1. Nathaniel P. Reed to Undersecretary [of the Interior], January 11, 1972, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Box 3, Alaska Task Force General Files, Records of the National Service, Record Group 79, Federal Archives and Records Center (FARC), Seattle, Washington. Additionally, other "interest areas" which could not be withdrawn because they were reserved for other purposes were listed. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, and the National Interest Lands Provision therein are discussed in Chapter two.
2. Ibid. The total in the January 11 package included 54,190,000 acres identified for study for possible inclusion in the National Refuge System administered by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (later United States Fish and Wildlife Service), and 9,000,000 acres for study as potential addition to the Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Some 6,090,000 acres of this total were areas of "mutual interest."
3. "Natural Areas in Alaska," July 19, 1971, History of NPS in Alaska, Personal Papers of Theodor R. Swem, Evergreen, Colo.; William C. Everhart, The National Park Service (New York: Praeger, 1972), pp. 252-60. The acreage of parks in Alaska amounted to two percent of Alaska's land mass, but twenty-six percent of the total acreage of the 284 units of the National Park System.
By 1972 the Bureau of Sports Fisheries and Wildlife managed eighteen areas in Alaska totaling 19,819,221.3 acres. The Bureau had a detailed knowledge of the wildlife values of Alaska gained through its role as the wildlife managing agency during territorial days, and had only recently completed a comprehensive survey that identified critical waterfowl habitats throughout the state. "Annual Report of the Lands under control of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife as of June 30, 1972," Xerox copy from Division of Realty, Regional Office, Region 6, United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Interview of Roger Allin by Theodor Swem, January 21, 1979, tapes in Mr. Swem s possession; United States Department of the Interior (USDI), Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (BSF&W), An Evaluation of Alaska Habitat For Migratory Birds, by James C. King and Calvin J. Lensink (Washington, D.C., 1971); USDI, BSF&W, To Have and to Hold, Alaska's Migratory Birds (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971).
4. "Report on a Proposed National Monument at Sitka, Alaska," April 9, 1910, File 1215, Part 1, 3/5/1910-12/5/1910, Parks, Reservations and Antiquities...Sitka, Records of the National Park Service, Record Group 79, National Archives (N.A.), Washington, D.C.; Presidential Proclamation No. 959, March 3, 1910, in U.S., Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Proclamations and Orders Relating to the National Park Service up to January 1, 1945, compiled by Thomas A. Sullivan (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1947), pp. 299-300. Sitka and Old Kasaan were the only historical areas in Alaska before 1976.
6. 39 Stat. 938, February 26, 1917; Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service to the Secretary of Interior for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1917, and the Travel Season, 1917 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1917), p. 24; 1922, p. 83. On January 30, 1922, the boundaries were enlarged by 284,800 acres. On March 19, 1932, an additional 246,693 acres were added.
8. Ibid.; Charles T. Sheldon, The Wilderness of Denali: Explorations of a Hunter-Naturalist in Northern Alaska, introduction by C. Hart Merriam (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1960), p. 212; Charles Sheldon to Stephen T. Mather, December 15, 1915, Proposed National Parks-Mt. Mckinley, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.; National Park Service, "Mt. Mckinley National Park, Alaska," typescript, n.d., Mt. McKinley History, General, 1927-31, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.; United States Department of the Interior (USDI), National Park Service (NPS), Proceedings of the National Parks Conference, January 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 1917 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1917), pp. 193-99. "Denali," the name Sheldon preferred, was a Native name for the mountain"The Great One."
9. Pearson, Mount McKinley, pp 26-27, 60-66. Apparently, much of the opposition had to do with a policy of the House Committee on Public Lands that restricted the number of park bills that would be reported favorably each session.
10. Horace M. Albright to John A. Hussey, July 10, 1971. Quoted in USDI, NPS, Historic Resource Study: Katmai National Monument, by John A. Hussey (San Francisco: NPS [Western Service Center], 1971) p. 412.
13. Ibid., pp. 412-16; Presidential Proclamation No. 1487, September 24, 1918; Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1931, p. 102. See also, USDI, NPS, Katmai National Monument, Alaska: A History of Its Establishment and Revision of Its Boundaries, by John M. Kauffmann (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1954). In 1931 the monument was enlarged by 1,609,590 acres. The enlargement reincorporated a small, ten-acre tract removed in 1923 by Executive Order 3897. The purpose of removal of that earlier tract, was, according to Kauffmann, to allow John J. Fulstad to obtain a permit to mine coal.
15. Juneau Empire, April 18, 1924, Monuments, Glacier Bay, Part 2, 3/21/24-4/29/24, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A. Similar protests are cited in USDI, NPS, Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska A History of Its Boundaries, by John M. Kauffmann (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1954), p. 35.
16. Presidential Proclamation No. 1763, February 26, 1925. Detailed information on the legislative history of Glacier Bay National Monument is in USDI, NPS, "History of Glacier Bay," by Bruce Black, typescript, 1957, Library, Glacier Bay National Park/Preserve, Gustavus, Alaska; Dave Bohn, Glacier Bay: The Land and the Silence (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1967), pp. 94-96; and Kauffmann, Glacier Bay.
17. Presidential Proclamation No. 1763, February 26, 1925. In 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt added 904,960 acres to the monument and in 1955, 14,925 acres were deleted. Presidential Proclamation No. 2330, April 18, 1939; Presidential Proclamation No. 3089, March 31, 1955; Kauffmann, Glacier Bay, pp. 13-33; Black, "Glacier Bay," pp. 76-77.
18. Statement of Dr. W.S. Cooper, Juneau Empire, 1924. Quoted in Kauffmann, Glacier Bay, p. 58. According to Cooper, some eighty of the "principal institutions of the country devoted to scientific research and the cause of conservation" approved and actively supported the proposal.
Interestingly, the Canadian Parks Association supported and lobbied for the proposal. Arthur O. Wheeler to Hubert C. Work, June 13, 1924, Monuments, Glacier Bay, Part 3, 5/1/24-9/2/24, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.
19. "Recommendations submitted by the Ecological Society of America with regard to the Establishment of a National Monument at Glacier Bay, Alaska," n.d. , National Monuments, Glacier Bay, part 1, 12/24/1923-3/20/1924, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.
20. Presidential Proclamation No. 1351, Oct. 25, 1916. President Wilson acted at the request of the Alaska Cruise Club, an organization dedicated to publicizing Alaska. Old Kasaan, 6/30/1913-3/24/1926, Box 596, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.
21. USDI, NPS, Administrative History, Expansion of the National Park Service in the 1930s by Harlen D. Unrau and G. Frank Williss (Denver: NPS, 1983), p. 68. Until 1933, when Executive Order 6166 transferred control of all national monuments to the NPS, the department having jurisdiction over the land from which the monument was withdrawn would administer that monument.
23. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1925, pp. 56-59. By 1972 the boundary adjustments mentioned had made Glacier Bay (2,803,840 acres) the largest unit in the Park System with Katmai (2,792,137 acres) a close second. Everhart, The National Park Service, pp. 253-54.
The size of Glacier Bay and Katmai blurred even more a vague distinction between national parks and monuments. Unrau and Williss, Expansion of the National Park Service, p. 12.
25. From time to time, individuals or organizations in Alaska, even the territorial and state legislatures, requested national park or monument status for some area. Among the areas mentioned were Ice Bluffs of Kotzebue Sound (1929), Shake Island (1939), Imuruk Lava Beds (1963), Serpentine Hot Springs (1970), and Point Barrow (1963). It is believed, however, that these were isolated instances, and do not change the general conclusions. "Alaska wants Ice Bluffs at Kotzebue Sound made a National Park," March 9, 1939, 0-32, Proposed Park, General, part 9, 1/12/29 - 4/28/30; [_____] to Anthony J. Diamond, State Files-Landmark Program, History Division, Washington Office (WASO); Ben Thompson to Esther McCoy, September 4, 1963, L 58, Volume 2, Alaska, 1/1/61-12/31/63, Box 42, Records of the Office of the Regional Director, Region 4, RG 79, Federal Archives and Records Center (FARC), San Bruno, California; Walter Hickel to Theodor R. Swem, May 22, 1970, Document No. 002608, ANILCA Papers, Center for Information and Library Services, United States Department of Interior, Washington, D.C.; Oscar Dick to Regional Director, Western Region, February 21, 1963, L58, Proposed areas, Park Files, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The ANILCA Papers are a collection of Department of the Interior agency files relating to the legislative history of the Alaska National Interest Lands Act. At this point, not all documents are on the computer index. When finished, however, documents listed under this reference may be retrieved by referring to the index.
27. USDI, Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year ended June 30,1916 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1916), p. 62. The situation was similar in the Department of Agriculture where the Forest Service was the responsible agency.
31. "Organization, National Park Service, October 10, 1935," In Unrau and Williss, Expansion of the National Park Service, p. 249. In Alaska, after 1937, the Superintendent of Mt. McKinley was also responsible for Katmai, and the custodian of Sitka was responsible for Glacier Bay. Superintendent's Monthly Report, January 1, 1937, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve.
32. Grant Pearson to Regional Director, May 28, 1948, National Monuments, Sitka, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.; Newton B. Drury to Assistant Secretary Warner, October 13, 1947, 3041, Alaska Development, Records of Newton B. Drury, RG 79, N.A. Pearson recommended the appointment of Alfred Kuehl, a landscape architect to supervise the office.
35. USDI, NPS, Public Use of the National Parks: A Statistical Report 1904-46. (Reprint, 1963). It is perhaps a bit unfair to compare Yellowstone, which had the highest visitation in the system, with Alaska. It is believed, however, that such a contrast most vividly expresses the problem.
37. Superintendent's Monthly Reports, April and June 1938, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve. Among the jobs undertaken by the CCC, which was in McKinley the next year as well, were constructing new residences for park employees, moving the dog kennels, building a sewer line, and maintenance of the telephone line.
38. Section G. This cap existed until 1927. John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins Press, 1961) p. 229. In 1925, however, $11,920 was appropriated and $11,533 spent. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1925, p. 70.
39. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, p. 96. The $8,000 included all maintenance, protection, improvements in the park, the salary of the superintendent and any assistants, as well as costs of surveys of the boundaries.
The first superintendent was Harry P. Karstens, who had accompanied Charles Sheldon during his stay in the area during the winter of 1907-1908. His first assistant was hired in November 1921 . As late as 1929 the permanent staff consisted of the superintendent and four assistants. Pearson, Mt. McKinley, p. 30.
41. Pearson, Mt. McKinley, pp. 33-42; Superintendent's Monthly Reports, Mount Mckinley National Park, September 1925, November 1925, and passim, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve. Road construction was carried on by the Alaska Road Commission under a cooperative agreement. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, p. 106.
42. Superintendent's Monthly Report, Mt. McKinley National Park, March 1935, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve; Harry O. Liek to Alstan G. Gutterson, August 20, 1937, Superintendent's Monthly Report, November 1937, Ibid.; Superintendent's Monthly Report, Mt. McKinley National Park, July 1937, Ibid.; Pearson, Mount McKinley, p. 36.
46. Frank T. Been, "Field Notes of Katmai National Monument Inspection, November 12, 1940," Xerox copy in Brown Files, Alaska Regional Office (ARO); Superintendent's Monthly Report, Mt. McKinley National Park, October-November 1936, June 1937, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve; Hussey, Katmai, p. 423.
Chief Ranger Roger Corbey of Mount McKinley National Park had been assigned a reconnaissance survey of Katmai in 1937. He was in the area for a period in June (he left Mt. Mckinley on June 2 and returned on the 20th). According to Hussey, he was able to do little more than spend a few hours in the monument when his plane landed at Lake Grosvenor and Naknek Lake. The Superintendent's Monthly Reports (Mt. McKinley), indicate, however, that he also made an inspection of the concessioner's camps and operations, of a trail along Brooks River, and of a Fish and Wildlife Service installation. Following, the superintendent recommended that logs be gathered along Brooks Lake for any future buildings constructed by the Service or concessioner, and that a small landing strip be built near Brooks River.
47. Lowell Sumner, "Special ReportKatmai Master Planning Field Study, September 5-13, 1963," Box 4, Alaska Task Force Files, RG 79, FARC, Seattle; Superintendent's Monthly Reports, Mt. Mckinley National Park, September 1940, December 1945, October 1945, July 1948, August 1948, June 1954; Hussey, Katmai, pp. 423-24. Actually, Been and Cahalane spent most of September 1940 on foot in the monument. Been and Alfred Kuehl visited the area in 1945, and the regional director authorized sending a ranger from Mount McKinley to Katmai for temporary duty as early as June 1948.
48. Earl A. Trager, "Glacier Bay Expedition, 1939," typescript in Archives, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve; Black, "Glacier Bay," p. 79; Superintendent's Monthly Report, Mt. McKinley National Park, July 8, 1936. Associate Director Arthur E. Demaray visited, or at least flew over the area in 1936. He planned on flying over Katmai at that time, but was unable to do so.
49. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, p. 114; "Report on the Inspection of Old Kasaan N.M., May 27, 1940," by Ben C. Miller [Custodian of Sitka N.M.], Old Kasaan N.M., Brown Files, ARO. In the 1930s the Forest Service removed a number of totem poles and placed them in the reconstructed village of New Kasaan, and several more were taken by Natives in Ketchikan, who said their families owned them. In 1970, long after the area had been abolished, the U. S. Forest Service carried out salvage work at Old Kasaan under an agreement with the descendents of Chief Sonihat, who established the village. Alaska Geographic, V, no. 2 (1978), p. 75.
50. Frank T. Been to Ike P. Taylor, June 19, 1941, Box 65481, Records of the Alaska Road Commission, RG 30, FARC, Seattle; Miller, "Inspection of Old Kasaan N.M." When Ernest Gruening visited the site in 1939, he wrote that the area stood as a "monument to administrative inefficiency and neglect". Gruening, Many Battles: The Autobiography of Ernest Gruening (New York: Livenwright, 1973), pp. 258-59.
51. "Alaska Development Program," September 24, 1946, Box 1, Records of. Newton B. Drury, RG 79, N.A.; Conrad L. Wirth to Asst. Sec. Lewis, March 18, 1954, D18, Alaska Development, R.G.79, FARC, San Bruno; Interview of George Collins by Frank Williss, November 18, 1983. Dorr C. Yeager to Verne Stapenhorst, August 25, 1955, Old Kasaan National Monument, Brown Files, ARO.
53. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, p. 38; "Field Notes of Katmai National Monument, Inspection November 12, 1940"; Hussey, Katmai, pp. 426-27; Superintendent's Monthly Reports, Mt. McKinley National Park, June 8, 1940, July 1948, and September 1948. In 1940 the Alaska Game Commission assumed protection operations at Katmai and in 1948 the United States Fish and Wildlife Service agreed to provide that service.
54. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt refused to sign a proclamation establishing "Kennicott National Monument" in the Wrangell mountains in 1941, he noted that the area already received some protection by its remote location. Franklin D. Roosevelt to Harold L. Ickes, January 21, 1941, Park Files, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park/Preserve, Glenallen, Alaska.
56. In 1947 Alaska Delegate Bartlett introduced a statehood bill (H.R. 206) that included a provision that would have placed Sitka and Katmai under state control, and reduced Glacier Bay to its original size. The reason was quite clearly Bartlett's displeasure over the Service's failure to undertake any development at Katmai. Newton B. Drury to Fred Packard, February 12, 1947 and Bartlett to Packard, February 3, 1947, Katmai, 1/1940-4/30/1953, Box 117, Classified Files, Records of the Regional Director, RG 79, FARC, San Bruno.
57. When the Interior Department discussed setting aside Shishaldin Volcano in 1949, Ernest Gruening opposed it on the grounds that the Service had "done nothing with the areas it has." Gruening to William E. Warne, Jan. 31, 1949, National Parks and Monuments, 9-1-13, Records of the Office of Territories, RG 126, N.A.
58. Interview of George Collins, November 18, 1983; Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1946, in Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1946, p. 336; Newton B. Drury to Ernest Gruening, November 4, 1949, Alaska Development, Box 1, Papers of Newton B. Drury, RG 79, N.A. Collins was one of the earliest and most influential advocates of an expanded National Park Service presence in Alaska.
59. Black, "History of Glacier Bay," p. 68; John M. Holzworth to John F. Kennedy, August 22, 1962, L-58, Admiralty Island, Records of the Office of the Regional Director, Region 4, FARC, San Bruno. Holzworth, a recognized expert on the brown bear, led the effort to establish Admiralty Island as a preserve. This long letter to the president details that effort. See also Lawrence Rakestraw, History of the United States Forest Service in Alaska (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1981), pp. 113-16.
60. "Notes on Proposed Glacier Bay National Park," February 17, 1932, Monuments, Glacier Bay, part 5, 2/9/1927 - 1/3/1933, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.; "Report on Glacier Bay National Park (Proposed), Alaska," December , by John Coffman and Joseph S. Dixon, 1-9-93, National Parks and Monuments, RG 126, N.A.; '"Report of an Inspection of Admiralty Island Alaska," July 31, 1942, Admiralty Island, Proposed National Parks, 0-32, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A. Some, apparently, felt that the results of those reports were dictated by political considerations rather than by an analysis of the resources of Admiralty Island. Interview of George Collins, Nov. 18, 1983.
The addition of 1,000,000 acres to Glacier Bay National Monument in 1939 was, in part, an alternative to establishment of an Admiralty Island National Park. Black, "Glacier Bay," p. 68; Newton B. Drury to [_____], January 6, 1947. L-58, Admiralty Island, Proposed National Parks, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A. Additionally, the Bureau of Sports Fisheries and Wildlife recommended establishment of an Admiralty Island National Refuge as part of a general evaluation of critical wildlife habitat in Alaska in 1971. 2050-Admiralty Island, ARO Central Files, Inactive, ARO.
63. "Brief Chronology of Consideration for adding Lake George, Alaska to the National Park System," October 3, 1958, L-58, Proposed AreasLake George, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve; "Lake George Merits National Park Status," Anchorage Daily Times, May 10, 1967, State Files, Office of Legislation, WASO; "National Registry of Natural Landmarks Presentation, Lake George Alaska," July 26, 1968, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers.
64. For greater detail on the history of the Wrangell-Saint Elias mountain region, see Michael Lappen, 'Whose Promised Land? A History of Conservation and Development Management Plans for the Wrangell and St. Elias Mountains Regions, Alaska, 1938-1980" (M.A. Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1984).
65. Rakestraw, Forest Service in Alaska, p. 113; "International Park Proposed Between Alaska and Canada," Christian Science Monitor, July 17, 1937, File 0-30, Part 3, Foreign Parks, Canada, General Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.; Lappen, "Whose Promised Land," pp. 32-34; Gruening, Many Battles, p. 245. Gruening, who like many Alaskans, and Americans elsewhere, saw parks as a way of stimulating the economy of an area, was particularly concerned here with economic problems that he feared would result from the impending closure of the Kennicott Copper Mine near McCarthy.
70. Doris F. Leonard to Theodor R. Swem, Sept. 24, 1970, Historical Files, Wrangell/Saint Elias National Park/Preserve; Interview of George Collins, Nov. 18, 1983; Data Book, Wrangell-Saint Elias, vol. 2, Park Files, Wrangell/Saint Elias National Park/Preserve; USDI, NPS, "Draft Environmental Statement, Proposed Alaska National Park Alaska," February 10, 1972, History of NPS in Alaska, Swem Papers; USDI, NPS, Parks for America A Survey of Park and Related Resources in the Fifty States, and a Preliminary Plan (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1964), p. 350; USDI, NPS, Operation Great Land (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1965), p. 11; "Alaska A Plan for Action," 1966, by Roger Allin Brown Files, ARO; "The National Park Service Program in Alaska," October 1967, History of NPS in Alaska, Swem Papers; Wrangell Mountains National Monument," October 2, 1968, and "St. Elias Range National Monument," October 2, 1968, Historical files, Brown Papers, ARO; "Priority of Alaska Areas," October 2, 1968, CPP-New Area Studies, Alaska State Files, Office of Legislation, WASO; "Natural Areas in Alaska," July 19, 1971, History of NPS in Alaska, Swem Papers; F.E. Masland, Jr. to George B. Hartzog, Jr., October 17, 1971, Alaska to Native Claims, Ibid.
Additionally, other federal agenciesForest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Outdoor Recreationdeveloped proposals for the area. See Lappen, "Whose Promised Land?" pp. 61-67, and "U.S. Forest Service, Recreational Plans, 1971. Maps in Personal Papers of Bailey O. Breedlove, Division of Reference Services, Library and Archives, Harpers Ferry Center (HFC), Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.
73. "Statement of National Park Service Activities in Alaska", July 15, 1944, July 1, 1943-June 30, 1944," Alaskan Development Program, Box 1, Director's Office Files, Drury, 1940-51, Central Classified Files, RG 79, N.A.; Public Land Order 12, July 20, 1942, Alaska, Roads and Trails, British Columbia-Alaska Highway, 9-1-55, Classified Files, 1907-51, RG 126, N.A.; T. A. Crerar to Ickes, Dec. 30, 1942, Box 26, NPS WASO Files, ANILCA Papers, USDI; Ickes to Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jan. 8, 1943, Conservation Zones, 1-9-55, Classified Files, 1907-51, RG 126, N.A.
74. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1943, pp. 214-15; Interview of Alfred C. Kuehl by Herbert Evison, October 26, 1962, HFC. Conrad L. Wirth, NPS chief of lands, had general supervision over the project as Chairman of the Alaska Highway Land Planning Survey Committee.
77. Ann Lage, George Collins: The Art and Politics of Park Planning and Preservation, 1920-1979: An Interview Conducted by Ann Lage in 1978 and 1979, introduction by Lowell Sumner, et. al. (Berkeley: University of California Oral History Project, 1980), p. 177; Interview of Collins, Nov. 18, 1983.
80. USDI, NPS, Alaska Recreation Survey, Part 1, vol. 1, Economic Aspects of Recreation in Alaska, by William J. Stanton; Part 1, Vol. 2; USDI, NPS, Analysis of Alaska Travel with Special Reference to Tourists, by William J. Stanton (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1953); Landscapes of Alaska: Their Geological Evolution, ed. by Howel Williams (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1958); Victor Calahane, A Biological Survey of Katmai National Monument (Washington, D.C.; Smithsonian Institution, 1959); USDI, NPS, Preliminary Geographical Survey of the Kongakut-Firth River Area, Alaska-Canada, ed. by William C. Carnes (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1954); USDI, NPS, Alaska Recreation Survey, Part 2, Vol 2, A Recreation Program for Alaska (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1955).
81. USDI, NPS, Alaska Recreation Survey, Preliminary Statement, Arctic Wilderness Park (San Francisco: NPS, 1952); George Collins discussed the history of this area in Lage, George Collins, pp. 188-200.
82. Pearson, Mt. McKinley; Kauffmann, Katmai; Kauffmann, Glacier Bay; Interview of John Kauffmann by Frank Williss, December 5, 1983; Typescript, San Francisco, NPS, 1952; USDI, NPS, Special Study, Alaska History, 1741-1910, Theme XXI, Political and Military Affairs, 1865-1890, The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, by Benjamin F. Gilbert and Charles W. Snell (San Francisco: NPS, 1961). Gilbert provided the historical background, and Snell surveyed the sites.
83. USDI, NPS, Mission 66: To Provide Adequate Protection and Development of the National Park System for Human Use (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1956), passim. See also, Conrad L. Wirth, Parks, Politics and the People (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980), pp. 237-84.
84. Minutes of the meeting of the Alaska Field Committee, June 17-18, 1960, Alaska Field Committee, 1/1/1960-3/31/1960, A 2419, vol. 3, RG 79, FARC, San Bruno, California. Some $205,500 went to Sitka, $1,823,800 to Glacier Bay, $1,150,000 to Katmai, and $1,763,900 to Mount Mckinley.
85. USDI, NPS, Mission 66 Progress Report (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1966), p. 31; Interview of Richard Stenmark by Frank Williss, July 26, 1983; Gruening, Many Battles, p. 456; Superintendent's Monthly Reports, Mount McKinley National Park, May 1963 and December 1964, Park Archives, Denali National Park/Preserve.
86. Mission 66, p. 58; Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1960, p. 276; 1961, pp. 363-64; Interview of Theodor R. Swem by Frank Williss, June 8, 1983. Mr. Swem transferred to the Park Service's Mid-west Regional Office in 1957 from the Bureau of Reclamation to work on a Mission 66-sponsored identification of areas for inclusion in the park system. Similar positions were established in all regions.
87. Interview of Roger Allin, Jan. 21, 1979. Allin was responsible for preparing state recreation plans for all states included in the NPS's Western Region. Allin had earlier (1959) completed a survey of status and needs of recreation lands in Alaska. "The Status and Need of Recreational Lands in Alaska," by Roger Allin and John F. Bowles (Anchorage, 1959) and "The Need for Recreation Lands in Alaska," by Roger Allin (San Francisco, 1961), Breedlove Papers, HFC.
88. Parks for America, p. 350. Allin did recommend protection for a large number of areas by the state and local governments. Many of these would eventually be given protection under the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980.
89. USDI, NPS, Investigation Report of Wood-Tikchik Area, Alaska (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1965); Interview of Roger Allin, January 21, 1979; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983; T. R. Swem to Assistant Director [Ben] Thompson, October 1, 1962, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers.
90. Theodor R. Swem, "Outline History of National Park Service Involvement in Alaska." April 1982, typescript in possession of author; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983. Olson, a well-known author and conservationist, served as a special consultant on wilderness for both Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall and NPS Director Conrad L. Wirth.
91. Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983; Interview of Richard Stenmark, July 26, 1983; Minutes of the 1963 Annual Meeting of the Governing Council of the Wilderness Society at Camp Denali, Mt. McKinley National Park, Alaska, July 1 to July 6, 1963 . . ., Conservationists Involvement in Alaska, TWSthru 1975, Swem Papers. At this date the Service only had one ranger on duty at Katmai.
92. John M. Kauffmann to Norman C. Dyhrenfurth, November 24, 1964, Alaska Travel, Swem and others, Swem Papers; Interview of John Kauffmann, December 5, 1983; Mission 66 Project Report, p. 53. The film, "Magnificance in Trust," was a Mission 66 project.
94. Mission 66 Progress Report, p. 2; National Park Service Newsletter, December 29, 1966. Hartzog's "Parkscape USA," was a long-range program designed to cope with increasing public demand on the national parks, and to meet responsibilities that President Lyndon B. Johnson called the "new conservation".
96. Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983; Interview of George Collins, November 18, 1983; Interview of Stanley Albright by Frank Williss, June 29, 1984. As a member of the Governing Council of The Wilderness Society, moreover, Swem had a particular interest in protection of wilderness areas.
97. George B. Hartzog, Jr. to George L. Collins, Nov. 13, 1964, Alaska Travel, Swem and others, Swem Papers; Interview of George Collins Nov. 18, 1983. Similar task forces looked at other areas in the country.
98. George Collins, who had retired from the Park Service in 1960, served as chairman. Robert Luntey had worked with Collins on the Alaska Recreation Survey. Other were Sigurd Olson and Doris F. Leonard, who was Collins' partner in a private conservation venture, Conservation Associates. John Kauffmann, who served as editorial assistant, played a larger part than that title implies.
101. "Alaska, A Plan for Action," 1966, typescript in Brown Files, ARO. Allin called for establishment of four additional areas, Wood-Tikchik (recreation area), Saint Elias-Wrangell mountains (National Park), Alatna region (National Park), and Lake Clark Pass (National Monument). Other recommendations included establishment of a NPS "Office of Alaska Affairs," and early attention to the Landmark Program.
102. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Federal Field Committee, Economic Development in Alaska A Report to the President (Washington D.C.: GPO, 1966). A joint federal-state committee, the Federal Field Committee was formed to assist the state in long-range economic planning and development. It grew out of the Federal Reconstruction and Planning Commission, established to assist in rebuilding Alaska following the disasterous earthquake of March 27, 1964.
104. National Park Service Newsletter, 3, no. 21 (Oct. 17, 1968), p. 1; Everhart, National Park Service (1972), p. 239; USDI, NPS, The National Park Service Program in Alaska (October 1967), Historical Files, Brown Files, ARO. In 1967 a contemplated ten-year development program for Alaska included $10,651,000 for Glacier Bay, $7,810,000 for Katmai, $23,768,000 for Mt. McKinley, and $367,400 for Sitka.
106. "Trip Report by Stanley A. Cain, Assistant Secretary for Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Accompanying the Advisory Board . . . on Field TripJuly 30 to August 10, 1965, in Alaska," Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; "Press Conference, August 1, 1965, Juneau, Alaska, Secretary Stewart Udall, and Governor William A. Egan," Ibid.; "Summary Minutes of Meetings held in Alaska on August 4, 1965, August 8, 1965," Ibid.; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983; Interview of George B. Hartzog, Jr., Dec. 7, 1983. The presence of Secretary Udall for a part of the trip was an unexpected bonus. His trip undoubtedly contributed to his interest in the state and in establishing additional areas there.
107. Theodor R. Swem to George B. Hartzog, Jr., March 20, 1964, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; Governor's Briefing Book; October 10, 1967, Historical Files, Brown Files, ARO; Interview of George B. Hartzog, Jr., December 7, 1983; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983. The meeting was set up by Joseph Fitzgerald, chairman of the Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska.
108. Entry of Aug. 8, 1965, Swem Diary, Swem Papers; Theodor Swem to George B. Hartzog, Jr., Sept. 21, 1965, Follow-up slips, sent, Ibid.; Swem to William J. Briggle, Nov. 18, 1965, Personal Correspondence, Ibid.; Swem to Regional Director, April 13, 1966, Alaska up to Native Claims, Ibid.; Interview of Merrill Mattes by Frank Williss, June 21, 1983; Interview of Bailey O. Breedlove by Frank Williss, Nov. 10, 1983. Smith was ill, and died a short while later.
109. Swem to Senator Bartlett, Dec. 20, 1966, New Area Studies, 1966-1967, Alaska State Files, Office of Legislation, WASO; Harthon L. Bill to Regional Director, Western Region, May 25, 1967, Alaska Up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; Interview of Merrill Mattes, June 21, 1983; Interview of Bailey Breedlove, November 10, 1983. In the winter the superintendent of Mt. McKinley was in the Anchorage Office as well.
110. Bill to Director, Western Region, May 25, 1967; Alaska News Review, February 16, 1970; National Park Service Newsletter, vol. 6, no. 17, August 21, 1971; Anchorage Daily Times, March 31, 1972, Robert Belous Clipping Files, Special Collections Division, Denver Public Library (DPL). Although the Pacific Northwest Regional Office had been established in early 1970, it was not fully staffed until 1971 . In 1972 the Service established the position of state director for Alaska, located in Anchorage. The state director (Stanley T. Albright) had administrative control of all NPS affairs in Alaska, save planning under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Under a 1975 reorganization, the Alaska Area Office assumed control of that function.
111. John Rutter to George Hall, July 26, 1967, L7019-General, ARO Central Files-Inactive, ARO. The state coordinator program was a nationwide one. In terms of operation, superintendents of Glacier Bay and Sitka had full responsibility for their areas.
112. Glen T. Been to Regional Director, Western Region, June 19, 1967, Historical FilesOld Kasaan, Brown Files, ARO; Harry B. Robinson to Bailey Breedlove and Richard Praesil, August 12, 1969, Historical FilesKobuk-Koyukuk, Ibid.; "Suggested Program for Alaska submitted by the Park Planner for the Alaska Field Office for 1967-1968 Calendar Years," October 1967, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; Interview of Merrill Mattes, June 21, 1983; Robert S. Luntey to Bailey Breedlove, April 24, 1969, Historical Files-Alaska General, Brown Files, ARO.
114. USDI, NPS, "A Master Plan for Mount Mckinley National Park" (San Francisco: NPS, 1969 [draft], p. 46. The report was never signed, but in May 1969, Representative John Saylor introduced H.R. 11424, a bill that included the recommended changes. Ibid., Appendix B. Illustration 3 is a map showing the proposed additions. Adolph Murie, whose work Wolves of Mt. McKinley (1944) remains a classic, had long recommended boundary adjustments and in 1965 a chapter of the Pioneers of Alaska recommended a 2,500-square mile boundary extension. Murie, "An Important North Boundary Adjustment," undated MS , and Igloo no. 4, Pioneers of Alaska to Stewart Udall, September 20, 1965, L1417, Acquisition and Disposal of Lands, Park Files, Denali National Park/Preserve.
15. USDI, NPS, Special Report on a Reconnaissance of the Upper Kokuk-Koukuk Region Brooks Range, Northern Alaska (San Francisco: NPS Office of Resource Planning], 1969), p. 32. The name suggested by Mattes"Gates of the Arctic"had been, of course, coined originally by Robert Marshall, who explored and did much to publicize the area. The term applies to two mountains along the North Fork of the Koyukuk River.
116. Interview of Merrill Mattes June 21, 1983; "Master Plan Brief for Katmai National Monument," 1967; USDI, NPS A Master Plan for Proposed Old Kodiak National Memorial (San Francisco: NPS, 1967); USDI, NPS, Alaska Cultural Complex A Reconnaissance Report (San Francisco: NPS , 1969); Theodor Swem to Russell Dickinson, May 11, 1967, follow-up slips, sent, Swem Papers; Robert S. Luntey to District Director, Northwest District, July 15, 1969, Breedlove Papers, HFC; Interview of John Rutter by Frank Williss, May 16, 1984.
118. Ibid; "National Landmark Studies," ANILCA Proposals, Natural Landmark Studies - Non-Park Service, Park Files, Denali National Park/Preserve. Evaluation of the volcanic sites were published as part of a nation-wide study, USDI, NPS, The Works of Volcanism: Sites >Recommended as Potential Natural Landmarks, by Robert H. Rose (Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1977).
119. Telephone Interview of Frank Ugolini, by Frank Williss, June 23, 1983; "Establishment of Natural Landmarks and New Units of the National Park System," undated MS, Natural Landmarks Briefs, Library, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, Denver.
120. USDI, NPS, The arctic lowland region: natural potential landform and lifeform national landmarks, by Robert L. Detterman Washington, D.C.: NPS, 1977). Volcanic studies, as mentioned, would be published as part of a nation-wide survey in 1977.
121. Federal Register, vol. 48, no. 4, (March 1, 1983), pp. 8682-683; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983; Interview of Richard Stenmark, July 26, 1983. Important in this effort, too, would be knowledge of historical and archeological areas identified by Charles Snell and Arthur A. Woodward in 1961.
122. United States Department of the Interior, Press Release, June 27, 1969, Alaska National Parks Study Committee, Swem Papers; Interview of Richard Stenmark, July 26, 1983; Stenmark to Co-chairman/Files, August 31, 1977, L-48, Director of Professional Services, Box 17, Alaska Task Force Files, FARC, Seattle; Ronald Remykoff, "Preliminary Report, Alaska Parks and Monuments Advisory Committee, Final Draft," undated report in APA-MAC Preliminary Report, Richard Stenmark Files, HFC; "Proposals and Potential Areas in Alaska for Study and Review," September 15, 1970, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers. The Advisory Committee itself had no impact, and in fact, never held a meeting. However, Stenmark's work would be an important contribution to the Service's knowledge of Alaska.
123. Ernest J. Borgman to Director, Pacific Northwest Region, January 21, 1971, Stenmark Files, HFC. The Park Service was the lead agency in preparing the recreation and tourism section of the land use chapter of the two-volume report, published in 1971 . Alaska Recreation and Tourism Resources, Land Use Chapter, "Interim Economic Development Plan for Alaska", prepared for the Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska by the Alaska Office, NPS, February 5, 1971, Xerox copy in Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.
124. "National Park System Alaska Plan, Summary," November 17, 1971, Exhibit 48-a, Cook Inlet Lawsuit Files, ANILCA Papers, USDI; USDI, NPS, National Park System Plan, 2 vols. (Washington, D. C. GPO, 1970). The studies were done in accordance with Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall's Policy Guidelines for National Park Service, June 18, 1969. The National Park System Plan divided the system into historical and natural areas. Each category was sub-divided into themes. It was hoped that this would provide for a more orderly "rounding out" of the National Park System.
125. Press Conference, August 1, 1965, Juneau, Alaska, Secretary Stewart Udall and Governor William A. Egan, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; Lewis A. [Sigler] to Senator Ernest Gruening, February 14, 1967, W-38, Legislative Support Data, Glacier Bay, ARO Central Files, Inactive, ARO; Richard Stenmark to Co-chairman/Files, L-58, Division of Professional Services File, Box 17, Alaska Task Force Files, FARO, Seattle; "Alaska," undated MS, document 002262, ANILCA Papers, USDI; Robert J. Branges to Files, April 30, 1969, Alaska to Native Claims, Swem Papers; U.S. Congress, House, A Bill to provide for the addition of certain lands to the Mount McKinley National Park in the state of Alaska and for other purposes, H.R. 11424, 91st Cong., 1st sess., 1969; and H.R. 11423, A Bill to Establish Gates of the Arctic National Park . . .
126. Theodor R. Swem to James Hamilton, June 23, 1969, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; Swem to James Hamilton, June 23, 1969, Ibid; Whitehorse Star, Sept. 4, 1969, Skagway through 1970, Park Files, Klondike National Historical Park, Skagway, Alaska; "Outline of Program for Possible International Historic Park in Alaska, British Columbia and Yukon Territory" confidential MS, September 4, 1969, Xerox provided author by Theodor Swem. Sigard Olson had mentioned a park in Skagway as early as 1963 and had lobbied with the Secretary's Advisory Board since then to gain their support for such a project.
127. Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983; Russell E. Train to Secretary of Interior, September 15, 1969, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers; Draft of letter to Speaker of the House, January 28, 1972, Ibid.; George B. Hartzog, Jr. to Secretary of the Interior, January 14, 1972, ANCSA Implementation, 1971-April 1972, Ibid.; Department of State Briefing Papers, April 1972, Ibid.; USDI, NPS, A Conceptual Master Plan (modified) for the Proposed Alaska National Park (Denver: NPS, 1972). (Illustration 5 is a map of the proposed park). The story of the proposed Alaska National Park is a fascinating one, far too complex to be studied here. Hopefully, it will be examined in depth at a future date.
128. Information on this complex series of events is examined in USDI, NPS, "History of the Johnson Proclamations, 1968-69," by James A. Husted, Sept. 9, 1970, Alaska to Native Claims, Swem Papers and Box 39, WASO Files, ANILCA Papers, USDI; "Five Versions: Why LBJ Changed His Mind on Parks," Washington, D.C., Evening Star, Jan. 27, 1969; Robert Cahn, "How National Park Plan Slipped Away," Christian Science Monitor, Jan. 23, 1969, pp. 1-4; John P. Crevelli, "The Final Act of the Greatest Conservation President," Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives VII (Winter 1980), pp. 173-84; Interview of Theodor R. Swem June 8, 1983; Interview of George B. Hartzog, Jr., Dec. 7, 1983.
129. Crevelli, "Greatest Conservation President," p. 176; Stewart Udall to Solicitor, Acting Assistant Secretary Clarence Pautzke, and Director Hartzog, September 4, 1968. Quoted in Husted, "Johnson Proclamations." p. l.
130. Husted, "Johnson Proclamations," p. 1 . The original six Alaska areas proposed were Mount McKinley (lands adjacent to park), Wrangell Mountains, St. Elias Range, Lake Clark, Gates of the Arctic, and St. Lawrence Island. Other areas later considered were additions to Katmai National Monument and the Wood-Tikchik area.
131. Husted, "History of the Johnson Proclamations," pp. 15, 12; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983. The name, "Gates of the Arctic," not the resources in the area, determined the configuration of that proposed monument. Accepting BLM objections to the east unit, Secretary Udall decided on a single-unit monument (west unit). When he learned that the geological formation bearing that name was in the east unit, he reversed himself in order to name the area "Gates of the Arctic." Otherwise the proposal would have been a one-unit Arctic Circle National Monument.
132. So sure were Park Service officials that the president would sign all seven proclamations they had mailed press releases and information packets to all Park Service units and offices on January 18. The next day Theodor Swem called each one telling them to hold the material. A second call went out the following day instructing each office to destroy the material, unopened. Husted, "Johnson Proclamations," p. 15; Interview of Theodor R. Swem, June 8, 1983.
133. These are reasons given by authors listed in footnote 128. George Hartzog accepts the last reason, on the basis of discussion he had with Wayne Aspinall shortly thereafter. Interview of George B. Hartzog, Jr., December 7, 1983.
134. Husted, "Johnson Proclamation," p. 15; Crevelli, "Greatest Conservation President," p. 104. President Johnson had already dressed for the inauguration when he signed the proclamations. The Service had been interested in an extension to Katmai that would have included Naknek Lake for some time. "Recommendations for Boundary Revision, Katmai National Monument," by Lowell Sumner, October 21, 1952, HFC; George B. Hartzog to Walter J. Hickel, December 7, 1967, Alaska up to Native Claims, Swem Papers.