U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service
VIII. SOME RECOMMENDED SOURCES
Cemetery researchers will be aided by innumerable regional studies, cemetery guidebooks, conference proceedings, exhibit catalogs, and even a growing body of videotaped material. Current publications of the cemetery and monuments industries also can be helpful. American Cemetery, Stone in America, and MB News (trade journal of the Monument Builders of North America), for example, frequently contain articles on historic cemeteries and the manufacture of traditional gravemarkers.
Bibliographic searches in the local library are recommended, as is consultation with State cemetery associations, genealogical societies, and the State historic preservation office. Many States have published guides to research and legislation affecting cemeteries and burial places. An extensive bibliography for the general study of cemeteries and gravemarkers compiled along disciplinary lines is found in Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture, edited by Richard E. Meyer, one of the recommended sources listed below.
The Association for Gravestone Studies (AGS), a non-profit organization, publishes an annual journal, Markers, as well as a quarterly newsletter, and serves as an information network for cemetery scholars and preservationists nationwide. AGS maintains an archive and a limited mail-order lending library service for members. Since 1995 Markers has published an extensive annual international bibliography of gravemarker and cemetery scholarship. AGS can be reached at the following address: 278 Main Street, Suite 207, Greenfield MA 01301, or online at www.gravestonestudies.org.
In 1985 the City of Boston, steward of as many as 16 historic cemeteries ranging in date from 1630 to 1841, launched its "Historic Burying Ground Initiative," an ambitious, long-term program encompassing comprehensive inventories and treatment of gravemarkers, landscape rehabilitation, and improved maintenance and security procedures. The Boston initiative involves a number of city agencies and community groups and is believed to be the largest cemetery recordation and restoration project undertaken by local government in the country. Further information may be obtained from the Boston Parks and Recreation Department, 1010 Massachusetts Ave., Boston MA 02118.
The following is a list of some of the sources available, and is designed to lead the researcher to more sources. Many of these works contain extensive bibliographies.
Documentation, Conservation, and Management GuidelinesBaker, F. Joanne, and Farber, Daniel, with Anne G. Giesecke. "Recording Cemetery Data," Markers: The Annual Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 1: 99-117, 1980.
Boston Parks and Recreation Department. The Boston Experience: A Manual for Historic Burying Grounds Preservation, 1989.
Coney, William B. Preservation of Historic Concrete: Problems and General Approaches. Preservation Brief 15. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1987.
Grimmer, Anne E. A Glossary of Historic Masonry Deterioration Problems and Treatments. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1984.
________. Keeping it Clean: Removing Exterior Dirt, Paint, Stains and Graffiti from Historic Masonry Buildings. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1988.
"How to Search a Cemetery." Salt Lake City, Utah: Publications Division, The Genealogical Institute, 1974.
Lyons, Thomas R. and Thomas Eugene Avery. Remote Sensing, A Handbook for Archeologists and Cultural Resource Managers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Anthropology Division, 1977.
Lyons, Thomas R., and James I Ebert, eds. Remote Sensing and Non-Destructive Archeology. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Anthropology Division, 1978.
Lyons, Thomas, ed. Remote Sensing: Supplements No. 1 to 10 to Remote Sensing, A Handbook for Archeologists and Cultural Resource Managers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Anthropology Division, 1977-1985.
Mayer, Lance R. "The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones," Markers: The Annual Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 1: 119-141, 1980.
Meier, Lauren, and Betsy Chittenden. Preserving Historic Landscapes. National Park Service Reading List series. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1990.
Naudé, Virginia Norton, ed. Sculptural Monuments in an Outdoor Environment: A Conference Held at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, November 2, 1983. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1985.
Newman, John J. Cemetery Transcribing: Preparation and Procedures. The American Association for State and Local History. Technical Leaflet 9. History News, 26, 1971.
Sherwood, Susan I., Mary C. Daum, Michael W. Panhorst, et. al. Acidic Deposition: Distribution of Materials Potentially at Risk from Acidic Deposition. State of Science and Technology Report 21. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 1990.
Strangstad, Lynette. A Graveyard Preservation Primer. Nashville, Tennessee: The American Association for State and Local History in cooperation with the Association for Gravestone Studies, 1988.
Taylor, Veronica. Caring for Your Local Cemetery. Illinois Preservation Series. Number 9. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, 1988.
Thompson, Sharyn. Florida's Historic Cemeteries: A Preservation Handbook. Tallahassee, Florida: Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, 1989.
Warnock, Robert A., Lia Frederick, Barbara E. Hightower, and Terry Denise Tatum. Vegetative Threats to Historic Sites and Structures. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Park Historic Architecture Division, 1983.
Zielinski, A. K. Conservation of Cemeteries: The Treatment, Repair and Maintenance of Cemetery Objects and Their Environment. Mississaugua, Ontario: Roberts Seymour and Associates, Ltd., 1988.
Cultural StudiesAriès, Philippe. The Hour of Our Death. Translated from the French by Helen Weaver. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981.
Bell, Edward L. "The Historical Archeology of Mortuary Behavior: Coffin Hardware from Uxbridge, Massachusetts," Historical Archeology, 24: 54-78, 1990.
Brown, Daniel A. "National Cemeteries: Unique Cultural Resources of the National Park Service," CRM Bulletin. 7:3: 7,9, October, 1984.
Chase, Theodore, ed. Markers: The Annual Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, VII, 1990.
Christovich, Mary Louis, ed. New Orleans Architecture. Volume II: The Cemeteries. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Co., 1974.
Coffin, Margaret M. Death in Early America: The History and Folklore of Customs and Superstitions of Early Medicine, Funerals, Burials, and Mourning. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1976.
Colvin, Howard. Architecture and the After-life. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991.
Coombs, Diane Williams. Early Gravestone Art in Georgia and South Carolina. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1986.
Cozzens, Arthur B. "A Cherokee Graveyard," Pioneer America: The Journal of Historic American Material Culture, IV:1, January, 1972.
Curl, James Stevens. A Celebration of Death: An Introduction to Some of the Buildings, Monuments, and Settings of Funerary Architecture in the Western European Tradition. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.
Darnall, Margaretta J., "The American Cemetery as Picturesque Landscape: Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis," Winterthur Portfolio, 18: 249-269, Winter 1983.
Deetz, J. F., and E. S. Dethlefsen. "Death's Head, Cherub, Urn, and Willow," Natural History, 76: 29-37, 1967.
Driver, Harold E. Indians of North America. Second Edition, revised. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1969.
Duval, Francis Y., and Ivan B. Rigby. Early American Grave Stone Art in Photograph. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1978.
Ellis, Nancy, and Hayden Parker. Here Lies America. New York: Hawthorne Books, Inc., 1978.
Etlin, Richard A. The Architecture of Death: The Transformation of the Cemetery in Eighteenth-Century Paris. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984.
________. "Landscapes of Eternity: Funerary Architecture and the Cemetery, 1793-1881," Oppositions, 8: 14-31, Spring, 1977.
Federal Agencies Task Force (Cecil D. Andrus, Department of the Interior, Chairman). American Indian Religious Freedom Act Report; P. L. 95-341. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, August, 1979.
Forbes, Harriette M. Gravestones of Early New England and the Men Who Made Them. Boston, Massachusetts: Riverside Press, 1927. New York: DaCapo reprint, 1967.
French, Stanley. "The Cemetery as Cultural Institution: The Establishment of Mount Auburn and the Rural Cemetery' Movement," American Quarterly, 26: 37-59, March, 1974.
Gillon, Edmund V., Jr. Victorian Cemetery Art. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1972.
Jackson, Kenneth T., and Camilo Jos, Vergara. Silent Cities: The Evolution of the American Cemetery. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1989.
Jordan, Terry G. Texas Graveyards: A Cultural Legacy. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1982.
Kelly, Susan H. and Anne C. Williams. A Grave Business: New England Gravestone Rubbings. New Haven, Connecticut: The S. Z. Field Co., 1979.
Linden-Ward, Blanche, Silent City on a Hill: Landscapes of Memory and Boston's Mount Auburn Cemetery. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1989.
Loomis, Ormond H. Cultural Conservation: The Protection of Cultural Heritage in the United States. Publications of the American Folklife Center No. 10. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1983.
Ludwig, Allan I. Graven Images. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1966.
MacCloskey, Monro. Hallowed Ground: Our National Cemeteries. New York: Richards Rosen Press, Inc., 1968.
McDowell, Peggy, and Richard E. Meyer. The Revival Styles in American Memorial Art. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1993.
Meyer, Richard E., ed. Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1989.
________. Ethnicity and the American Cemetery. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1992.
Newton, Norman T. Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1971.
Nichols, Elaine, ed. The Last Miles of the Way: African-American Homegoing Traditions 1890-Present. Columbia, South Carolina: South Carolina State Museum, 1989.
Parker, Patricia L. Keepers of the Treasures: Protecting Historic Properties and Cultural Traditions on Indian Lands. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, May 1990.
Pike, Martha V., and Janice Gray Armstrong. A Time to Mourn: Expressions of Grief in Nineteenth Century America. Stony Brook, New York: The Museums at Stony Brook, 1980.
Price, H. Marcus, III. Disputing the Dead: U.S. Law on Aboriginal Remains and Grave Goods. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1991.
Ragon, Michel. The Space of Death: A Study of Funerary Architecture, Decoration, and Urbanism. Translated from the French by Alan Sheridan. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1983.
Roberts, Warren E. "Investigating the Treestump Tombstone in Indiana," American Culture and Folklife: A Prologue and a Dialogue. Simon J. Bronner, ed. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1985, pp. 135-153.
________. "Traditional Tools as Symbols: Some Examples from Indiana Tombstones," Pioneer America: The Journal of Historic American Material Culture, 12:1: 54-63, February, 1980.
Sellars, Richard West. "Vigil of Silence: The Civil War Memorials," History News, Vol. 41:19-23, July-August, 1986.
Sloane, David Charles. The Last Great Necessity: Cemeteries in American History. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
Spencer, Robert F., Jesse D. Jennings, et.al. The Native Americans: Prehistory and Ethnology of the North American Indians. New York, Evanston, and London: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1965.
Stannard, David E. The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Culture, and Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1977.
Steere, Edward. "Genesis of American Graves Registration, 1861-1870," Military Affairs, 12: 149-161: Fall 1948.
________. Shrines of the Honored Dead: A Study of the National Cemetery System. Reprinted with permission of The Quartermaster Review (1953, 1954). Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of the Army, Office of the Quartermaster General, no date.
Stilgoe, John R. "Folklore and Graveyard Design," Landscape, 22:3: 22-28, Summer, 1978.
Sturtevant, William C., gen. ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 1-8 (of 20 planned volumes). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978-1991.
Tatum, George B. "The Emergence of an American School of Landscape Design," Historic Preservation, Vol. 25: 34-41, April-June, 1973.
Tishler, William H., ed. American Landscape Architecture: Designers and Places. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1989.
Tuan, Yi-Fu. Landscapes of Fear. New York: Pantheon Books, 1979.
Weland, Gerald. Last Post. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, Inc., 1990.
Zelinsky, Wilbur. "Unearthly Delights: Cemetery Names and the Map of the Changing American Afterworld," Geographies of the Mind. David Lowenthal and Martyn J. Bowden, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976, pp. 171-195.
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