[Federal Register Volume 76, Number 229 (Tuesday, November 29, 2011)]
[Notices]
[Pages 73667-73670]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2011-30613]


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

[2253-665]


Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Defense, Army 
Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, Walla Walla, WA and the 
Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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SUMMARY: The United States Department of Defense, Army Corps of 
Engineers, Walla Walla District, and the Washington State University 
Museum of Anthropology, have completed an inventory of human remains 
and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate 
Indian tribes, and have determined that there is a cultural affiliation 
between the human remains and associated funerary objects and present-
day Indian tribes. Repatriation of the human remains and associated 
funerary objects to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no 
additional claimants come forward.

DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a 
cultural affiliation with the human remains and associated funerary 
objects should contact the U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of 
Engineers, Walla Walla District at the address below by December 29, 
2011.

ADDRESSES: LTC David Caldwell, U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps 
of Engineers, Walla Walla District, 201 North Third Ave., Walla Walla, 
WA 99362, telephone (509) 527-7700.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the 
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 
U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and 
associated funerary objects under the control of the U.S. Department of 
Defense, Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District (Corps), Walla 
Walla, WA, and in the physical custody of the Washington State 
University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU), Pullman, WA. The human 
remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Benton, 
Franklin, Garfield and Walla Walla Counties in Washington State.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's 
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The 
determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the 
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native 
American human remains and associated funerary objects. The National 
Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice.

Consultation

    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Corps 
and WSU professional staff in consultation with representatives of the 
Confederated Tribes of Colville Reservation, Washington; Confederated 
Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon; Confederated Tribes 
and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington; Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho; and 
the Wanapum Band, a non-Federally recognized Indian group.

History and Description of the Remains

    Sites 45BN3, 45BN6, 45BN15, 45BN45 (aka 45BN186), 45BN55, 45BN161, 
45FR5, and 45FR101 are located within the McNary Lock and Dam Project 
on the Columbia River, WA, which is managed by the Corps. The Corps 
initiated land acquisition processes for the McNary Lock and Dam 
Project in 1947. Sites 45WW48 and 45WW49 are located within the Ice 
Harbor Lock and Dam Project on the Lower Snake River, which is managed 
by the Corps. The Corps initiated land acquisition processes for the 
Project in 1955. Site 45GA12 is located within the Little Goose Lock 
and Dam Project on the Snake River, which is managed by the Corps. The 
Corps initiated land acquisition processes for the Project in 1963. 
Site 465GA40 is located within the Lower Granite Lock and Dam Project, 

which is managed by the Corps. The Corps initiated land acquisition 
processes for the Project in 1965.

Site 45BN3

    In 1948, the Smithsonian Institution's River Basin Survey Project 
(SRBS) removed human remains and associated funerary objects from 
45BN3, a pre-contact-protohistoric village site located on Berrian's 
Island, which is situated in the Columbia River, in Benton County, WA. 
SRBS transferred the human

[[Page 73668]]

remains and associated funerary objects to the Smithsonian Institution; 
the Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR; and the University 
of Washington (UW) Burke Museum, Seattle, WA. The human remains and 
funerary objects in the custody of UW came from Burials 1 and 29. In 
1996, at the Corps' request, UW transferred the human remains and 
associated funerary objects in its custody to WSU, which inventoried 
them in 2002. In 2007, the U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of 
Engineers, St. Louis District, Mandatory Center for Expertise for the 
Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections (MCX), conducted 
a second inventory of the human remains and associated funerary objects 
in the custody of WSU. This inventory identified the human remains from 
Burials 1 and 29 as belonging to two young adult males. No known 
individuals were identified. The three associated funerary objects are 
1 bone whistle from Burial 1; and 2 lots of seed beads from Burial 29.
    The estimated date range of the burials from 45BN3 is 1750-1811, 
based upon the presence at this site of Colonial uniform buttons whose 
earliest manufacture date is c.1750, and the absence of firearms, whose 
use by local tribes began c.1811. Further evidence supporting the date 
of these burials is the volume of trade goods observed in both the 
burials and in the village site. Distinctive morphological traits among 
the human remains, burial methods, and associated funerary objects, as 
well as evidence of contemporaneous mat lodge pots at the village site, 
all indicate Native American ancestry and funerary traditions 
reflective of Native groups of the Columbia Plateau. Other expert 
opinion evidence for determining cultural affiliation is the 
Smithsonian Institution's 2004 offer to return the remains of 33 
individuals and 758 funerary objects from 45BN3 to the Confederated 
Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon; Confederated Tribes 
and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington; and the Wanapum Band, a 
non-Federally recognized Indian group.

Site 45BN6

    In 1950, human remains representing a minimum of one individual 
were removed by the SRBS from Site 45BN6, a pre-contact-protohistoric 
village site along the Columbia River, in Benton County, WA. The 
individual was removed from a test pit in a steep bank near the river's 
edge. Portions of the SRBS collection, including the remains of the 
individual, were transferred to the UW Burke Museum (accession 
1966-87). In 1997, UW transferred human remains from 45BN6 to 
WSU, where they were inventoried in 2002. In 2006, during a second 
inventory of the remains, MCX determined that the remains of the 
individual belong to an adult of indeterminate sex. No known 
individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects are 
present.
    Site 45BN6 was interpreted as a village occupied from the late 
1700s to 1850, based on the minimal amount of trade items found in 
earlier deposits at the site, and the types of trade items found in the 
later deposits. This village was noted in the 1812 accounts of a non-
Native explorer. Distinctive morphological traits indicate the 
individual is of Native American ancestry.

Site 45BN15

    In 1947, 1951, and 1952, SRBS removed human remains and associated 
funerary objects from 27 burials at 45BN15, on Rabbit Island, which is 
situated in the Columbia River, in Benton County, WA. SRBS transferred 
the human remains and funerary objects to the Whitman Mission; Whitman 
College; the Smithsonian Institution; and the UW Burke Museum 
(accession 1966-87). In a 1995 inventory, UW reported the 
presence of human remains and associated funerary objects from 13 
burials excavated at 45BN15 during the aforementioned SRBS 
investigations. UW transferred these human remains and associated 
funerary objects to WSU in 1997 and 2001. WSU re-inventoried the human 
remains and associated funerary objects from 45BN15 in 2002, and 
confirmed that the collections included items from the 1947, 1951, and 
1952 SRBS investigations. In 2003, WSU indentified additional human 
remains from 45BN15 in a collection transferred to it from the 
University of Idaho (UI). In 2006, MCX performed an inventory of the 
human remains and associated funerary objects from 45BN15 at WSU and 
determined the minimum number of individuals to be 17. No known 
individuals were identified. The 102 associated funerary objects are 4 
adze blades, 1 awl, 2 beaver incisors, 2 bone needles, 1 bone point, 1 
bone toggle, 1 incised bird bone, 3 pieces of incised bone, 3 pestles, 
3 polished bone items, 3 polished ground stone items, 43 projectile 
points, 1 shell pendant, 1 stone pendant, 1 stone pipe, 1 stone 
scraper, 3 lots of bag residue, 3 lots of bird remains, 2 lots of 
mammal remains, 2 lots of natural stone, 2 lots of ochre, 10 lots of 
shell beads, 1 lot of stone beads, and 8 lots of stone flakes.
    The burials at Rabbit Island have been attributed to two distinct 
time periods based on burial traditions/methods. The later burials 
(Rabbit Island II) predate 1750 AD, and the earlier burials (Rabbit 
Island I) date to the Frenchman-Springs Phase (3500-1500 BP). Expert 
opinion evidence for determining cultural affiliation is the 
determination by Whitman Mission (in 1992) and Whitman College (in 
2008) that the human remains and funerary objects from the site in 
their custody were culturally affiliated with the Confederated Tribes 
of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon, as well as the Smithsonian 
Institution's 2004 offer to return those human remains from the site in 
their possession to the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian 
Reservation, Oregon. Based on distinctive morphological traits and 
associated funerary objects that are consistent with Plateau burial 
traditions, all of the individuals have been determined to be Native 
American.

Site 45BN45

    In 1948, human remains representing, at minimum, one individual, 
were removed from 45BN45 (aka 45BN186), located on an island in the 
Columbia River in Benton County, WA. The remains were housed at the UW 
Burke Museum, where they were inventoried in 1995. The collection was 
transferred to WSU in 1997 where, in 2002, it was again inventoried. 
The remains, belonging to a juvenile of indeterminate sex, exhibit 
extensive copper staining, which suggests that the burial originally 
included objects dating to the protohistoric period. No known 
individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects are 
present.

Site 45BN55

    In 1949 and 1950, Thomas Garth excavated 10 burials and two 
cremation pit burials from 45BN55, a village site on Sheep Island in 
Benton County, WA. The human remains and funerary objects were 
subsequently transported to Whitman College. Sometime prior to 1959, 
the remains of three individuals were transferred from Whitman College 
to the UW Burke Museum for examination by Rodger Helgar. In 1950, the 
SRBS excavated remnants of the 1949 cremation pit burials and 17 
additional burials from site 45BN55. The 1950 SRBS collection was 
transported to UW (accession 1966-87). UW's 1995 inventory 
reported the presence of human remains and funerary objects from both 
the 1949 Garth investigation (BA-BC) and the 1950 SRBS excavations 
(Burials 1-2, 4-17 and Cremation Pit 1-2). In 1997, at the 
request of the Corps, UW transferred this collection to WSU, which

[[Page 73669]]

conducted its own inventory in 2002. In 2006, the MCX reported that 
this collection comprises the human remains of, at minimum, 43 
individuals. The 68 associated funerary objects are 2 beaver incisors, 
1 bone needle, 2 carved antler items, 7 carved bone items, 1 incised 
bone item, 1 mortar, 3 pecked stone items, 2 pestles, 17 projectile 
points, 1 shell pendant, 1 stone bowl fragment, 1 stone core, 1 stone 
pipe, 2 stone scrapers, 1 lot of antler fragments, 1 lot of bag 
residue, 8 lots of mammal remains, 1 lot of natural stone, 1 lot of 
plant remains, 6 lots of shell beads, 6 lots of stone flakes, and 2 
lots of wood fragments.
    Two of the cremation burials identified at 45BN55 were located 
directly above several primary burials, suggesting two different 
periods of use. The burial methods and funerary objects such as 
dentalia and olivella shell, suggest inhumation in the late pre-contact 
period. The presence of cremation practices at 45BN55 may be evidence 
for a late pre-contact and early historic cremation complex in the 
southern Plateau. The human remains were analyzed by Rodger Helgar (UW) 
and were identified as Native American.

Site 45BN161

    In 1968 and 1975, 18 burials were removed from 45BN161, on Bateman 
Island/Columbia Park Island in Benton County, WA, during salvage 
archeology efforts by UI and the Mid-Columbia Archaeological Society 
(MCAS). All human remains and some portion of the funerary objects from 
the site were reported to have been reburied at the West Richland 
Cemetery (also known as Wanawish Cemetery) in 1973, 1976, and 1982, by 
the Confederated Bands and Tribes of the Yakama Nation, Washington. An 
additional burial at 45BN161 (Burial 16) was identified in 1982, during 
testing by MCAS. The human remains from Burial 16, representing, at 
minimum, one individual were identified and inventoried by UI in 1995, 
and were transferred to WSU in 2001. The archeological data indicates a 
nearly continuous distribution of cultural material at 45BN161, 
spanning approximately 2,000 years. Most of the burials date to the 
late pre-contact-protohistoric occupation. Portions of the human 
remains were examined by physical anthropologist J. A. Lynch (UI) and 
were determined to be Native American.

Site 45FR5

    In 1977 and 1999, human remains representing, at minimum, two 
individuals, were removed from 45FR5, a village site on Strawberry 
Island, which is situated in the Snake River, in Benton County, WA. On 
September 23, 1977, a Native American infant burial was removed from 
Unit D96 during excavations led by WSU and assisted by the MCAS. On 
August 29, 1999, human remains (a left tibia) representing one Native 
American adult male were inadvertently discovered at 45FR5. The remains 
were transferred to WSU and inventoried in 2003. The infant was 
reportedly reburied in 1982, at the Wanawish Cemetery, at the request 
of the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington; 
however, a 2007 inventory by WSU and MCX indicate that human remains of 
an infant and a fragmentary human femur removed from Unit D96 are 
present in the 45FR5 collection. No known individuals were identified. 
No associated funerary objects are present.
    Dated deposits at 45FR5 indicate the site was occupied as early as 
600 AD, and during the precontact period, with a gap in occupation 
during c.700-1300 AD. Two dates were obtained for the infant burial 
(Unit D96): 1406-1486 AD and 1412-1499 AD. The human remains removed in 
1999 were examined by a physical anthropologist and found to be 
consistent with those of a Native American individual. Traditionally, 
the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers was utilized by many 
different groups, including the Yakama, Palus, Umatilla, Cayuse, and 
Walla Walla Tribes.

Site 45FR101

    In 1967, human remains representing, at minimum, six individuals, 
were excavated from Site 45FR101, at Chiawana Park, in Benton County, 
WA. At this time an additional ten burials were excavated and 
individuals were reportedly reburied at Wanawish Cemetery in 1982. 
During the period 1990-2000, human remains and funerary objects from 
the excavations were transferred from UI and MCAS members to WSU. 
Inventories conducted by WSU resulted in the identification of human 
remains from the following Burials/Units: Burial 3; Burial 5 (Unit 
039S); Units AA29S, A11S, 035S, 037S, 038S, P38S, Q38S, Q39S, S36S, 
T40S, U36S, U40S, Tr 5 S, and Tr 5 E. The MCX determined that these 
human remains represent, at minimum, five individuals: four adults and 
one sub-adult, 6-8 years of age. Subsequently, UI identified human 
remains from 45FR101 within its Human Osteology collection (labeled 
``45FR101 1-39-5-5- 51''). UI transferred these remains to WSU in 2009, 
where a physical anthropologist determined they belonged to a single 
adult male of Native American ancestry. No known individuals were 
identified. The 32 associated funerary objects are: 2 stone rings, 2 
shell pendants, 1 pestle, 1 bone needle, 10 bone whistles, 2 projectile 
points, 4 lots of stone flakes, 8 lots of shell beads, and 2 lots of 
stone beads.
    Artifacts from 45FR101 have been stylistically dated to the Cayuse 
Phase (950-250 BP) and the earlier Frenchman Springs Phase, with one 
dating to the even earlier Lind Coulee Phase. Of the 16 burials removed 
from 45FR101, 11 were dated by the investigators to the pre-contact 
period. Aside from the six individuals in this notice, all of the human 
remains from this site were previously reinterred by the Corps in 
coordination with representatives from the Confederated Tribes of the 
Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon and the Confederated Tribes and 
Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

Site 45GA12

    In 1985, fragmentary human remains representing one individual were 
collected from the Steelman Site (45GA12) by Roderick Sprague of UI. 
The remains had been inadvertently exposed by power equipment working 
in the area of the site, located near Central Ferry. The remains were 
transferred from UI to WSU in 2000. No known individuals were 
identified. No associated funerary objects are present.
    The site was originally recorded by Nelson (1964) and tested by 
Sprague and Combs (1965). It was described as a large, late pre-contact 
open camp site. Numerous floods had destroyed portions of the site. The 
majority of the site is now inundated.

Site 45GA40

    In 1978, WSU performed an emergency burial recovery for the Corps 
at Site 45GA40, in Garfield County, WA, and removed fragmentary human 
remains representing, at minimum, one individual. The materials were 
inventoried by WSU in 1998. No known individuals were identified. The 
six associated funerary objects include: 1 lot of mammal remains, 3 
lots of debitage, 1 lot of glass fragments, and 1 lot of bag residue.
    Site 45GA40 was originally identified by WSU during an 
archeological site inventory of the Lower Granite Project in 1966. Its 
deposits indicate use from the Cascade Phase (6000-8000 years BP) to 
the late prehistoric periods.

Site 45WW48

    In 1978, cranial remains representing, at minimum, one individual 
were

[[Page 73670]]

identified by a member of the public at site 45WW48, and were collected 
by the Walla Walla County Sherriff's Department and transferred to the 
Corps. The Corps subsequently transferred these remains to WSU for 
identification. Distinctive morphological characteristics indicate that 
the remains are Native American. No known individuals were identified. 
No associated funerary objects are present. Site 45WW48 is adjacent to 
a pre-contact village and burial site and is consistent with other pre-
contact Snake River burial sites.

Site 45WW49

    In 1976, the Corps collected human remains representing, at 
minimum, one individual from site 45WW49, near Charbonneau Park on the 
south shore of the Snake River. Distinctive morphological 
characteristics indicate that the remains are Native American. No known 
individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects are 
present.
    Site 45WW49 lies within the boundaries of Site 45WW17, a pre-
contact occupation site. The burial was found on a low sandy bench, 
above a river terrace habitation component. This arrangement is 
consistent with the Plateau pattern of pre-contact and historic Native 
American villages, whereby a burial ground is located close to and 
above the village, on a bluff or hill slope. Both sites are now 
inundated.
    The relevant evidence supports a cultural affiliation between the 
Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Washington; 
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon; 
Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon; Confederated 
Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington; and the Nez Perce 
Tribe, Idaho (hereinafter referred to as ``The Tribes'') and the above-
documented sites and collections. Additionally, a cultural relationship 
is determined to exist between the sites and collections and the 
Wanapum Band, a non-Federally recognized Indian group (hereinafter 
referred to as ``The Indian Group''). Information provided by The 
Tribes and The Indian Group shows that they are descended from the 
Native people who occupied these sites, and that the individuals buried 
along the Snake and mid-Columbia rivers are their ancestors. The 
aforementioned tribes are all part of the more broadly defined Plateau 
cultural community having shared past and present traditional lifeways 
that bind them to common ancestors.

Determinations Made by the U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of 
Engineers, Walla Walla District

    Officials of the U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of 
Engineers, Walla Walla District, have determined that:
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(9)-(10) the human remains 
described above represent the physical remains of 77 individuals of 
Native American ancestry.
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(A), the 211 objects 
described above are reasonably believed to have been placed with or 
near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of 
the death rite or ceremony.
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of 
shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native 
American human remains and associated funerary objects, The Tribes, and 
The Indian Group.

Additional Requestors and Disposition

    Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be 
culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary 
objects should contact LTC David Caldwell, U.S. Department of Defense, 
Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, 201 North Third Ave., 
Walla Walla, WA 99362, telephone (509) 527-7700, before December 29, 
2011. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects 
to The Tribes and The Indian Group may proceed after that date if no 
additional claimants come forward.
    The U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of Engineers, Walla 
Walla District, is responsible for notifying The Tribes and The Indian 
Group, that this notice has been published.

    Dated: November 22, 2011.
Sherry Hutt,
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. 2011-30613 Filed 11-28-11; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4312-50-P






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