[Federal Register: August 26, 1999 (Volume 64, Number 165)]
[Notices]
[Page 46717-46719]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr26au99-118]

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains
and Associated Funerary Objects from Alaska in the Possession of the
Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Alaska-Anchorage, Anchorage,
AK

AGENCY: National Park Service.

ACTION: Notice.

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    Notice is hereby given in accordance with provisions of the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 43 CFR 10.9,
of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated
funerary objects in the possession of the Laboratory of Anthropology,
University of Alaska-Anchorage, Anchorage, AK.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Laboratory
of Anthropology, University of Alaska-Anchorage professional staff in
consultation with representatives of Chugach Alaska Corporation, the
Chugach Heritage Foundation, the Cook Inlet Region, Inc. Foundation,
and the Kenaitze Indian Tribe.
    In 1974, human remains representing a minimum of 23 individuals
were recovered at the Cottonwood Creek site (SEL 030) on the north
shore of Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska during archeological
excavations conducted by Alaska Methodist University and the Anchorage
Community College. No known individuals were identified. The 3,200
associated funerary objects include bone and shell beads, labrets, two
bone knives, two diamond-shaped artificial eyes, a tiny bone inlay, and
an edged slate scrap.
    Based on the associated funerary objects; radiocarbon dating of the
site; and manner of interment unique to the time period, these burials
are estimated to date to between 2,000 and 1,500 years ago. Based on
these dates, the Cottonwood Creek site has been identified as a late-
stage Kachemak Tradition occupation.
    In 1974, human remains representing a minimum of four individuals
were recovered from the Chugachik Island site (SEL 033) on Chugachik
Island during a test excavation conducted by Alaska Methodist
University and the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources
Division of Parks, Office of History and Archeology. No known
individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    In 1977, human remains representing a minimum of 13 individuals
were

[[Page 46718]]

recovered from the Chugachik Island site (SEL 033) during archeological
excavations conducted by the University of Alaska-Anchorage and
Anchorage Community College. No known individuals were identified. No
associated funerary objects are present.
    In 1980, human remains representing a minimum of one individual
were removed from an eroding midden face at the Chugachik Island site
(SEL 033) by a unknown visitor and donated to the Laboratory of
Anthropology, University of Alaska, Anchorage. No known individual was
identified. No associated funerary objects are present.
    In 1981, human remains representing up to 45 individuals were
recovered from the Chugachik Island site (SEL 033) during archeological
excavations conducted by the University of Alaska-Anchorage and
Anchorage Community College. No known individuals were identified. No
associated funerary objects are present.
    In 1982, human remains representing a minimum of three individuals
were recovered from the Chugachik Island site (SEL 033) and an
associated beach front by Peter Zollars under the supervision of the
University of Alaska-Anchorage. No known individuals were identified.
No associated funerary objects are present.
    In 1984, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the Chugachik Island site (SEL 033) by Peter Zollars under the
supervision of the University of Alaska-Anchorage. No known individual
was identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    In 1995, human remains representing a minimum of four individuals
were recovered from the Chugachik Island site (SEL033) by a local
resident. No known individuals were identified. The one associated
funerary object is a birdbone tube cut at both ends.
    At an unknown date, human remains representing one individual from
a beach at the Chugachik Island site (SEL033) were recovered by an
unknown person and donated to the University of Alaska-Anchorage. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects are
present.
    Based on radiocarbon dating, burial practices, intentionally
modified human remains, and material culture, the Chugachik Island site
has been identified as a Kachemak Tradition occupation dating to
between 2400 to 1500 years ago.
    In 1977, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the Yukon Island Fox Farm site (SEL041) on Yukon Island during
excavations under the direction of William Workman (University of
Alaska-Anchorage) and John Lobdell (Anchorage Community College). No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    In 1978, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the Yukon Island Fox Farm site (SEL041) during a house pit trench
excavation conducted by Frederica De Laguna and Karen Workman which
included this disturbed burial in slough deposits. No known individual
was identified. In 1993, three associated funerary objects were
recovered from this burial and consist of a whalebone dagger and two
barbed darts.
    In 1985, human remains representing a minimum of one individual
were recovered from the Yukon Island Fox Farm site (SEL041) during
excavations conducted by Peter Zollars. No known individual was
identified. No associated funerary objects are present.
    In 1986, human remains representing a minimum of three individuals
were recovered from the Yukon Island Fox Farm site (SEL041) during
excavations conducted by Peter Zollars. No known individual was
identified. The one associated funerary object is a hammerstone.
    In 1987, human remains representing a minimum of two individuals
were recovered from the Yukon Island Fox Farm site (SEL041) during
excavations conducted by William Workman (University of Alaska-
Anchorage) and Peter Zollars. No known individuals were identified. The
ten associated funerary objects include a porpoise skull and other non-
human bones.
    In 1978, human remains representing a minimum of one individual
were recovered from preserved buried beach deposits at the Great Midden
site (SEL001) on Yukon Island during excavations conducted by John
Lobdell of Anchorage Community College and Frederica De Laguna. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects are
present.
    Based on radiocarbon dating and material culture, the Yukon Island
Fox Farm site and the Great Midden site have been identified as
Kachemak Tradition occupation dating to 1500--3000 years ago.
    In 1984, human remains representing a minimum of one individual
were collected from a burial eroding down a steep slope at the front of
the North Bluff site on Yukon Island by William Workman of the
University of Alaska-Anchorage. No known individuals were identified.
No associated funerary objects are present.
    This site has not been investigated, however, a late Kachemak
Tradition provenance seems likely based on the considerable depth of
the exposed cultural deposits.
    In 1978, human remains representing a minimum of three individuals
were collected from an eroding midden site on Neptune Bay, Kachemak Bay
by University of Alaska-Anchorage and Anchorage Community College
archeologists. No known individuals were identified. No associated
funerary objects are present.
    This site on Neptune Bay has not been investigated, however, a late
Kachemak Tradition provenance seems likely based on the considerable
depth of the exposed cultural deposits.
    Although the people of the Kachemak Tradition withdrew from
Kachemak Bay no later than around 1,000 years ago, they were closely
related in biology and culture to contemporary Kachemak Tradition
people in the Kodiak Archipelago, with whom it is probable that they
amalgamated. The Kodiak version of the Kachemak Tradition has been
clearly documented by detailed archeological study of cultural material
from a number of archeological sites and human biological study of
several hundred human remains as the primary cultural and biological
ancestor of the contemporary Alutiiq people of the Kodiak Archipelago
and adjacent areas. The Kachemak Bay manifestation of the Kachemak
Tradition should thus be viewed as a regional expression of ancestral
Alutiiq or Pacific Eskimo culture, a complex long-enduring (at least
3,800 years) regional mosaic of cultural patterns with living
descendents in the Kodiak archipelago, Prince William Sound, and
elsewhere in south central Alaska.
    Based on the above mentioned information, officials of the
University of Alaska-Anchorage have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR
10.2 (d)(1), the human remains listed above represent the physical
remains of 108 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of
the University of Alaska-Anchorage have also determined that, pursuant
to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2), the approximately 3,215 objects listed above are
reasonably believed to have been placed with or near individual human
remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or
ceremony. Lastly, officials of the University of Alaska-Anchorage have
determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (e), there is a relationship
of shared group identity which can be reasonably traced between these
Native American human remains and associated funerary objects and the
Chugach Alaska Corporation, the Native Village of Port Graham, the
Native Village of Nanwalek

[[Page 46719]]

(aka English Bay), and the Seldovia Village Tribe.
    This notice has been sent to officials of the Chugach Alaska
Corporation, the Chugach Heritage Foundation, the Cook Inlet Region,
Inc. Foundation, the Kenaitze Indian Tribe, the Native Village of Port
Graham, the Native Village of Nanwalek (aka English Bay), and the
Seldovia Village Tribe. Representatives of any other Indian tribe that
believes itself to be culturally affiliated with these human remains
and associated funerary objects should contact Professor William
Workman, Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska-Anchorage,
3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508; telephone: (907) 789-6842,
before September 27, 1999. Repatriation of the human remains and
associated funerary objects to the Chugach Alaska Corporation on behalf
of the Native Village of Port Graham, the Native Village of Nanwalek
(aka English Bay), and the Seldovia Village Tribe may begin after that
date if no additional claimants come forward.
Dated: August 10, 1999.
Richard Waldbauer,
Acting Departmental Consulting Archeologist,
Archeology and Ethnography Program.
[FR Doc. 99-22167 Filed 8-25-99; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-70-F

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