montgomery Mounted Rifles
18 March 1862, Major, 1st Alabama Cavalry
11 July 1862, Colonel, 1st Alabama Cavalry
26 February 1864, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
Spring 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Kelly’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
May 1864, Commanding, Morgan’s Brigade, Martin’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
5 December 1864, Commanding, Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
4 March 1865, Appointed Major General, C.S.A. (Temporary)

Battles and Campaigns:
Shiloh, Corinth Siege, Perryville (WIA), Murfreesboro (WIA)
Atlanta Campaign, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
Despite being schooled in law at Princeton, he chose the life of a Southern planter. An efficient commander, he rose rapidly through the ranks. Wounds received at Murfreesboro compelled him to sit out 1863. Returning to service in 1864, he was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of a Brigade under Lieutenant General Joseph Wheeler. He quickly gained Lieutenant General Wheeler’s confidence. He was appointed to Major General by President Jefferson Davis, 4 March 1865. Appointment, though temporary, usually resulted in promotion to full rank.


Colonel James Hagan (Allardice 1995)
Commanding, Hagan’s Alabama Brigade, Allen’s Division

Age: Unknown
Born: Ireland
Education: Pennsylvania
Branch: Infantry
Occupation: Mobile, Alabama businessman

Service Record:
5 March 1847, Captain, Regular Army
31 July 1848, Mustered out of service
1861, Captain, C.S.A.
1861, Commanding, Company, Mobile Cavalry
1863, Colonel, C.S.A.
1864, Commanding, 3rd Alabama Cavalry

Battles and Campaigns:
Mexican War, Atlanta Campaign, March to the Sea, Carolinas Campaign


Brigadier General Robert Houstoun Anderson (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Anderson’s Brigade, Allen’s Division

Age: 30
Born: Savannah, Georgia
Education: United States Military Academy, class of 1857
Branch: Infantry
Occupation: Professional soldier

Service Record:
1 July 1857, Second Lieutenant of Infantry, U.S.A.
Served in the Pacific Northwest with the 9th Infantry, U.S.A.
17 May 1861, Resigned from the United States Army
6 March 1861, Appointed First Lieutenant of Artillery, C.S.A.
September 1861, Major, Assistant Adjutant General
20 June 1862, Major, 1st Georgia Sharpshooters Battalion
20 January 1863, Colonel, 5th Georgia Cavalry
May 1864, Commanding, Allen’s Brigade, Kelly’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
20 July 1864, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
January 1865, Commanding, Brigade, Allen’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee

Battles and Campaigns:
Atlanta Campaign, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
An examination of Brigadier General Anderson’s service record indicates in his haste to join the Confederacy that he failed to resign the United States Army. His early service was as a staff officer stationed on the coast of Georgia. Apparently preferring to be on the line, he transferred to the Sharpshooters. The Sharpshooter Battalion he joined continued service along the coast. Eventually he joined the 5th Georgia Cavalry, which in January 1863 was ordered to the Army of Tennessee.


Brigadier General George Gibbs Dibrell (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Dibrell’s Brigade, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps

Age: 43
Born: Sparta, Tennessee
Education: Scant
Occupation: Tennessee farmer and merchant

Service Record:
10 August 1861, Lieutenant, 25th Tennessee
September 1862, Colonel, 13th/8th Tennessee
August 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Forrest’s Cavalry Division, Army of Tennessee
September 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Armstrong’s Division, Forrest’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
October 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Armstrong’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
November 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Armstrong’s Division, Martin’s Detachment of Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of East Tennessee
February 1864, Commanding, Division, Cavalry, Department of East Tennessee
April 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Kelly’s-Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee
Late 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
28 January 1865, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
March 1865, Commanding, Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee

Battles and Campaigns:
Mill Springs, General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s Raid into Western Tennessee, Chickamauga, Knoxville, Atlanta Campaign, Saltville, VA, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
In 1861, Brigadier General Dibrell was a Union Delegate to the Tennessee state convention. After the majority of Tennesseans voted for secession, he joined the Confederate Army as a Private. In 1862, he organized the 8th Tennessee Cavalry.


Captain Alexander May Shannon (Sifakis 1988)
Commanding, Shannon’s Special Scouts, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps

Age: Unknown
Born: Texas

Service Record:
Date Unknown, Captain, Company C, 8th Texas Cavalry
Fall 1864 thru Winter 1865, Commanding Shannon’s Scouts, Operated independently of higher command
February 1865, Commanding, Shannon’s Special Scouts, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps

Battles and Campaigns:
Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Atlanta, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
Captain Shannon and his men were well known for their daring adventures behind enemy lines. Often dressed in Federal uniforms, they shadowed Sherman’s Army, gathering information on its movement. They also enjoyed attacking General Sherman’s foraging parties and were a terror to Federal stragglers.


Major General Matthew Calbraith Butler (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Butler’s Cavalry Division

Age: 29
Born: Greenville, South Carolina
Education: South Carolina College
Occupation: South Carolina lawyer, state legislator

Service Record:
Early 1861, Captain, Hampton’s (S.C.) Legion
21 July 1861, Major, Hampton’s Legion
August 1862, Colonel, 2nd South Carolina Cavalry
1 September 1863, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
Spring 1864, Commanding, Brigade, Hampton’s Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
Summer 1864, Commanding, Hampton’s Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
19 September 1864, Promoted to Major General, C.S.A.
January 1865, Commanding, Cavalry Division, Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
March 1865, Commanding, Division, Hampton’s Cavalry Command, Army of Tennessee

Battles and Campaigns:
First Bull Run, Peninsula Campaign, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Brandy Station (WIA, right foot amputated), Overland Campaign, Petersburg, Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
Major General Butler was son in-law to South Carolina Governor Pickens. He resigned as a member of the South Carolina Legislature to accept a Captain’s commission in the Hampton Legion. Throughout the war, he remained close to Lieutenant General Wade Hampton.


Brigadier General Evander McIvor Law (Warner 1959)
Commanding, Butler’s Brigade, Butler’s Division

Age: 29
Born: Darlington, South Carolina
Education: South Carolina Military Academy, class of 1856
Occupation: Associated with several military academies in South Carolina and Alabama

Service Record:
Spring 1861, Captain, Company B, 4th Alabama
May 1861, Lieutenant Colonel, 4th Alabama
28 October 1861, Colonel, 4th Alabama
May 1862, Commanding, Whiting’s Brigade, Smith–Whiting’s Division
26 July 1862, Commanding Brigade, Whiting’s Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
July 1862, Commanding Brigade, Whiting’s–Hood’s–Field’s Division, 1st Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
3 October 1862, Promoted to Brigadier General, C.S.A.
25 February 1863, Commanding, Hood’s Division, 1st Corps, Department of Virginia and North Carolina
2 July 1863, Commanding, Hood’s Division, Longstreet’s Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
September 1863, Commanding, Brigade, Hood’s Division, Longstreet’s Corps, Army of Tennessee
20 September 1863, Temporarily commanding, Division
5 November 1863, Commanding, Hood’s–Field’s Division, Department of East Tennessee
March 1865, Commanding, Brigade, Butler’s Division, Hampton’s Cavalry Command, Johnston’s Army

Battles and Campaigns:
First Manassas (WIA), Seven Pines, The Seven Days, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg/Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, East Tennessee Campaign, The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor (WIA), Carolinas Campaign

Profile:
Brigadier General Law proved himself a gallant and able field commander and a sometimes difficult subordinate. His 4th Alabama Infantry distinguished itself at Gettysburg and Chickamauga. After the wounding of General Hood at Gettysburg, Brigadier General Law assumed command of Hood’s Division, successfully leading it through the remainder of the campaign. After being accused of a lack of cooperation in the East Tennessee Campaign, Brigadier General Law submitted his letter of resignation to Lieutenant General James Longstreet. At some point, having taken the letter back from Lieutenant General Longstreet, he took it personally to Richmond where he was talked out of resigning. However, Lieutenant General Longstreet filed charges against him for stealing the letter. Eventually he was reinstated and went on to serve faithfully.

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