The American Revolution, A Revolution of Possibilities: Politics, Economy, and Society
Table of Contents
Title
Overview
Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used
National Educational Standards
Student Learning Objectives
Background and Historical Context
Vocabulary
Teacher Tips
Lesson Implementation Procedures
Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
Extension and Enrichment Activities
Resources
Site Visit
Charts, Figures and Other Teacher Materials
 

A. The American Revolution - A Revolution of Possibilities: Politics, Economy, and Society
  • Developers: Maria Marable-Bunch, Museum Educator, Washington, D.C.
  • Grade Level: 7- 8 Grades (can be modified for 6th or 9th grades)
  • Number of Sessions in the Lesson Unit Plan: Nine Activities (45-55 minute sessions)
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B. Overview of this Collection-Based Lesson Unit Plan
  • Park Name: This lesson unit plan draws on extraordinary museum collections featured in virtual museum exhibits from four National Park Service sites that commemorate the American Revolution:
    • Morristown National Historical Park, Morristown, New Jersey
    • Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    • Valley Forge National Historical Park, Valley Forge National Historical Park, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
    • Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, Guilford Courthouse, Greensboro, North Carolina
  • Description: Students will explore the economic, political, and social impact of the American Revolution on the colonies through object-based inquiry and hands-on activities.  Students will learn about the daily lives of Americans, officers, and regular soldiers on or near the battlefields, and in rural and urban centers of Colonial America using writings of Baron von Stueben, decorative arts, portrait of George Washington, personal belongings, military equipment, and documents like the Declaration of Independence.    
    Classroom activities include:

    • Introductory/Warm-Up Activity: How to Read a Revolutionary War Object (for entire lesson plan): Students will respond to questions that require them to carefully observe objects and draw conclusions about their structure and function. Skills: Analysis of primary sources, small group work.
    • Lesson Plan 1: Declaring Independence: This lesson introduces students to the various perspectives of the colonists in their debates about, and final decision to, declare independence.
      • Activity 1: Leadership. Analysis of portraits (paintings and photographs), small group work, art making.
      • Activity 2: Freedom and Independence for All? Analysis of a primary source, and of information in print and online; role-playing, creative writing, oral presentation.
      • Activity 3: Symbolism and the Seat of Power (My Life as a Chair). Analysis of a primary source, small group work, art making with math application (three-dimensional model building).
    • Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life: This lesson introduces students to the daily activities in American Revolutionary War military camps.  It explores Colonial America music, cooking for the army, building an encampment, training soldiers, and the role of women.
      • Activity 1: Revolutionary War Music: Singing, Dancing, Marching. Analysis of primary sources and music lyrics, writing, research skills, oral presentation, music performance, art making, small group work.
      • Activity 2: The Making of a Military Camp. Analysis of primary and historical sources, math calculations, problem solving, role playing, small group work.
      • Activity 3: Leisure Time in Camp. Analysis of primary sources, role playing, writing, art making.
      • Activity 4: Cooking for the Soldiers. Analysis of primary sources, math calculations and measuring, meal planning.
      • Activity 5: Women in Camp. Analysis of primary sources, creative expression.
    • Lesson 3:  Creating a Classroom Museum
      This lesson plan will enable students to develop an American Revolutionary War classroom museum exhibit. They will construct stories about Revolutionary War objects used in prior lesson activities together with images of museum objects, or similar items borrowed from home. Skills: Creative presentation of work, small group work, writing, oral presentation, role-playing.

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C. Museum Collections, Similar Items and other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan
MUSEUM OBJECT [photos of objects in the Parks museum collections] SIMILAR OBJECTS [local items similar to museum objects] & OTHER MATERIALS Length of time

Introductory/Warm-Up Activity:
“How to Read an Object”

 

Gentleman’s Pocketbook

Flax Comb
 
Ice Creepers
Congress Voting

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Leather wallet or small purse
  • Snow boots
  • Flax comb or large plastic comb
  • Photos of the interior of the U.S. Capital Building with Congress in session
  • Photos of the interior of your state’s capital building with the state senate in session
 
Other Materials:         
Forms, Worksheets and Charts:
  • "How to Read on Object" chart

Art-making and other materials:
  • Sheets of white paper for students to record information
  • Pencils

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 1: Declaring Freedom Activity 1: Leadership
“How to Read an Object”

 

Portrait of George Washington by Peale

 

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Portraits of local contemporary leaders: city mayor, state governor, state or US senator, US president, etc
          
Other Materials:
Forms, Worksheets and Charts: Art-making and other Materials:
  • 8x11 inch white paper
  • Pencils and pens
  • Large sheets of white paper (enough for each student)
  • Markers of assorted colors (enough for each student)
  • Scissors
  • White glue
  • Old magazines
  • Digital camera

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 1: Declaring Freedom Activity 2: Freedom and
Independence for All?

 

Declaration of Independence

 

Other Materials:         
Forms, Worksheets and Charts

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 1: Declaring Freedom Activity 3: Symbolism and
the Seat of Power

 

Rising Sun Armchair

 

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]

  • Three different styles of chairs to compare (search the school building for a variety of chairs or ask parents if they have any unusual chairs at home that you can borrow).
          
Other Materials:
Forms, Worksheets and Charts:
  • My Life as a Chair

Documents and Books:

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 1: Revolutionary War Music

Rising Sun Armchair

Blowing Horn
 

Mouth Harp

 

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Drum
  • Horn
  • Mouth harp (this instrument can be ordered on the web or as a substitute use a harmonica)
  • Bells
  • Rattles
  • Flute
          
Other Materials:
Documents and Books: Documents and Books:
  • 8x11 inch sheets of white paper
  • Pencils
  • 18 x 24 inch post-it easel pad sheets
  • Computer (lap top or desk) with speakers, for teacher's use
45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 1A: Musical Instrument Making: The Snare Drum

Drum

Snare Drum

Other Materials:
Forms, Worksheets and Charts:

Art-making and other materials:
  • Round heavy paper or cardboard containers (12-16 inch diameter; 8-12 inches high) similar to a hatbox (one for each student)
  • Large sheets of white paper
  • Colored markers or pencils
  • White glue
  • Clear tape
  • Leather string
  • Tag board or heavy poster board (brown, red, or black)
  • Hole puncher
  • A bag of chopsticks enough for all of the students to have a pair and serve as drumsticks

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 2: The Making of a
Military Camp

Portrait of Baron von Steuben

Regulations for the Order and Discipline of Troops of the United States

Surveyor Compass

Surveying tools
 

Powder Horn

 

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Portrait of a former or current General or the U.S. President who serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the military
  • Compass
  • Arial view map of your school site and surrounding communities. Download and print from the web, such as MapQuest
          
Other Materials:
Forms, Worksheets and Charts: Art-making and other materials:
  • Drafting kit
  • 18x24 inch poster or tag board
  • Print and laminate the images
  • 8x11 inch sheets of white paper
  • Markers or color pencils
  • Information sheets for role playing (download from this website)
  • For model making: cardboard, scissors, glue, and poster paint enough for the entire class. Ask students to bring additional materials such as boxes from home.

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 3: Leisure Time in Camp and Colonial America

Board Game

Portable writing set

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Board Games such as Checkers
  • Writing pens with note cards and envelopes
  • Playing cards
  • Puzzles
  • Laptop or cell phone (to send emails or text messages, if permitted)
          
Other Materials:
Art-making and other materials:
  • Unlined index cards (7x5 inch)
  • Markers
  • Scissors
  • Poster board (assorted colors)
  • Blank puzzle pieces
  • 8 x11 inch white paper
  • Construction paper (assorted colors)
  • White glue

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 3A: Make your
own document box

Document Box

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Shoeboxes
  • Water soluble poster paints (assorted colors) and brushes
  • Plastic cups (9 oz) enough for each student
  • Newspaper (for covering desks to protect from the paints)
          
45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 4: Cooking for the Soldiers

Camp Broiler

Cup

Saucer and handless teacup

Pewter plate

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Iron skillet
  • Table top grill
  • Plate
  • Teapot
  • Food items that would have been available in the camps, (cornmeal, flour, bread, vegetables like potatoes, apples)
          
Other Materials:
Forms, Worksheets and Charts: Documents and Books: Art-making and other materials:
  • Paper
  • Pens/Pencils
  • Laptop or computers for internet research

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life
Activity 5: Women in Camp

Etui Case

Niddy Noddy
 

Bonnet

 

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Woman’s bonnet or hat
  • Small travel sewing kit or finger nail care kit
  • Skein of yarn
  • Borrow a niddy noddy from a knitter or weaver
  • Cotton, wool, or linen fabric
          
Other Materials:
Art-making and other materials:
  • Small boxes (ranging in sizes from 6x4 - 8x11 inch), students can bring them from home
  • Construction paper (assorted colors)
  • Markers (assorted colors)
  • White glue
  • Pencils
  • Old magazines
  • Scissors
  • Several balls of yarn
  • Computer with LCD projection and speakers

 

45-55
minutes

Lesson Plan 3: Creating a
Classroom Exhibit

Similar Items [similar to objects in the Park museum collection]:

  • Objects created by the students
          
Other Materials:
Documents and Books: Art-making and other materials:
  • Large Post-it easel sheets

 

45-55
minutes
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D. National Educational Standards

NSS-USH 5-12 Era 3 – Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
Standard 2
The impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society.

National Standard for Mathematics
Grade Level 6-8
http://standards.nctm.org/document/chapter6/index.htm
Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems;
  • build and draw geometric objects;
  • identify and build a three-dimensional object from two-dimensional representations of that object;
  • recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

National Standards for the English Language Arts (National Council of Teachers of English NCTE) 
http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Books/Sample/StandardsDoc.pdf
  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.
  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts.

Art Education National Standards (ArtsEdge-Kennedy Center)
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/standards.aspx
Visual Arts
Grade Level 5-8
  • Content Standard 4: Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures.
  • National Standards for Music Education
    Standard 9: Understanding music in relation to history and culture.
    http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/standards.aspx


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    E. Student Learning Objectives
    • To critically analyze objects and draw conclusions about life in Colonial America.
    • Use analysis to develop a deeper understanding of the impact of the American Revolutionary War on the lives of soldiers, officers, and civilians.
    • Use analysis to make connections to events during the American Revolution to students’ lives today. 

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    F. Background and Historical Context

    The American Revolution: 1775-1783

    The Beginning of the War
    Civilian Life
    A Soldiers Life
    African American Soldiers
    Women of the Camp
    Daily Life for the Soldiers
    How the Soldiers Were Treated
    An Officer’s Life

    The Beginning of the War
    The American colonists did not embrace independence easily. Most of them were of British ancestry, they spoke English and traded mainly with Britain and other British colonies. Most shared the mother country's Protestant religious tradition. The Americans' pride in being British reached a high point in 1763, with Britain's great victory in the Seven Years War (known in America as the French and Indian War).

    That victory gained Britain what had been French Canada and all territory east of the Mississippi River, including Spanish Florida. Heavily in debt as a result of the war, Britain decided to keep an army in America to secure her new possessions and looked to the colonists to help pay for it. The British parliament approved new taxes on colonial imports and for the first time imposed a direct tax, the Stamp Tax (1765, on the Americans. Colonial resistance to the new taxes only stiffened parliament's insistence on its right to govern the colonists "in all cases whatsoever."

    Even after fighting began at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the Continental Congress petitioned King George III for redress and insisted that the colonists wanted to remain within the empire, but only as free men. The king responded by pronouncing the colonies to be in rebellion, and Congress decided it had no alternative to proclaiming independence.

    On July 4, 1776, it declared that the "united colonies" were henceforth "free and independent states." Fulfilling this declaration, however, required a military victory over Britain.  The American Revolution was an event of sweeping worldwide importance. A costly war that lasted from 1775 to 1783 secured American independence and gave revolutionary reforms of government and society the chance to continue. At its core, the war pitted colonists who wanted independence and the creation of a republic against the power of the British crown, which wanted to keep its empire whole. At certain times and in certain places, Americans fought other Americans in what became a civil war. Everyone had a stake in the outcome, including the family whose farm was raided, the merchant who could not trade, and the slave who entered British lines on the promise of freedom.


    Civilian Life
    What is a civilian? A civilian is anyone who is not in the military.  During the fight for American independence, many civilians sacrificed and suffered as much as the soldiers did. Colonial American families were larger than today’s families. Most of the women had seven or eight babies. Unfortunately, it was common for two or three children in a family to die at an early age. There weren’t many doctors available, and medicine wasn’t very advanced, so illness often led to death.

    Life for the average citizen in Revolutionary times can be described in one word: hard! Everything was more difficult than it is today: obtaining food, cooking, getting an education, and traveling. If you wanted something, you usually had to make it yourself. And you had to make all the parts you needed, too! For instance, to make woolen clothes you first had to make the cloth from yarn or thread. But before you could do that, you had to make the yarn or thread. To get the raw wool to spin into yarn, you had to shear it from the sheep. And of course, you had to take care of the sheep year-round.

    In every century, life tends to be easier for wealthy people. Until the War began, families who could afford it could get almost anything they needed. They could buy food, household items like pewter dishes and silverware, (poorer families used wooden plates, cups, and utensils), furniture, and even the latest fashionable clothing. These items were shipped to the Colonies from England and other European countries. The shipments stopped when the war began.

    Most people at this time were involved in farming. Even someone with another job, like a tavern keeper or lawyer, often lived on a farm or owned one. Farming was very hard work two hundred years ago, when there was no agricultural machinery. The farmers had to do all the heavy labor by hand, sometimes with help from horses or mules. Everyone in the family worked hard all year to make the farm succeed. The men did the heavy work outside, taking care of the fields, barn, and pasture. Much of their work varied with the seasons; planting in the spring and harvesting in the fall. The women worked mostly in, and around the house, cooking, cleaning, and tending the garden.  They also made household items such as soap and candles. All the children worked, too, as soon as they were able.  Even children as young as three or four had simple chores, such as weeding the garden.  Farm families produced as much as they could, and used any surplus to barter for the things they couldn’t make themselves. For instance, they could bring their extra cloth, vegetables, or cider to a merchant in town and trade for an iron teakettle.

    So many things on a farm need daily attention that it was difficult to get away. The average citizen rarely, if ever, traveled.  Children who were lucky enough to leave the farm for schooling might have to walk an hour to get to the schoolhouse. There, they would find themselves in one room with other children six to twelve years old. They learned the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic.  They had to do chores at school, too. If they misbehaved, the teacher could hit them with a stick.

    A Soldiers Life
    At the beginning of the Revolution, a soldier had to be healthy and between the ages of 18 and 40. He could not be a deserter from either army. But as the war dragged on, the recruiters became desperate to find new soldiers.  They also wanted men to sign up for a longer time, at least three years, or until the end of the War. So, they stopped following the rules strictly.

    As the war continued, many of the “men” who signed up were actually boys. And, there were many more poor men in the army as time went on. These less fortunate men were attracted to the money, clothes, and other promises made by the army. They were willing to serve for a longer time because they didn’t have businesses or large farms to run. There were also more immigrants from Europe, and men of African descent.

    African American Soldiers
    Although the Southern states did not like it, more and more African-Americans, slave and free, served in the army as the war went on. They worked as servants and manual laborers, and served as soldiers.  Many saw the war as a way to personal freedom, no matter which side they helped.  The British governor of Virginia offered freedom to any slave who would fight with the British troops.  Some slaves joined the Continental Army in exchange for their freedom after the war.  There were probably 5,000 African Americans who served during the eight-year war. Despite all the talk of “liberty,” some of these veterans returned to the chains of slavery after the war. 

    Women of the Camp
    Although only men served as soldiers, there were women who traveled with the army. They were called the “women of the camp.” They shared the hardships of war and winter with the men, even in the Morristown and Valley Forge encampments.  Most were wives of the soldiers. Most had no home left, poverty or the enemy took many homes and ruined many farms. Many brought their children with them, so some soldiers had their families following them.  Generally, army leaders did not want women and children with the soldiers. But there were many benefits, they were useful in cooking, washing and mending, and attending the sick.

    Daily Life for the Soldiers
    The armies spent more time marching and camping than fighting. Most of the time, soldiers took care of the other needs and responsibilities of army life.  Most soldiers came from farms or small villages. But in the army, they had to learn to live together with many other people – sometimes thousands of others. In the eighteenth century, a soldier was more likely to die of disease than in battle.  Many of the army rules, and much of the daily routine, were made to keep the soldiers healthy. They had to wash their hands and faces at least once a day and shave every three days. When a river was nearby and the weather was warm enough, they could bathe. The men marched and exercised regularly. Wood had to be cut for fires – for cooking and for keeping warm. Camps needed garbage cleaned up so disease would not spread. Latrines had to be dug.

    Large organizations, and especially an army, needs order and discipline. It must be clear who is in charge, and they must be respected.  The soldiers had to obey orders given by the officers, from the lowest-level corporals and sergeants all the way up to the highest, the Commander-in-Chief.  There were regular roll calls to keep track of the men and cut down on desertions (leaving the army without permission). There were regular inspections to make sure the soldiers were healthy enough to continue to serve.

    It took a lot of training to change a farmer into a professional soldier. At the beginning of the war, men signed up for only a few months, or a year. Later, soldiers joined for at least three years. This meant that there was time to train them. They would learn how to march, and how to load and fire their muskets.

    Many orders, in camp and in battle, were given by fife and drum music. Different tunes told the soldiers what to do during the day, or in battle, whether to march or retreat.  Soldiers took turns guarding the camp from different spots.  Soldiers called picket guards were right outside the camp. Entire regiments would take turns on out-post duties in nearby towns to keep an eye on the enemy forces. They would be the first to try and stop an attack, and to notify the main camp of enemy actions.

    How the Soldiers Were Treated
    Soldiers in the Revolution felt the way many soldiers of any war feel. They felt they were doing all the hard and dangerous work, while others enjoyed the comforts of home. As the war dragged on, they felt forgotten by the civilians they were fighting for. They felt they were not being paid enough.

    Many soldiers were angry when the promises of pay, food, and clothing were not kept. They blamed the Army and the Congress in Philadelphia. Some gave up and deserted the army or ran away to join other regiments.  A few times, tempers boiled over into mutiny, with soldiers rebelling against the officers. They would threaten to leave. A large mutiny could have destroyed the Army and ended the fight for freedom. Fortunately, the mutinies were small and temporary. Most soldiers took pride in their own sacrifices, and that of their comrades. When his time in the Army ended, a soldier had only his basic possessions. Injured soldiers could receive a pension, but for most, there was no further pay or help from the Army or government. He even had to walk home, no matter how far.

    An Officer’s Life
    Oofficers generally came from the upper classes of society. They were community leaders, wealthy, well-educated, and from important families. Why? Because officers had to pay for their uniforms and equipment, so it cost money to be an officer. Officers also had to be able to read and write. Two hundred years ago, poor people did not go to school because they were too busy working.  But most officers had very little military experience. Before the Revolution, there was no professional, full-time army in the colonies. For the Americans, military life was only a temporary situation. They planned to return to their regular jobs when the war was over, unlike in France where the French had full-time soldiers – that was their job.

    The Continental Army divided its soldiers into groups. Each group was led by an officer. There were many different-size groups and different-level officers.  Officers kept records about their troops. That’s why they had to be able to read and write. An officer kept track of how many of his men were healthy and ready for duty. He also kept track of his men’s equipment, from clothing to weapons. He knew who needed new items, how many things needed to be repaired, and so on. 

    An officer kept his men disciplined, healthy, and well-trained. He made sure that his men obeyed the rules of the army and followed his orders, and the orders of any other officer. Officers lived better than common soldiers. But they paid for their own uniforms, weapons, camp equipment, horses, and servants.  The officers regarded themselves as gentlemen, from the upper class of society. They wanted the respect shown to gentlemen, and they believed they needed to live the way the lower classes expected gentlemen to live. Living an upper class lifestyle was difficult because the officers were paid with the paper money issued by Congress.  People didn’t trust this money, so it didn’t have much value no matter what it was suppose to be worth.

    Officers in the Continental Army shared the hardships of their men. They also shared their feelings of anger and frustration.  The officers knew that their work was important. They kept the army together, serving the cause of American Independence. But they felt that Congress (the government during the war) ignored them and their needs.  Many officers felt that the people who stayed at home during the war were not grateful for the officers’ sacrifices.  Officers left their comfortable homes and good businesses to serve in the army. They were losing money at home because they couldn’t work at their regular jobs. In addition, they had to use their own money to pay for expenses. They saw others making money because of the war, while they and their families became poorer.

    The highest ranking officer in the Continental Army was Commander-in-Chief. George Washington held this rank throughout the war, although he was also a general. Now the President of the United States is automatically the Commander-in-Chief of all our armed forces.

    The above excerpts were taken from:
    The American Revolution: Lighting Freedom’s Flame. National Park Services   (www.nps.gov/revwar/).
    From Farming Village to Log Hut City: Morristown during the American Revolution 1779-1780. National Park Service, Morristown National Historical Park

    For additional  information:
    http://www.nps.gov/revwar/about_the_revolution/why_war.html
    http://www.nps.gov/revwar/about_the_revolution/capsule_history.html

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    G. Vocabulary

    Artifacts: man-made, modified or used objects  
    Civilian: one not on active duty in a military force
    Design: draw a plan or outline of, sketch
    Documents: a written or printed paper containing a record or statement
    Encampment: a place where a group (as a body of troops) is encamped
    Exhibition: a public showing (as of works of art)
    Function: proper action by which any person, organ, office or structure, etc. fulfills its purpose or duty
    Government: the act or process of governing, authoritative direction or control
    Historian:  a writer of, or an authority on history
    History: branch of knowledge concerned with ascertaining or recording past events
    Material: a substance or raw matter to be developed
    Military: armed forces or its high ranking officers
    Museum: an institution devoted to the acquisition, care, study, and display of objects of lasting interest or value; a place where objects are exhibited
    Objects: something material that may be perceived by the senses, artifact.
    Symbol: something that stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship or association
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    H. Teacher Tips
    • All activities can be adapted for class length.
    • Teach lessons in sequence, but they can be implemented independently.
    • Download the images of museum objects and captions for reference.
    • Download images in color and laminate, if possible for repeated use with your students.
    • Obtain for classroom use, tangible items similar to the museum objects that students will study. These locally obtained items allow for handling and deeper comparison of the purpose and use, as well as understanding historic versus contemporary objects. 
    • Inform the students that the objects they create as a part of the lesson will remain in the classroom until after the culminating classroom exhibition.
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    I. Lesson Implementation Procedures

    Introductory and Warm Up Activity (for entire lesson unit plan): 
    How to Read an Object

    Museum Collections, Similar Items, and Other Materials Used in this Activity
    For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

    Implementation Procedures:

    Step 1
    • Divide students into groups of four students each.
    • Distribute to each group a copy of the How to Read an Object worksheet

    Step 2
    Teacher begins activity by asking students:
    “How do historians research the past?
    (Possible answers: interviews, documents, books, objects…)


    Teacher’s response: From the study of objects, they determine the lifestyles of people from several hundreds of years ago. Today, we will begin our lesson with an activity that will teach us how historians observe objects to learn about the past.  We will be looking at images of objects that were made and used during the period of the American Revolution. 

    Step 3
    • Distribute to each group an image of one of the museum objects listed in Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Plan.
    • Instruct the students on how to use the worksheet as a guide for analyzing the object in the picture. Have them to record answers on the paper that you have given to them
    • Instruct each group to designate a member of their group to record answers and designate a member of their group to be the reporter of what they have observed.  
    • Give students 10 minutes to look at the image and respond to the questions on the worksheet.
    • Have each group share what they have observed about their museum object image and what they learned about how to read an object.

    Step 4
    • Distribute to each group one of the objects you brought to the classroom for them to compare with the images.  Match the locally obtained items with the museum object images, i.e., give the group with the ice creepers the snow boots for comparison.  Instruct students to compare the objects within their group discussion with an emphasis on the need for these objects today, the kind of materials used in the past versus today, the craftsmanship in the design of the objects. For those students with the images of the state and U.S. Capitol interiors, have them compare architectural design, how the buildings are used today compared to the past, and what governmental activities take place in the buildings.

    Step 5
    • Conclude the activity by reminding the students that the observation skills they have learned from this exercise will be used throughout this Lesson Plan Unit.
    • Distribute a copy of the blank worksheet to every student and instruct them to keep them accessible in their notebooks for future reference.

    Evaluation/Assessment Measurable Results
    • Successful completion of the How to Read an Object worksheet
    • Demonstrate effective observation and analytical skills.
    • Demonstrate an increased awareness of the importance of studying objects to learn about the past based on responses to questions on the worksheet.

    Lesson 1: Declaring Freedom

    Background and Historical Context
    Independence National Historical Park tells the story of the Revolution's political progress. In 1774, the Continental Congress first convened here. Later it heard the news of Lexington and Concord (in Carpenters' Hall, a privately owned park, within the boundaries of Independence National Historic Park). By mid-1775, Congress moved to the Pennsylvania State House, now called Independence Hall, to discuss American concerns over England's restrictive colonial policies. As the situation worsened, colonial protests increased. With the outbreak of armed resistance at Concord and Lexington, Congress chose George Washington as Commander-in-Chief of America's new army. When Congress reconvened in the fall, King George III had already declared that the colonies were in open and avowed rebellion.

    Early in 1776, Thomas Paine's Common Sense galvanized public opinion in support of independence. In June 1776, Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee offered Congress the resolution that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent States". Taking up Lee's resolution, Congress appointed a committee to compose the colonies' list of grievances to the king. Committee member Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence during early summer 1776 in his rented Philadelphia rooms. The building where he lived is now known as the "Declaration House". Congress debated and adopted the Declaration in Independence Hall on July 4th. It authorized the document's printing and distribution to the colonial legislatures and armies in the field.

    Throughout the war, Independence Hall often served as Congress's home. The first plan for America's new government, the Articles of Confederation, was ratified here in 1781. Six years later, the Constitution was drafted in Independence Hall, completing the political journey that began before the war.

    Museum Collections, Similar Items, and Other Materials Used in this Activity
    For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

    • Lesson Plan 1, Declaring Freedom; Activity 1: Leadership

      Implementation Procedures
      For this activity you will share with the students the portrait of George Washington by James Peale as well as images of contemporary political leaders.  Below is a brief description about the portrait:

      Charles Willson Peale's 1787 portrait of Washington provided the artist's younger brother James (1749-1831) with a source for his own circa 1790 portrait of the general at the battle of Yorktown. The Charles Willson Peale portrait is at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. James Peale borrowed other elements from his brother's work for this painting. The background landscape is possibly from Charles Willson Peale's 1784 full-length portrait of Washington that is now at the Fogg Museum of Art. The oil painting depicts a three-quarter length view of the subject's body turned to the subject’s left. George Washington is shown wearing a blue uniform coat with buff facings, gold epaulettes with three stars each. The buff waistcoat has a white stock, jabot and cuff. George Washington has powdered hair and blue eyes. His right hand holds a gold sword hilt, glove, and black tricorner hat. Two armed men in uniform (James and Charles Willson Peale) stand behind Washington’s right shoulder under a tree. A column of uniformed soldiers, one carrying the French flag, is in the right mid-ground of the painting.

      Step 1
      Divide the students into small groups.
      Distribute a “Read a Portrait Observation Guide for Students” worksheet to each group as well as a color copy of George Washington’s portrait. Using the worksheet, allow the groups of students 10 minutes to analyze the image.   
      • Have each group share what they observed about George Washington’s portrait. Ask the students what they can learn about George Washington from studying his portrait.

      Step 2 
      • Next distribute to each group a copy of the contemporary portrait or photograph of a current congressional member or local leader and the comparison worksheet, “Portraiture: From Painting to Photography.” Instruct the students to use the blank worksheet and respond to the questions on itto compare the two portraits (the sitter’s clothing, other objects shown in the image, location of the sitter, etc.) 
      • After the students have completed the worksheet, lead them in a discussion about what they observed from their comparison of painted portrait versus the photographic portrait.

      Step 3
      Discussion Questions:

      • Explain to the students that the portraits that they have just analyzed are images of political or community leaders.  Share with the students more detailed information about George Washington as commander-in-chief for the Continental Army and first President of the new nation, and as the individual represented in his portrait. 
      • Tape one of the large sheets of paper on a wall in the classroom. 
      • Lead the students in a discussion about the leadership qualities needed to head the new American army and to serve as a contributor to the formation of an independent government from England as well as the leadership qualities needed to maintain a democratic government today.  What leadership qualities did George Washington possess?  What qualities of leadership are expected of our leaders today? List the students’ responses on the paper.  Leave the sheet on the wall for future reference.

      Step 4
      • Tell the students that they will create a self-portrait collage illustrating what they think is important for others to know about themselves. The activity begins with the students taking digital portraits of each other. Print these images on 8x11 inch copier paper.  If possible, use assorted colored papers in place of white paper.  
      • In addition to the images, distribute to each student, a large sheet of white paper, magazines, glue, and scissors for designing their collage.

      Extended Activity:
      As the first president of the United States, George Washington’s image became an icon or symbol of freedom. Have the students create a collage of contemporary images depicting George Washington as symbol of freedom, Americanism, or leadership.

    • Lesson 1, Declaring Freedom; Activity 2: Freedom and Independence for All?

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Distribute a copy of the Declaration of Independence to each student .
      • Divide the class into small groups of 3-4 students.
      • Assign a paragraph of the document to each group.
      • Ask the students to rewrite the paragraph into contemporary, formal language. Ask the students how they would rephrase the paragraph if they were to rewrite it in hip-hop, spoken word verse, and as a text message.
      • Discuss the differences in style, and when and where each would appropriate to use. 
      • Post the students’ rewrites on the classroom bulletin board

      Step 2
      • Explain to the students that not all rebelling colonists were specifically mentioned in the Declaration of Independence, i.e. women or slaves.
      • Tell the students that each group will role-play to be a delegate at the meetings and debates about the formation of a new government.  Assign each group a role for them to research and to prepare a persuasive argument outlining what they feel is important to them in seeking independence and self-government.  Direct the students to the following web address for additional information: http://www.nps.gov/rewar/unfinished_revolution/01_all_men_are_created_equal.html. The delegates are:
      • Merchants and Landowners
      • African American Slaves
      • Women
      • Native Americans
      • Plantation Owners
      • Have the students do creative presentation designs for; PowerPoint, TV news broadcasting, E-Television reporting, VH1 current events reporting, BET Network, local TV media and radio, for the presentation of their persuasive argument.
      • Return to the Declaration of Independence text following the individual group presentations.

      Step 3
      • Lead the students in a discussion about what they feel should have been included in the original document.
      • On a large sheet of white paper posted on the wall, list the demands and phrases they would add or change as if they were editing or rewriting the Declaration. Encourage the students to also refer back to their rewritten paragraphs and as a whole class activity rewrite the Declaration of Independence.  

    • Lesson 1, Declaring Freedom, Activity 3: Symbolism and The Seat of Power -My Life as a Chair

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Distribute to each student a copy of the worksheet, My Life as a Chair with an image of the Rising Sun chair without label information. Save the image of the chair with label information for use later in the activity.
      • Allow the students 10 minutes to complete the worksheet.
      • In a whole class discussion, ask the students to share their observations.

      Step 2
      • Share with the students the following information about the chair.

      At Independence Hall, as the delegates signed the Constitution, Franklin pointed to the president's chair, which had a sun painted on it. Franklin eloquently stated before all the representatives:
      "I have often...in the course of this session...looked at that...without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting; but now at length I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting sun."


      Step 3
      Download and distribute an image of the Rising Sun chair with the caption information [see Section C].  Based on the information they have now received about the chair, ask them to review their initial responses and answer the following question: Why would a museum collect this chair for its collection?

      Step 4
      Ask the students to carefully examine the similar chairs brought into the classroom. Here they are to compare the physical characteristics of the chairs with the Rising Sun chair. They are to exam them closely noting material used, how it was made, who would use it, and any distinctive markings like symbols, letters or words, etc.

      Step 5
      • Ask the students to do a comparative study of other kinds of “seats of power,” i.e. a Native American chief, or the Congressional Speaker of the House, or other influential leader. To do this, direct the students to do an in-class online search of the following sites to learn about these individuals and the kind of chairs that they use.

      For images of collections depicting Native American leaders: see www.si.nmai.edu
      For views of Members of Congress and the Congressional Chambers: www.aoc.gov

      • Conclude the activity by asking the students to work in teams and design a “seat of power” that reflects the role of their school principal as a leader and educator of children. The students are to make a three-dimensional model of their chair design using real mathematical measurements of a ratio of 1:12 inches.

      Extended Activity:
      This activity presents an opportunity to collaborate with a math and art teacher to implement the chair design and model building.

      Evaluation/Assessment Measurable Results for Lesson
      • Successfully analyze a document.
      • Successfully researched data to prepare a persuasive argument.
      • Successfully create a self-portrait collage that tells a story about who they are.
      • Successfully build a three-dimensional model of a chair in ratio of 1:12 inches.   

    Lesson Plan 2: Camp Life

    Overview. (See additional information in Section F. Background and Historical Context)

    When men responded to the call to join the Continental Army, they were also joined by civilians who followed and supported the army. These were teamsters, butchers, smiths, craftsmen and tradesmen whose skills were needed by the army. Women, too, were found in the camp. Some of them were officially attached to the army, receiving pay as cooks, laundresses, seamstresses, and nurses. Other women simply wanted to be close to their husbands, brothers, or sons who were serving in various regiments. A number of officer's wives traveled some distance to be there. Martha Washington spent every winter of the war with her husband.

    The daily life for most soldiers included numerous work details such as fetching water and wood, procuring rations, improving the fortifications, guard duty, and drill. Army camp life, for the most part, was dull and tedious. It was occasionally made tolerable by concerts performed by camp musicians or skits or plays performed by amateur actors in the ranks. Athletic competitions between regiments and brigades were encouraged by Washington as an honorable and constructive way of dealing with the stress produced by the tedium of camp life.


    Lesson 2, Camp Life; Activity 1: Revolutionary Music: Singing, Dancing, Marching

    • Background and Historical Context
      European military instruments were brought to the New World and used in much the same way as they had been in the mother countries.  Prior to the war, pre-Revolutionary America was a colony of Great Britain, culturally and politically.  There were different kinds of music-making in the colonies.  However, it was popular to make verses to well-known tunes rather than compose the tunes themselves. 

      When the Colonies went to war with Great Britain, a small amount of new music was composed to commemorate the struggle and a large amount of propagandist verse was written and sung to well-known British tunes. Traditional Anglo-American dance music, song, and hymns continued to be played, sung and enjoyed that had nothing to do with the war. Unlike music today, music in eighteenth-century America was not intended for concert performance.  Most instrumental music in Colonial America was written for solo instruments such as violin, fife, or flute.  Revolutionary music tended to be functional. The instrumental pieces were played for entertainment and dancing, and for marching.

      When the war broke out, Americans organized their military units along British lines, and military musicians were part of the plan.  As militias formed in the towns and villages of Colonial America, drummers played an important role in summoning men from rural areas to take up arms.  Revolutionary War drummers and fifers were used in battle to signal the soldiers to fire.  In the hazy fog of battle, visual command was impossible and musical instruments were the only way to convey orders to the troops. When troops were relocating from one area to another, the steady rhythm and spirited tunes of the fifers and drummers kept the soldier’s mind off the tedious march. Horns and bugles were a way to communicate over a distance.  Each call melody carried a different and specific meaning. Although technology has taken over sending messages and signals to every post, base, and camp, bugle calls are still used daily for function and ceremony.

      Drums, like banners and flags, were important symbols of a military unit.  They were often decorated with the unit’s insignia, coat of arms, or national symbols. The snare drum is one of the few musical instruments to symbolize the American Revolution.

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Post on the wall, three easel-size post-it sheets and label them Sheet 1, Sheet 2, and Sheet 3.

      Step 2
      • Discuss with the students the function of music in the life of a culture (entertainment, religious teachings, patriotism, communication, protest, etc).
      • List students’ responses on Sheet 1. 
      • With the students, brainstorm colonial life styles and list on Sheet 2 reasons for playing music. 
      • Ask the students to identify some musical instruments in the following categories:
        - Wind instruments [horn, flute] that produce a tone by a vibrating column of air.
        - String instruments [guitar, violin, fiddle, piano] that produce a sound when plucked, strummed or slapped.
        - Percussion instruments [drum, mouth harp, bells, cymbals, rattles] that produce sound by striking, shaking, or scraping it. It may or may not have pitch.
      • List their responses on Sheet 3.  Keep the three sheets posted.

      Step 3
      Using a desktop or laptop computer with speakers, the teacher should download for the class streams of Revolutionary period music from the recommended web sites (http://www.earlyamerica.com/music/revolutionary.htm). Have students listen carefully to distinguish what instruments are being played. Allow the students to hear a minimum of 3 songs. Between the samplings of music ask the students to identify the instruments they hear. 

      Step 4

      • Divide students into small groups (3-4 students per group).
      • Distribute to each group a museum object image, paper and pencils.  
      • Following the “How to Read an Object” chart, have each group write a brief description of the object and share their response with the entire class.
      • Next, distribute to the students the instruments that you brought to class. Have the students’ experiment playing the objects and listening to the sound they create. Ask the students to identify which instruments most resemble their group’s museum object image.

      Step 5
      • With the students, refer back to Post-it Sheet 1 – Function of music in the life of a culture.  Have the students brainstorm a list of contemporary songs about protest, patriotism, freedom, empowerment, etc.  Have them identify what key events were happening that could have inspired the music.
      • As a homework assignment, instruct the students to use their laptops or desk computers to research the recommended web site to listen to contemporary patriotic/protest songs and to identify two songs that they feel most expressed these themes.

      Step 6
      • As a follow-up to the homework assignment, instruct the students to prepare a radio broadcast of contemporary protest and/or patriotic music identifying key current events inspired by the songs.  The students can incorporate “samplings of the music” or their own lyrics to music as part of their radio broadcast design. The teacher may permit students in-class time to research and prepare their presentations. 

      Step 7
      • Allow students to share their presentations with the entire class.
      • As a wrap-up activity following their broadcast presentations, conduct a whole class discussion with the students responding to the following question: How important is music to inspiring awareness of political and social events? 

      Extended Activity:
      Invite the students to review and compare and contrast past and current political campaign videos with music.  Lead them in a discussion about what they discovered and whether or not the choice of music was successful in conveying the candidate’s campaign message.

    • Lesson 2, Camp Life, Activity 1A:  Musical Instrument Making: The Snare Drum

      For materials and instructions needed for this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan.

      Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Set-up three to four tables with the art supplies.
      • Tell the students that they will create their own snare drum similar to the snare drum in the Guilford Courthouse collection. Tell them that they are to decorate their drum with contemporary symbols of protest, patriotism, freedom, and empowerment based on the results of their prior internet research of music and broadcast presentation. 
      • Distribute a round container to each student.

      Step 2
      • Distribute the instruction sheet to each student.

      Step 3
      • After the students have completed their snare drum, allow them to share and discuss their designs.
       
    • Lesson 2, Camp Life, Activity 1B: Composing Lyrics

      Review the musical instruments that were shared in class together with the images of the museum objects. Then instruct the students to compose their own lyrics to a song expressing the meaning of the symbol on their drums.  Encourage the students to perform their song, either in the spoken word to music or hip-hop style. 

      Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
      • Demonstrate effective listening, oral, and written skills.
      • Identify the function of music within a culture.
      • Identify musical instruments and the sound they generate
      • Make an instrument and demonstrate its use to make music.
      • Identify the way music is used in a military setting. 


    • Lesson 2, Camp Life, Activity 2: The Making of A Military Camp

      Background and Historical Context
      Not only was camp life tedious and dull, but extremely physically challenging. Sometimes soldiers would give up and go home to recover from fatigue and hunger. Some never returned to camp. However, there were times in the Revolutionary War that they endured the challenges and stayed on like the winter encampment at Valley Forge. This is largely due to their dedication to the cause of American independence, and to their admiration and respect for George Washington. The skillful leadership of George Washington and the dedicated assistance of men such as General von Steuben and General Nathanael Greene resulted in Valley Forge being a turning point of the American Revolution. It is from this point forward that the American forces proved they had mastered the drills and maneuvers of the eighteenth century battlefield. As a result of the combination of these strengths, the Continental Army that marched out of Valley Forge on June 19, 1778 was able to take on any other army of the period on practically equal terms. The successes of Monmouth and the later campaign at Guilford Courthouse in the South, culminating in the victory at Yorktown, Virginia, was a testimony to the contribution of the encampment at Valley Forge.

      Washington needed to establish a winter quarters that allowed observation of the British Army without exposure to surprise attack. Valley Forge provided that location. Washington led 12,000 men into Valley Forge in December 1777. The winter was severe. Housing was overcrowded and food shortages were acute.

      Army records and eyewitness accounts speak of a skilled and capable force in charge of its own destiny. Rather than wait for deliverance, the army located supplies, built log cabins to stay in, constructed makeshift clothing and gear, and cooked subsistence meals of their own concoction. Provisions, though never abundant in the early months of the encampment, were available.
      Shortages of clothing did cause severe hardship for a number of men, but many soldiers had a full uniform, and the well-equipped units patrolled, foraged, and defended the camp. The sound that would have reached your ears on approaching the camp was not that of a forlorn howling wind, but rather that of hammers, axes, saws, and shovels at work.
      Under the direction of military engineers, the men built a city of 2,000-odd huts laid out in parallel lines along planned military avenues. The troops also constructed miles of trenches, five earthen forts (redoubts), and a state-of-the-art bridge over the Schuylkill River.

      Disease, not cold or starvation was the true scourge of the camp. Army returns reveal that two-thirds of the nearly 2,000 men who perished died during the warmer months of March, April, and May, when supplies were more abundant. The most common killers were influenza, typhus, typhoid fever, and dysentery. Dedicated surgeons, capable nurses, a smallpox inoculation program, and camp sanitation regulations limited the death tolls. Perhaps, the most important outcome of the encampment was the army’s maturation into a more professional force. The Continental Army was primed and ready to move on to the next level just as a charismatic former Prussian army officer, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus von Steuben, arrived in camp in February 1778.
      The Continental Army needed a uniform system of training and discipline. A former Prussian Army officer, Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who had served in Frederick the Great's army, arrived at Valley Forge in February 1778. Washington assigned him the task of training the troops. Von Steuben developed an infantry manual to facilitate training. The resulting Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States was published in 1779. It remained the basic American infantry manual for the next 25 years.

      Tell the students that they will view objects used during the encampment: some for military training and others for surveying, building and mapping.  Through role playing they will reenact what it would have been like to establish the military camp at Valley Forge and train the soldiers.   

      This excerpt was taken from the Valley Forge National Historical Park web site. For additional information, go to www.nps.gov/vafo/historyculture/index.htm.

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Teacher Tip:
      This activity may require extra time for students to conduct research for additional information.

      Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Divide the students into four groups.
      • Distribute to each group an image of one of the museum objects. Remind them to use their How to Read an Object worksheet as an observation guide. The students are to analyze the images of the objects and draw conclusions about how it may have been used or impacted military life at Valley Forge and other camps.

      Step 2
      • Allow each group to report to the class their observations and conclusions.
      • Following the discussion, explain to the students that their group will be assigned tasks for creating a military site. Each group will be given a task worksheet with a specific role that will contribute to the overall camp design. 
      • Distribute to each group the worksheet that matches their object. The worksheet will outline a list of tasks to be accomplished. Among the tasks, students will be asked to present models or drawings to illustrate their plans.
      • To create their drawings and/or models, provide poster board, tag board, paper, pencils and colored pens, white glue and tape for the students. This step may require extra time for students to complete.

      Teacher Tip:
      Please note that each task worksheet identifies the learning skills. This is to help you determine what activity is most suited for which students.

      The assigned objects and tasks are:

      Group 1: Commanders of Training
      Objects: Portrait of von Stueben, excerpt from Regulations for   the Order and Discipline of Troops of the United States, Part I.
      Learning skills: Writing, Interviewing, Oral History, Drawing/Sketching

      Group 2: Commanders of Architectural Design and Construction
      Objects: Drafting Set, Illustration of Valley Forge Camp
      Learning skills: Writing, Interviewing, Oral History, Drawing/Sketching

      Group 3: Commanders of Supplies and Equipment
      Objects: Powder Horn
      Learning skills: Math calculations: multiplication, addition, budget planning and writing

      Group 4: Commanders of Strategic Planning and Mapping
      Objects: Surveyor’s compass, Illustration of Valley Forge Camp
      Learning skills: Mapping, Problem solving

      Step 3
      • After each group has completed their assignments, engage the class in role-playing.  Explain to the students that they will present the results of their tasks in a roundtable discussion similar to a board meeting.
      • Each group will present their model or drawing to explain how they will contribute to the settlement and daily operation of the camp. 

      Optional Discussion Question that can lead to an exchange of observations about career options and work skills:
      What job skills are needed to create a military site -- engineering, accounting, building and construction, and what others?  

      Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
      • Demonstrate successful teamwork skills to complete a task.
      • Demonstrate effective listening, oral, and written skills.
      • Demonstrate effective visual presentation to illustrate a strategy or plan.

    • Lesson 2, Camp Life, Activity 3: Leisure Time in Camp and Colonial America

      Background and Historical Context
      The war consisted of long encampments interspersed with marching and fighting. When a soldier completed drilling and duties for the day, he would hunt or fish to supplement his diet.  He also spent time reading and writing. Playing games, telling stories, sewing, or repairing equipment helped pass the time. Soldiers celebrated holidays with parades and gun salutes.  In the afternoon or at dinner in the evenings, officers, particularly the British, would serve such beverages like tea to colleagues or civilian visitors. 

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Lead the students in a discussion about camping.  Ask how many of them have gone camping or hiking?  Brainstorm with them what they would consider important to have with them for entertainment. 
      • Explain to the students, that after practicing drills and performing their numerous tasks, the Revolutionary war soldiers would engage in camp activities that took their minds away from the drudgery of military life. 

      Step 2
      • Display on the wall the images of the museum objects for this activity.
      • Ask the students to observe carefully the objects and in a whole group discussion, talk about how these museum objects would have been used, where they would have obtained such objects, and other than the soldiers, who else would have used these objects.
      • Now share with the class the similar items you brought to class to compare with the museum objects. Continue the discussion about these objects and how, who, when, and where these objects are used today. 

      Step 3
      • Explain to the students that they will now have the opportunity to create a card game, board game or a puzzle that could be used at camp.
      • Distribute to each student an 8x11 white sheet of paper and pencil.
      • Tell the students to sketch their game design on the paper and if necessary include written instructions on how to play the game.

      Step 4
      • Provide art supplies and other materials for the students to create their game. 
      • When they complete the assignment, ask the students to share their game creation with their classmates. The students may be divided into smaller groups for sharing.

    • Lesson 2, Camp Life Activity, 3A: Make Your Own Document Box

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      • Share with the students the image of the document box.  Explain that boxes like these were often used at military sites such as Morristown and Valley Forge for the storage of documents, letters, and personal items.
      • Tell the students that they will create their own document box for storing some of the objects they have created in this lesson, i.e. their game.  These boxes will become one of the major objects for their classroom exhibit.
      • Instruct the students to decorate their boxes with stencils, icons, and emblems of the Colonial period. 
      • After the students have completed making their document boxes, distribute to each student an index card.
      • Have students use the index card to write a postcard letter home requesting a personal item (soap, hair brush, scissors, etc) or to share a story about a camp activity (training, hunting in the forest, preparing camp meals, etc.) Using the art materials, encourage the students to decorate or draw an image on the card.
      • Instruct the students to store their letter in their document boxes.   

      Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
      • Successful completion of a game design.
      • Successful writing of a postcard letter.
      • Effective listening and oral communication skills
      • Actively engaged in group discussions
      • Comparison of similar objects from the past and present.

    • Lesson 2, Camp Life, Activity 4: Cooking for the Soldiers

      Background and Historical Context
      Feeding the army was an enormous undertaking. Congress and the states had a difficult time raising funds to purchase enough supplies for the Continental Army. General Washington estimated that the army needed 100,000 barrels of flour and 20 million pounds of meat to feed 15,000 men for a year.

      Farmers supplied the military with staples. Many local settlers owned small farms, and raised crops and livestock. Towns and cities provided a market for the settlers' cattle, hogs, and wheat. Hunting and fishing supplemented the diet. What the army could not supply, it often requisitioned by force.

      Soldiers, unlike their civilian counterparts, were issued food rations. Army food was usually provided in raw form. Staples consisted of flour, corn meal, or bread, and beef, pork, or fish. Sometimes beans or peas were provided. At Guilford Courthouse, the Virginia militia was supplied with bacon, beef, mutton, flour, corn, and corn meal.

      Soldiers cooked their own food in pots, kettles, Dutch ovens, grills, and broilers. Families often accompanied their men into the field. Women assisted with cooking, sewing, washing clothes, and tending the sick. Children carried firewood or water. Both British and American officers brought their own home necessities, such as tea strainers, that they used to ease the hardships of battle. Each man supplied his own utensils. These included a spoon, cup, fork, knife, and wood or metal plate.

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Lesson Implementation Procedures

      Step 1 Step 2
      • Begin the activity by asking the students, in their small groups, to describe what they see and how the object may have been used.  Tell the students that they are to use the paper for recording their answers.

      Step 3
      • Allow the students about 10 minutes for their object analysis. 
      • When they complete their observations, share with the students the objects you brought to class including the food (corn, cornmeal, flour, bread, etc.)
      • Lead the students in a discussion to identify the food items you brought.
      • Now ask the students to review their object and determine how or if it could be used to prepare a meal using the food samples provided by the teachers. The students should record their responses on the paper.

      Step 4
      • Ask the students to think about what food or meal could be prepared with their object. They are to list their responses on the paper. 
      • Tell the class that they will now create a recipe that can be prepared or used to eat with one of the objects. Tell the students to consider what foods the soldiers may have gathered on nearby farms, in the field and/or forest to supplement the food rations that they received.
      • When creating their recipes ask the students to consider the following:

      What foods would be served on the plantation or farms versus what the soldiers ate in camp? What would the seasonal availability be for certain foods?  What kind of meals would be served in a manor home versus the slave quarters?  Did the soldiers and civilians have access to waterways for fishing and game to hunt in the forest?  How are we alike or different in meal preparations today compared to colonial America? 

      Step 5 Step 6
      • To introduce students to colonial recipes and foods, explore with them the following web sites:
        • Food Timeline: http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodfag.html
        • 18th Century Recipes from Claude Moore Colonial Farm/A Colonial Day Menu: http://www.1771.org/cd_recipes.htm
        • The Virginia Housewife: or, Methodical Cook by Mary Randolph. Baltimore: Plaskitt, Fite, 1838 (1838)
      • Instruct the students to prepare one of these recipes or based on what they have learned about Colonial foods create their own recipe.  Encourage students to interview a family member about a family recipe that has been used for several generations.
      • Invite the students to prepare their recipe and bring it to class on the day the teacher has arranged to be Camp Day.

      Lesson 2, Camp Life, Extended Activity: Camp Day
      Have the students prepare their recipes for Camp Day. The students can cook their recipe at home and bring to school. Have the students also share their document kits and games (prepared from a prior activity: Leisure Time in Camp) while enjoying the food. 

      See information sheet of Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation.

      Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
      • Successful participation in group activity and discussions.
      • Successful completion of creating a recipe.

    • Lesson Plan 2, Camp Life, Activity 5: The Role of Women during the Revolutionary War

      Background and Historical Context
      Women assisted soldiers and sewed clothing for the troops. Several women from prominent and affluent families supported the cause by providing their homes as meeting places.

      Officers of eighteenth century armies had more comfortable winter quarters than their men. General Washington believed that the commander-in-chief needed to maintain a dignified style. Col. Jacob Ford, Jr. was the prosperous owner of a mine, forge, and powder mill, and a colonel in the New Jersey militia. Ford, his wife Theodosia, and their children moved into the newly built Georgian style mansion in 1774 in Morristown. Early in 1777, when the Continental Army first came to Morristown, the mansion served briefly as quarters for Delaware troops commanded by Capt. Thomas Rodney. Shortly after the Continental Army arrived, Ford died of pneumonia.

      During his first stay in Morristown, Washington quartered at the Arnold Tavern. However, on his return in December 1779, the recently widowed Theodosia Ford opened her home to Washington and his entourage. Shortly before he arrived, Washington wrote, "I shall be at Morris Town tomorrow and shall be obliged by your ordering me a late dinner. I understand my quarters are to be at Mrs. Ford's.'"

      For 200 days the Ford Mansion served as the nerve center of the Revolutionary War. Washington used the front room as a conference room and staff office to meet with officers, scouts, spies, and private citizens. Statesmen and foreign diplomats came here to consult with the commander-in-chief. Washington's troops were encamped nearby at Jockey Hollow.

      General Washington's military family quartered at the Ford Mansion included his aides-de-camp, officers and servants. They numbered ten to fifteen, and sometimes more at any given time. It was also not unusual for wives of high-ranking officers to join their husbands at camp. Martha Washington arrived on December 31 from Mount Vernon, Virginia to join her husband in Morristown.

      Washington's entourage needed all the space the mansion afforded. Two of the four rooms on the first floor, the entire upper floor of five rooms, the kitchen, the cellar and the stable were put to use. Mrs. Ford and her four children retreated into two rooms on the eastside of the main hallway on the first floor.

      Rural women tended crops and livestock while their men fought the war. Very often, women accompanied men into the field. They assisted with cooking, sewing, and washing clothes, and tended the sick. Women not only sewed clothing for their husbands and sons, they often spun the yarn and wove the fabric. Officers' wives also joined their husbands at the front. Martha Washington spent time with her husband at the winter encampments of Valley Forge and Morristown. American women, from all walks of life, played a critical yet largely unheralded role in achieving independence.

      Vocabulary
      Niddy Noddy: a simple tool that is used to make a skein of handspun yarn straight from the spinning wheel.
      Etui case: a small, often decorative case for needles, toilet articles or other tools for daily use.

      Museum Collections, Similar Items, and other Materials Used in this Activity
      For images of museum objects in the Park collections, similar locally available objects, other materials, forms, worksheets and charts, and art and other supplies used in this activity, go to Section C, Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan. Download the images of museum objects in the Park collections, and obtain similar items and materials listed in Section C.

      Lesson Implementation Procedures

      Step 1
      • Divide the students into four small groups. Distribute to each group an image to analyze. Give the students 10 minutes to review the objects. Allow each group to report what they have observed about the object.
      • Now share with the students similar objects that you have brought to the classroom. In their small groups have the students now compare the images with the similar object. They are to compare materials, how it is made, and to determine if we still use these objects today. If so, how do we use them today? Are they used differently today compared to how they were used during the colonial period? 

      Step 2
      • Lead the students in a whole group discussion about the importance of these objects in the lives of women during the encampments and at home. How would these objects be used by contemporary women? 

      Step 3
      • Explain to the students that women during the colonial period made their own clothing. In addition to sewing, they also made their own fabrics like linen or spun wool to make the clothing.  The niddy noddy was a tool used to wind skeins of woolen yarn that would be knitted or woven on a loom. 
      • Share with the students samples of the fabric for them to see and feel the different textures of linen, cotton, and wool cloth.
      • To understand how a niddy noddy is used, have students view the two minute online video demonstration of how to use a niddy noddy from Memorial Hall Museum, Old Deerfield, Massachusetts.

      Extended Activity: 
      Visit a local knitting shop.  If you are in an area where there is a textile factory, request a tour of the facility where the students can observe how fabrics are made today compared to Colonial America.

      Art making Activity: Design a Etui Case for Your Belongings
      • If the students are carrying their backpack or handbag, ask them to think about what small daily tools do they carry in it.  Ask them if these tools are carried in a case (for example, iPods, cell phones, laptop computers, calculators, pencil or pen case, personal grooming case, etc.)
      • Ask the students to determine which of these items would be important to have during encampments. Instruct the students to use the art materials to design a decorative case for their essential item. 

      Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
      • Actively participate in small group and whole class discussions.
      • Demonstrate continuous use of the how to read an object worksheet to guide one’s analysis of objects.
      • Compares the use of a traditional craft tool like the niddy noddy for knitters from the colonial period to today.
      • Make a decorative etui case for a personal object

    Lesson Plan 3: Creating a Classroom Exhibit

    Background and Historical Context
    Throughout this lesson plan students have learned how to read objects as a tool for expanding their knowledge of the American Revolutionary War.  By studying the objects from four key American Revolutionary War National Park Sites, students have learned how powerful the object can be in revealing history or telling a story.  By studying the objects people left behind, we can find clues that tell us about the past, about the people who made, owned and used these things. This activity, Creating a Classroom Exhibit, will enable students to think about how they can construct their own stories about the American Revolution period of Unites States History using the objects they have created as a result of activities implemented through this lesson plan.  The products and the content of the classroom exhibition becomes a powerful authentic assessment tool for measuring a student’s problem solving and critical thinking skills. It is also a measure of the degree of newly acquired in-depth knowledge and understanding, because the products are a concrete result.

    To prepare for the in-class exhibit, instruct the students on how to access the National Park Service Web site to view the American Revolution War virtual exhibits at http://www.nps.gov/history/museum.  If possible, take your student to a local historical site or museum.  Encourage them to carefully observe the theme, objects presented and label information. Ask them what elements of the virtual exhibit and/or museum exhibition they would consider for their own show. 

    Materials needed for this lesson

    Lesson Implementation Procedures

    Step 1
    • In preparation for the museum visit or virtual exhibition viewing, printout the Exhibit, Object, and You worksheet. Instruct the students to use the guide while they are exploring the virtual exhibitions and or museum exhibit. 
    • After reviewing the museum and/or virtual exhibits, discuss with the students what they observed about the exhibitions and are there any components in it that they would consider for their own exhibit. Record student responses on one of the post-it sheets.

    Step 2
    • Now share with the students copies of the Exhibition Planning Sheet.
    • As a whole class discussion, begin to outline what key elements of the Revolutionary War era they may want to most highlight in their show.  Tell the students to consider the objects they have already created as part of the exhibition.
    • Encourage the students to determine an overall exhibition theme and the subtopics. List these items on a post-it easel sheet and hang on the wall for future references.

    Step 3
    • An opening date should be determined.  Send a “save the date” notice to parents, the principal, and other school officials.
    • Now divide the class into smaller working groups. Each group will be assigned a task for the design and set-up of the exhibition.  Typical groupings are Exhibit Designers who develop the floor plans for the final look of the exhibition, Label and Gallery Guide Writers, Docents/Interpreters who prepare the script for exhibition tours, Marketing Managers who design brochures/flyers to announce the opening day of the exhibition and send letters to VIPs, community leaders, parents, etc to attend the show, a Hospitality Committee who prepares the reception for opening day. The foods served on this day could be made from the recipes the students created for Lesson 2/Activity 4 Cooking for the Soldiers.

    Step 4
    • Installation Day. This is the day that the students install the objects for their classroom exhibition following the exhibition design.
    • Opening Day. This is the day when invited guests see the exhibition for the first time.

    Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
    • Successful exhibit design that highlights the objects made by the students to tell the story of the American Revolution.
    • Successful completion of label writing
    • Successful completion of brochures and flyers for distribution two weeks before the opening.
    • Successful preparation of a scripted guided tour or a written exhibition self-guide.
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    J. Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
    • See individual lessons.
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    K. Extension and Enrichment Activities
    • See individual lessons.
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    L. Resources

    Bibliography:
    http://www.nps.gov/revwar/educational_resources/03_basic_bibliography_html

    Timeline:
    http://www.nps.gov/revwar/about_the_revolution/timeline_of_events.html

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    M. Site Visit

    The site visit includes visiting the:

    1. Revolutionary War parks or local museums, historic house museum, or historical society.
    2. Virtual museum exhibits on the Revolutionary War.

    Pre-visit:
    Before the actual or virtual visit, have students visit the institution’s website for an overview or provide brochures and other written/visual materials about the sites. Have each student come up with 2-3 questions to guide the visit.  Work with park interpretive and museum staff to arrange the visit with challenging activities

    Site visit:
    Have students select at least two objects on exhibit to analyze using the “How to Read an Object” worksheet.  It also includes an object sketch sheet (white space to make a detailed sketch of the objects).  For younger students, use the ‘How to Read an Object’ chart for elementary school students together with a “scavenger hunt” object list to encourage close observation skills.

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    N. Charts, Figures and other Teacher Materials

    Lesson 1. Declaring Freedom
    Activity 1. Leadership
    Read a Portrait Observation Guide for Students
    Portraiture: From Painting to Photography (Compare and Contrast)

    Activity 3: Symbolism & the Seat of Power: My Life as a Chair
    My Life as a Chair

    Lesson 2: Camp Life
    Activity 1A. Musical Instrument Making
    Making a Snare Drum Instruction Sheet and Sketched Instructions


    Activity 2: The Making of a Military Camp
    Worksheet 1 Team: Commanders of Training
    Worksheet 2. Team: Commanders of Architectural Design and Construction
    Worksheet 3. Team: Commanders of Supplies and Equipment
    Worksheet 4. Team: Commanders of Strategic Planning and Mapping

    Activity 4: Cooking for the Soldiers
    Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior
    Meal Time; compare and contrast

    Lesson 3: Creating a Classroom Exhibit
    Classroom Exhibit Plan
    The Exhibit, the Object and You!