A History of the Chisana Mining District, Alaska, 1890-1990
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Appendix Two

Adit: a horizonal passage driven from the surface for working or unwatering a mine.

Booming: a ground-sluicing variant usually employed in areas that lack a dependable flow of water. A dam is used to create an artificial reservoir. Once sufficient water has accumulated, the dam is opened, releasing a flash flood which quickly removes any surface gravel.

Crosscut: a cut intended to intersect a body of ore.

Drift: a horizontal passage which follows a vein under-ground.

Drift mining: a method of mining by means of drifts and shafts. The technique was often used during the winter to develop shallow stream deposits.

Flume: an inclined channel used to convey water to a mining operation. Usually supported by a trestle, most are made of wood.

Giant: the nozzle through which the pressurized water in an hydraulic mining operation is directed.

Ground-sluicing: a mining method which employs running water to remove the overburden. In effect, it is controlled and accelerated erosion.

Hydraulic mining: mining method which employs pressurized water to excavate gravel.

Layman: an individual who is leasing a claim, usually for a share of its production.

Lode: a mineral deposit that is still bound within its rock matrix.

Open-cut: a mining method in which the workings remain open to the surface.

Overburden: worthless surface material covering a body of valuable ore.

Placer mining: the extraction of minerals from alluvial gravel by removing the detrital material with running water.

Prospect: an unproven mineral property.

Riffles: ribs which are placed in the bottom of a sluice box at right angles to the current in order to trap any gold.

Rocker: a box-like, gold recovery device which is rocked back and forth like a child's cradle.

Shaft: a vertical or steeply inclined access passage from the surface into a mine.

Shoveling-in: a hand mining technique in which the gravel was usually loosened with a pick and shoveled directly into a sluice box.

Sluice box: a long, open-ended, slightly inclined box through which gold-bearing gravel is washed.

Tailings: the refuse material remaining after gravel is washed.

Test pit: a shallow excavation made to test the subsurface gravel.

Wing dam: a dam employed to force the water to undercut banks during the stripping operation.

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Last Updated: 21-Mar-2008