<photo>Detail of window arches above a rehabilitated storefront;  Link to National Park Service
STANDARDS FOR REHABILITATION AND GUIDELINES FOR REHABILITATING
<photo>detail of site plantings

Identify    Protect    Repair    Replace    Missing feature   Alterations/Additions

Identify, Retain and Preserve

Recommend
Identifying, retaining, and preserving buildings and their features as well as features of the site that are important in defining its overall historic character. Site features may include circulation systems such as walks, paths, roads, or parking; vegetation such as trees, shrubs, fields, or herbaceous plant material; landforms such as terracing, berms or grading; furnishings such as lights, fences, or benches; decorative elements such as sculpture, statuary or monuments; water features including fountains, streams, pools, or lakes; and subsurface archeological features which are important in defining the history of the site.

photo of character-defining urban historic building site, with iron fence, cured walk, and plantings



The historic building site shown is important to the overall character of the property because of its design and materials, which include the iron fence along the sidewalk, the curved walk leading to the porch, and the various plantings. If the front yard were to be converted to off-street parking, this character would be drastically changed. Photo: NPS files.

Retaining the historic relationship between buildings and the landscape.

Not Recommended
Removing or radically changing buildings and their features or site features which are important in defining the overall historic character of the property so that, as a result, the character is diminished.

Removing or relocating buildings or landscape features, thus destroying the historic relationship between buildings and the landscape.

Removing or relocating historic buildings on a site or in a complex of related historic structures--such as a mill complex or farm--thus diminishing the historic character of the site or complex.

Moving buildings onto the site, thus creating a false historical appearance.

Radically changing the grade level of the site. For example, changing the grade adjacent to a building to permit development of a formerly below-grade area that would drastically change the historic relationship of the building to its site.

Protect and Maintain

Recommend
Protecting and maintaining buildings and the site by providing proper drainage to assure that water does not erode foundation walls; drain toward the building; or damage or erode the landscape.

Minimizing disturbance of terrain around buildings or elsewhere on the site, thus reducing the possibility of destroying or damaging important landscape features or archeological resources.

Surveying and documenting areas where the terrain will be altered to determine the potential impact to important landscape features or archeological resources.

Protecting, e.g., preserving in place important archeological resources.

Planning and carrying out any necessary investigation using professional archeologists and modern archeological methods when preservation in place is not feasible.

photo of an archeological investigation using professional archeologists and modern methodologies

This archeological investigation was carried out using professional archeologists and modern archeological methods. Photo: NPS files.

Preserving important landscape features, including ongoing maintenance of historic plant material.

Protecting the building and landscape features against arson and vandalism before rehabilitation work begins, i.e., erecting protective fencing and installing alarm systems that are keyed into local protection agencies.

Providing continued protection of historic building materials and plant features through appropriate cleaning, rust removal, limited paint removal, and re-application of protective coating systems; and pruning and vegetation management.

Evaluating the overall condition of the materials and features of the property to determine whether more than protection and maintenance are required, that is, if repairs to building and site features will be necessary.

Not Recommended
Failing to maintain adequate site drainage so that buildings and site features are damaged or destroyed; or alternatively, changing the site grading so that water no longer drains properly.

Introducing heavy machinery into areas where it may disturb or damage important landscape features or archeological resources.

Failing to survey the building site prior to the beginning of rehabilitation work which results in damage to, or destruction of, important landscape features or archeological resources.

photo showing the destruction of historic building site features in preparation for re-development of the site

The landscape and landscape features around a historic building are often important aspects of its character or that of the historic
district in which it is located. In preparation for a project that involved re-development of the site for low-rise apartments, the surviving landscape features--both plant materials and architectural elements--were destroyed. Photo: NPS files.

Leaving known archeological material unprotected so that it is damaged during rehabilitation work.

Permitting unqualified personnel to perform data recovery on archeological resources so that improper methodology results in the loss of important archeological material.

Allowing important landscape features to be lost or damaged due to a lack of maintenance.

Permitting the property to remain unprotected so that the building and landscape features or archeological resources are damaged or destroyed.

Removing or destroying features from the building or site such as wood siding, iron fencing, masonry balustrades, or plant material.

Failing to provide adequate protection of materials on a cyclical basis so that deterioration of building and site features results.

Failing to undertake adequate measures to assure the protection of building and site features.

Repair

Recommend
Repairing features of the building and site by reinforcing historic materials.

Not Recommended
Replacing an entire feature of the building or site such as a fence, walkway, or driveway when repair of materials and limited compatible replacement of deteriorated or missing parts are appropriate.

Using a substitute material for the replacement part that does not convey the visual appearance of the surviving parts of the building or site feature or that is physically or chemically incompatible.

Replace

Recommend
Replacing in kind an entire feature of the building or site that is too deteriorated to repair if the overall form and detailing are still evident. Physical evidence from the deteriorated feature should be used as a model to guide the new work. This could include an entrance or porch, walkway, or fountain. If using the same kind of material is not technically or economically feasible, then a compatible substitute material may be considered.

Replacing deteriorated or damaged landscape features in kind.

photo showing deteriorated limestone walkways being replaced in kind

As part of a rehabilitation project, the deteriorated limestone walkways are
being replaced in kind. Photo: NPS files.

Not Recommended
Removing a feature of the building or site that is unrepairable and not replacing it; or replacing it with a new feature that does not convey the same visual appearance.

Adding conjectural landscape features to the site such as period reproduction lamps, fences, fountains, or vegetation that are historically inappropriate, thus creating a false sense of historic development.

The following work is highlighted to indicate that it represents the particularly complex technical or design aspects of Rehabilitation projects and should only be considered after the preservation concerns listed above have been addressed.

Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features

Recommend
Designing and constructing a new feature of a building or site when the historic feature is completely missing, such as an outbuilding, terrace, or driveway. It may be based on historical, pictorial, and physical documentation; or be a new design that is compatible with the historic character of the building and site.

Not Recommended
Creating a false historical appearance because the replaced feature is based on insufficient historical, pictorial, and physical documentation.

Introducing a new building or site feature that is out of scale or of an otherwise inappropriate design.

Introducing a new landscape feature, including plant material, that is visually incompatible with the site, or that alters or destroys the historic site patterns or vistas.

The following work is highlighted to indicate that it represents the particularly complex technical or design aspects of Rehabilitation projects and should only be considered after the preservation concerns listed above have been addressed.

Alterations/Additions for the New Use

Recommend
Designing new onsite parking, loading docks, or ramps when required by the new use so that they are as unobtrusive as possible and assure the preservation of historic relationship between the building or buildings and the landscape.

photo of large new parking lot that has destroyed distinctive site features

This large new parking lot has destroyed distinctive site features in the process. Photo: NPS files.

Designing new exterior additions to historic buildings or adjacent new construction which is compatible with the historic character of the site and which preserves the historic relationship between the building or buildings and the landscape.

Removing non-significant buildings, additions, or site features which detract from the historic character of the site.

Not Recommended
Locating any new construction on the building site in a location which contains important landscape features or open space, for example removing a lawn and walkway and installing a parking lot.

Placing parking facilities directly adjacent to historic buildings where automobiles may cause damage to the buildings or landscape features, or be intrusive to the building site.

Introducing new construction onto the building site which is visually incompatible in terms of size, scale, design, materials, color, and texture; which destroys historic relationships on the site; or which damages or destroys important landscape features.

Removing a historic building in a complex of buildings; or removing a building feature, or a landscape feature which is important in defining the historic character of the site

 

 

-GUIDELINES-

The Approach

Exterior Materials
Masonry
Wood
Architectural Metals

Exterior Features
Roofs
Windows
Entrances + Porches
Storefronts

Interior Features
Structural System Spaces/Features/Finishes
Mechanical Systems

Site

Setting

Special Requirements
Energy Efficiency
New Additions
Accessibility
Health + Safety

The Standards

 

  HISTORICAL OVERVIEW - PRESERVING - rehabilitating - RESTORING - RECONSTRUCTING

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Historical Overview