Historic Resource Study
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Chapter 1

1. Rodman Wilson Paul, California Gold, The Beginning of Mining in the Far West (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1947), pp. 22-23.

2. Rodman Wilson Paul, Mining Frontiers of the Far West (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963), p. 16. In his California Gold, p. 21, Paul gives the California census count at the close of 1849 as 100,000 people and at the close of 1852 as 223,000.

3. Paul, California Gold, p. 95; Philip A. Lydon and J. C. O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources of Shasta County California, County Report 6, 1974 (Sacramento: State of California, 1974), p. 3; John S. Hittell, Mining in the Pacific States of North America (San Francisco: H. H. Bancroft & Company, 1861), p. 17.

4. Edward Washington McIlhany, Recollections of a '49er (Kansas City, Missouri: Hailman Printing Company, 1908, p. 39.

5. Alta California, August 2, 1849, quoted in Mae Helen Bacon Boggs, My Playhouse Was A Concord Coach (Oakland: Howell-North Press, 1942), p. 30.

6. J. D. B. Stillman, The Gold Rush Letters of J. D. B. Stillman (Palo Alto: Lewis Osborne, 1967), p. 37. In the early mining days the northern mines were all those found on tributaries on the Sacramento River. For the purposes of this report, they constitute the mines to the west and north of Shasta. Paul, California Gold, p. 91.

7. Quotes from Sacramento Placer Times, February 2, 1850, Alta California, March 21, 1850, an Sacramento Transcript, August 13, 1850, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, pp. 41, 46, and 60; see also Paul, California Gold, p. 95. The rich deposits of gold on the Trinity River prompted the rapid development of a stage line to Weaverville. The Sacramento Placer Times of May 24, 1850, announced the "New Stage Arrangements For All The Northern Mines." The line ran through Hangtown to Weaverville and missed Shasta altogether. A month earlier the Alta California announced the opening of a land route from Sonomo to Trinity Diggings which could be covered by horse or wagon. Quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, pp. 50, 54.

8. Sacramento Union, June 18, 1851, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 85. The newspaper reporter also added that he had just received a letter from a friend in Shasta who found himself "occassionally startled by the exhibition of large lumps of pure gold taken out of the mines in this vicinity." In contrast to the initial account of the weight of gold lumps coming from Whiskey Creek, the writer explained that miners daily extracted lumps ranging in weight from $5 to $100.

9. The statistics on population come from Paul, California Gold, p. 106.

10. Pen Pictures from the Garden of the World, Memorial and Bibliographical History of Northern California (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1891, p. 785; Owen C. Coy, Guide to the County Archives of California (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1919), p. 491. Coy explains that the act of February 18, 1850, creating Shasta County included practically all of the northern portion of the state. In Pen Pictures, p. 785, William Magee is described as one of the country's most prominent citizens. During the 1860s he served as the U.S. land surveyor for the county, and joined Charles Camden in the discovery of silver and gold on Iron Mountain, later to be famous for copper deposits.

11. Sacramento Union, March 20, 1852, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 121. Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, San Francisco: The History Company, 1888), vol. 6, History of California 1848-1859, p. 440. According to Albert F. Ross, the people of Reading's Springs assembled on June 8, 1850, and changed the name to Shasta. In February 1851, after the first county officials had been elected, County Judge W. R. Harrison and two justices went to Reading's Ranch, made the decision to move the county seat, and that very evening took the records back with them to Shasta, with the full approval and consent of Major Reading. Albert F. Ross, "Whiskeytown," July 16, 1963, MS, H14 Files, Historic Preservation Team, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado, pp. 2-3 (depository hereinafter cited as NPS DSC). On February 16, 1851, the county records noted "what is called now Town of Shasta the Seat of Justice for Shasta County State of California (formerly known as Reading's Springs.)" [Named after Major Reading, the correct spelling was Reading's Springs, but often was spelled Redding's.] Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 75. No doubt most, if not all, of the early white men in northern California followed Indian trails through the wilderness, as did Charles Camden and Levi Tower on their return to Humboldt Bay from the mines in May 1850. San Francisco Alta California, May 25, 1850, cited in ibid., p. 54.

12. Paul, California Gold, p. 30; Oscar O. Winthrop, Via Western Express and Stagecoach (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1945), p. 8; Rosena A. Giles, Shasta County, California, A History (Oakland: Biobooks, 1949). p. 47.

13. According to Charles Camden, several miners were killed in the vicinity of Shasta during the spring of 1851, one of whom died of arrow wounds near the "Four Mile House" close to Whiskey Creek. Charles Camden, The Autobiography of Charles Camden (San Francisco: By the Author's Family, 1916), pp. 142, 147, 151-52.

14. Sacramento Transcript, January 22, 1851, and February 1, 1851, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 73.

15. Sacramento Transcript, March 12, 1851, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 76.

16. Sacramento Union, March 20, 1852, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 121; San Francisco Alta California, May 19, 1852, quoted in ibid., p. 129.

17. San Francisco Alta California, March 19, 1852, copied in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 121. In March 1851 the state of California was investigating post routes from Sacramento to Shasta by horseback and that summer established Shasta as the post office serving all the region west to Weaverville. Sacramento Transcript, March 5, 1851, quoted in ibid., p. 77; Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 3, NPS, DSC. Judge Ross received his information on the post offices in the area from the records of the U.S. Post Office Department. See Ross's "Amplification of Sources," at the end of "Whiskeytown."

18. The family provided a note to the end of the autobiography which reads in part: "The foregoing narrative was written by Mr. Camden in his eighty-fourth year. He survived for almost twelve years after finishing it, . . . He retained the splendid health and mental and physical vigor that had been his through life. . . . The original manuscript of this narrative, in the plain, steady penmanship and customary concise style of the author, is preserved and treasured by his family." Camden, Autobiography, p. 173. In 1891 Camden received considerable mention as a pioneer who had offered much to the development of northern California but who had never displayed ostentation or vanity. Pen Pictures, pp. 643-44. According to his obituary: "The pioneer was easily the most prominent man in the business affairs of Shasta County from the earliest days. He was a man of the strictest integrity, and though prominent he could never be induced to accept a political position." [Redding] Courier Free Press, August 21, 1912. For additional biographical information on Camden, see Anna Coxe Toogood and David Henderson, Historic Structure Report, Tower House Historic District, Historical and Architectural Data, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California (Denver: National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 1973.)

19. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 109, 113, 116, 119, 123, 131-33, 135-36; San Francisco Alto California, May 25, 1850, and March 21, 1850, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, pp. 46, 54; H. E. and E. G. Rensch and Mildred Booke Hoover, Historic Spots in California Valley and Sierra Counties (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1933), p. 367.

20. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 136-37.

21. Ibid., pp. 138-39.

22. Camden and Tower were well aware of the profits to be made by selling supplies to miners in the frontier mining outposts, for a few months later they embarked on a trip to Shasta Flats, or Yreka, with a mule train of provisions. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 139, 141-42, 155.

23. Ibid., pp. 139, 141-42; for further information on Tower and his commercial accomplishments in Shasta County, see Toogood and Henderson, Tower House Historic District. For several contemporary accounts and recollections of the gold rush partnerships, see Charles Howard Shinn, Mining Camps: A Study in American Frontier Government (1885; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948), pp. 105-7. Paul, in California Gold, p. 123, explains that the high cost of living and high interest rates made partnerships the only practical way to avoid hiring the necessary help when mining with more efficient methods than the pan or rocker.

24. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 154-57; Pen Pictures, p. 643; for more specific information on Camden and his mining, see Toogood and Henderson, Tower House Historic District, pp. 37-44, and the "Historical Base Map's" section of this report.

25. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 163 and 168.

26. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 162, 166-67, 169. Paul points out that there was "a surprising degree of homogeneity" among the miners on account of the sharing of common problems under "conditions of extreme difficulty." Paul, California Gold, p. 69. These circumstances allow for certain generalizations and assumptions about the miners of Clear Creek and vicinity. The drinking problem is discussed later in the text.

27. Paul, California Gold, p. 83; Paul, Mining Frontiers, pp. 17, 26. Paul also reported that the 1850 census showed that almost 92-1/2 percent of the population of California was male, and that even as late as 1859 "a well-informed writer" claimed that there were six men to every woman in the mining regions. Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 39. On November 11, 1852, Camden married Levi Tower's sister, Philena, and Tower married Mary Shuffleton of Iowa in a double wedding at the Free Bridge House, which would become known as the Tower House the following year. San Francisco Alta California, November 17, 1852, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, pp. 139-40 [note that his local wedding made San Francisco news; Toogood and Henderson, Tower House Historic District, pp. 43-44.

28. Records of the Court of Sessions, Shasta County, February 1851-February 1855, pp. 25-26, Probate Office, Shasta County Courthouse, Reddings, California; Camden, Autobiography, p. 152. Paul, in California Gold, p. 75, explains that because construction costs were so high and the miners' impatience so great, until the late 1850s the majority of houses in city, town, and camp were constructed of wood and canvas. Frank Marryat described what he saw at a mining camp on the American Fork in July 1851: "On the banks was a village of canvas that the winter rains had bleached to perfection." Frank Marryat, Mountains and Molehills or Recollections of a Burnt Journal (1855; reprint ed., Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1962), p. 121.

29. Shasta Courier, October 13, 1855, p. 3. Whiskeytown in the decade of the 1850s more commonly was referred to as Whisky Creek, the spelling almost always having no "e." The Records of the Court of Sessions, Shasta County, February 1851-February 1858, p. 9, lists the public houses along the road in May of 1855. According to William Greever, hotels in the less developed mining camps of the gold rush (which presumably includes the camps around Whiskeytown) were typically furnished with a barroom in front, a dining room with long, clothless tables and benches, and one or more bunk rooms for overnight guests. William S. Greever, The Bonanza West: The Story of Western Mining Rushes 1848-1900 (Norman: University Oklahoma Press, 1963), p. 59.

30. A plat and survey of ninety-seven acres about four miles northwest of Shasta City was completed in November 1852 for Wingate and Farrington. The land lay on the bend of Clear Creek above the sawmill. Record Book B, p. 329, Recorder of Deeds Office, Shasta County Courthouse, Redding, California (depository hereinafter cited as RDO, SCC). Between March and November 1854 Camden completed his saw and flour mill on Clear Creek. Record Book R, pp. 263, and 314, RDO, SCC. Everett F. Crocker was a lumber merchant doing business in Shasta by May of 1854. Liens, 1852-1862, p. 67, RDO, SCC. M. C. Davis' water rights claim is recorded in Record Book R, p. 523, RDO, SCC. In 1871 E. C. Crocker sold his sawmill to John Fleming who since 1868 had been operating his own sawmill nearby on the forks of Brandy Creek. Deed Book 3, p. 492, RDO, SCC. Fleming advertised his Brandy Creek Sawmill with its warehouse outlet in Shasta in the Shasta Courier on July 24, 1869, p. 1. Almost no mention was made in the local press or records to the logging industry, although it definitely continued during the 1850s and 1860s, and until most of the timber had been exhausted. A description of Shasta in the late 1860s noted that the town had twelve sawmills capable of cutting from 1,000 to 6,000 feet of lumber daily, which makes evident the existing supply of forest was promoting a good business for lumbermen around Shasta. Titus Fey Cronise, The Natural Wealth of California (New York: H. H. Bancroft & Company, 1868), p. 220. Cronise also noted that "the entire northern and western portions of the county are covered with forests of conifers of nearly every variety, except the red wood." Ibid., p. 216.

31. Shasta Courier, May 28, 1853, p. 2. J. D. Borthwick, after visiting the northern mines in 1851, noted, "These little wayside inns, or 'ranches,' as they are usually called in the mines, are generally situated in a spot which offers . . . cultivation." He went on to say that land on the typical ranch was cleared and fenced in and that most ranchers raised oats and barley, all lending an air of comfort and civilization. J. D. Borthwick, Three Years in California (Oakland: Biobooks, 1948), pp. 149-50.

32. Shasta Courier, September 1, 1855, p. 2. In May of 1852 Franklin Vandeventer had a survey of 160 acres at Oak Bottom made on land he claimed for farming and ranching purposes. Record Book B, p. 100, RDO, SCC. Vandeventer ran the hotel at Oak Bottom until 1856, when he sold the property to A. J. Van Wie. Record Book E, p. 368, RDO, SCC. For further information on Oak Bottom, see the "Historical Base Maps" section of this report. Levi Tower won both local and regional fame for his orchards and gardens which he first planted in 1851. Shasta Courier, August 19, 1854, p. 2. Tower gave Philena, his sister, "a full right and interest in the ditch that brings water for the purpose of irrigation," as part of her wedding present in November 1852. Record Book C, p. 241, RDO, SCC. Mix's land claim for building purposes was made on July 12, 1853. Record Book R, p. 109, RDO, SCC. His additional land claim made on March 14, 1855. Record Book R, pp. 330, 356, 428, RDO, SCC.

33. Shasta Courier, August 19, 1854, September 16, 1854, July 28, 1855, and August 18, 1855; Pen Pictures, pp. 644-45; "An Ascent of Mount Shasta in 1861" (from the journal of Richard G. Stanwood), California Historical Society Quarterly 6, no. 1 (March 1927):69-70. For quotations from the Shasta Courier articles, see Toogood and Henderson, Tower House Historic District, pp. 45-49. The above Stanwood journal description was not included in the historic structure report for the Tower House.

34. For an excellent contemporary description of the various types and methods of placer mining, see "Modes of Placer Mining," Mining and Scientific Press 3, no. 13 (June 23, 1861): 3; no. 14 (June 29, 1861): 3; no. 17, (July 6, 1861): 6; and no. 18 (July 27, 1861): 2. In Mining Frontiers, p. 32, Paul states that a modern statistician has claimed that 99 percent of all the gold obtained between 1848 and 1860 came from placer mines. Paul provides a very readable explanation of placer mining in the first fifty pages of the same source, as well as in California Gold, pp. 55-65.

35. Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 135; Camden, Autobiography, p. 140; Pen Pictures., p. 647.

36. Shasta Courier, April 16, 1853, Supplement, p. 3, July 30, 1853, p. 2, and October 8, 1853, p. 3; California Census of 1852, vol. 9, California State Library, Sacramento, California (copied by the Genealogical Records Commission, Daughters of the American Revolution of California, 1935).

37. San Francisco Alta California, May 19, 1852, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 129. A flume is an inclined channel for conveying water from a distance to be utilized for power, transportation, irrigation, etc. For a chronological sketch of mining throughout California, see Paul, California Gold, passim.

38. Shasta Courier, April 16, 1853, Supplement, p. 8, July 30, 1853, p. 3, and October 8, 1953, p. 2. See Appendix G for a sample list of placer mining companies.

39. Quote from Shasta Republican, October 20, 1855, p. 2; see also Shasta Courier, April 1, 1854, August 22, 1854, p. 23, and November 24, 1865, p. 2, and Record Book E, pp. 655-56, RDO, SCC. For specific names and locations of the mining companies along Clear Creek, see "Historical Base Maps" section of this report.

40. Shasta Courier, August 11, 1855, p. 2, and June 9, 1855, p. 2; Otis E. Young, Western Mining: An Informal Account of Precious-Metals Prospecting, Placering, Lode Mining, and Milling on the American Frontier From Spanish Times to 1893 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970), p. 131. Mining and Scientific Press 16, no. 2 (January 11, 1868):2 describes some of the methods other than "hydraulicking," used by the miners to break down hillsides and creek banks for ready washing in the sluice boxes: "To this end pits were opened in the alluvial flats and basins, shafts were sunk and audits driven into the deep-seated gravel beds, and immense magazines of powder, placed in chambers excavated for the purpose, were exploded, shattering to fragments thousands of tons of earth, and thus rendering it easily broken down and washed away in currents of water." Such methods also called for a ready water supply and thus promoted ditch digging in the mining regions.

41. Shasta Courier, August 11, 1855, p. 2, and August 25, 1855, p. 2.

42. Ibid., August 25, 1855, p. 2. Very likely about this time Camden dug his largest single piece of gold, which weighed $190. Camden, Autobiography, p. 153.

43. Shasta Republican, January 5, 1856, p. 2.

44. Shasta Courier, March 1, 1856, p. 2; see also Shasta Republican, April 12, 1856, p. 2. The latter described the mining operations at Grizzley and Oak Bottom: "Large nuggets are frequently found in this region [Grizzley Gulch], and high up upon the tributary gulches of Grizzly the richest deposits are found deep in the hillsides, in the beds of the 'lost' ravines which have been obliterated by the volcanic agencies which formed the present mountains." The hillside deposits were usually broken up by high water pressure or by explosives, and then washed in the sluice boxes. At Oak Bottom "about a mile below Grizzly, the country exhibits similar features," the article continued. "On the west side of Clear Creek, a lead of richly paying ground has for about two years been worked with the 'hydraulic apparatus,' by Messrs. Eastman & Co. If we recollect rightly, the depth of the deposit at these diggings is about thirty feet, and the general course of the lead appears to about northwest and southeast. Following its course across Clear Creek, the same deposit can be seen in the point of the hill at the end of Oak Bottom, and at some future day, it will no doubt be followed far into the hill by some enterprising miners."

45. Shasta Republican, November 15, 1856, p. 2.

46. Ibid., January 24, 1857, p. 2.

47. Quote from Shasta Courier, February 20, 1858, p. 2; see also Shasta Republican, August [13], 1857, p. 2, February 13, 1858, and February 27, 1858, p. 2.

48. Shasta Republican, September 25, October 9, 16, 23, and 30, 1858. The Republican noted on March 5 that the survey had been completed through to Lower Springs and that the construction would take less than three months, so that any work done must have been between that date and the law suit notice.

49. Ibid., February 20, 1858, p. 2.

50. William Henry Brewer, Up and Down California in 1860-64, The Journal of William Henry Brewer, ed. Francis P. Farquhar, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930), p. 325.

51. Quotes from Shasta Courier, January 11, 1868, p. 2, and Mining and Scientific Press 16, no. 2 (January 11, 1868): 20; see also Mining and Scientific Press 3, no. 18 (August 3, 1861): 5.

52. Cronise, The Natural Wealth of California, pp. 218, 220; see also Shasta Courier, March 2, 1867, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 481. Even though the mining had dwindled, the voting registers of 1867 for Whiskeytown precinct showed that of the fifty-nine registered voters, 73 percent were miners. General List of Citizens of the United States, Resident in the County of Shasta and Registered in the Great Register (Shasta: Shasta Courier, 1867), p. 317.

53. Rossiter W. Raymond, Statistics of Mines and Mining in the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains For Year 1872 Being the Fifth Annual Report (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1863), p. 143.

54. Ross, "Whiskeytown," pp. 12-13, NPS, DSC; Drayton Gibbs, comp., "Map of the States of California and Nevada" (San Francisco: Warren Holt, 1875), reproduced in Carl Wheat, The Maps of the California Gold Region 1848-1856 (San Francisco: The Grabhorn Press, 1942, no page.

55. Shasta Courier, November 19, 1853, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 180. According to Charles Camden, Tower's brother-in-law, this was "the first preliminary free wagon road from Tower House to Shasta. Pen Pictures, p. 645. The twelfth road district ran "from the crossing of Clear Creek at Shorts and Smith trading post to the County line on the French Gulch Road to trinity river." Court of Sessions, February 1851-February 1858, pp. 70-72, Probate Office, SCC; see also Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 3, NPS, DSC. According to the, records of the Court of Sessions in September 1852, the mouth of Mad Mule Canyon, Whiskey Creek, and Oak Bottom all were collection areas for county and state taxes, indicating the concentration of population at these localities. Court of Sessions, February 1851-February 1858, p. 99, Probate Office, SCC.

56. Records of the Board of Supervisors, February 1851-February 1858, Shasta County Court of Sessions, pp. 104, 170, 185; Shasta Courier December 3, 1853, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 181. When Tower purchased the Tower House property late in 1852, a free bridge had already been constructed at the site. Record Book A, p. 463, RDO, SCC. Tower renewed his license through 1857, and in 1858 he constructed a new bridge. See first item in this footnote for license renewal citations. The Shasta Republican, June 26, 1858, p. 2, reported that the new bridge across Clear Creek at the Tower House would soon be completed. See also Shasta Courier, October 28, 1854, p. 2.

57. Shasta Courier, October 22, 1853, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 178.

58. Shasta Courier, November 17, 1855, p. 2; see also ibid., January 7, 1854, p. 2, and Shasta Republican, March 15, 1856. The statement that the county depended on private investments for road building is based on comments made in the Shasta Courier, November 19, 1853, and Camden, Autobiography, p. 159.

59. In February 1855 Tower was a member of the Shasta County Board of Supervisors for Roads, and in November 1855 he was unanimously elected its chairman. He continued to serve on the board at least until March 1856. Shasta Courier, March 1, 1856, p. 2; and April 3, 1858, p. 2; Shasta Herald, June 12, 1858, p. 2; Records of the Board of Supervisors, p. 9, RDO, SCC.

60. Quote from Sacramento Union, October 16, 1857, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 288; Shasta Republican, June 26, 1858, p. 2, and May 16, 1861; Record Book G, p. 56, RDO SCC. In January 1858 L. H. Tower and six associates announced that they intended to form a joint stock company to construct a "Turnpike Road" between the Mountain House and Yreka, and that their preliminary planning meeting would be held the following February. Shasta Republican, January 16, 1858, p. 3. In the Shasta Courier of December 28, 1861, as quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 399, Charles Camden and associates William Magee, Edmund Hindman, Grant I. Taggart, William McKeag, Joseph Chitwood, John F. Camden, S. W. Clark, and James Bushee announced their intention "of constructing a Turnpike Road from the Tower House to the Four Mile House," and that they planned to meet at the Tower House on January 18, 1862, for a preliminary meeting. Evidently, the route surveyed by Camden's group did not satisfy the entire community, for in the same newspaper edition, another group of men—Mathew Burns, J. W. Moddy, Gottell Duboice, Howard Turner, Kenton Sevedge, Jos. Louis, James Wade, Mathew Donahue, Pat Donahue Joseph Grant, and Michael Foley—gave notice that they would meet at the Tower House on January 9, 1862, to discuss their plan to construct "a Turnpike Road from the mouth of Grizzly Gulch to the Tower House bridge, on Clear Creek . . . and to run above Smith and Company's ditch, on the side of the ridge, on an easy grade, and above all high water."

61. Brewer, Up and Down California, p. 325; see also Shasta Courier, February 15, 1862, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 401.

62. Shasta Herald, February 25, 1860, p. 2; Camden, Autobiography, p. 159; Shasta Courier, March 28, 1863, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 405; Toogood and Henderson, Tower House Historic District, p. 40.

63. Shasta Courier, September 3, 1864, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 415; see also R. H. Cross, "The Early Inns of California, Shasta County," March 1, 1941, MS, at California Historical Society, San Francisco, California.

64. Shasta Courier, August 17, 1867, quoted in Boggs, My Playhouse, p. 500. On March 2, 1867, the Courier reported on the heavy damages which the rain storm caused to Camden's road: "The heavy rains caused Whisky Creek to rise to such a height that the waters flowed over the top of the old bridge," and Mr. Craddock, a stage driver found the grade between Shasta and Whiskeytown in "horrible condition." In some places the holes in the road had been washed out to the depth of two or three feet, and were wide enough for wagon wheels. Quoted in ibid., pp. 480-81.

65. The California Census of the 1852 for Shasta County records a population of 3,448 men and 252 women, or approximately .07 percent women. California Census of 1852, vol. 9, California State Library; Leases, 1:1, RDO, SCC; Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 14, NPS, DSC. The Whiskeytown post office served a large territory, for in 1859 the mail service deliveries, as announced in the Shasta Herald, departed Tuesdays and Thursdays from Shasta and made stops only at Whisky Creek, Lewiston, and Weaverville, with return trips on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Shasta Herald, August 20, 1859. p. 1.

66. Shasta Courier, May 13, 1854, p. 2.

67. Ibid., June 24, 1854, p. 2.

68. Shasta Republican, November 27, 1855, p. 3.

69. Ibid., December 8, 1855, p. 2.

70. Ibid., August 16, 1856, p. 2; see also Shasta Courier, October 29, 1853, p. 2; January 14, 1854, p. 2; November 7, 1855, November 24, 1855, p. 3; and December 22, 1855, p. 2.

71. Shasta Republican, September 19, 1857, p. 2.

72. Shasta Courier, September 1, 1855, p. 2; see also Paul, California Gold, p. 28, Paul also noted that the German immigration to California during the gold rush was second only to England among the European countries. Tower's property has received rave reviews as early as August 1855 by the Shasta County correspondent: "Rusticating a few days for my health, at one of the most delightful places in this State, and the only spot in this section of the country for recreation; surrounded by majestic mountains, luxuriant verdure, flowers and rich fruit, with cool bracing air, invigorating the system after the depressing effects of the great heat of the valley." Shasta Courier, August 25, 1855, p. 2.

73. Shasta Herald, April 28, 1860, p. 2. According to Judge Ross's research, "Whiskeytown itself never was very large. Probably no more than 150 people lived at the town at any one time. The district, however, which covers Whiskeytown voting precinct, took in the territory covering all of Whiskey Creek and its tributaries, Oak Bottom, Grizzly Gulch and along the crest of the hills to the East Fork of Clear Creek above French Gulch, and there were usually more persons in the district outside the town than at the site of the town. It is said there were over 1000 people in the district in the year 1855, which was probably the high point in its population." Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 13, NPS, DSC.

74. Shasta Courier, July 27, 1861, p. 2, quoted in Cross, "Early Inns," pp. 28-29, California Historical Society. Judge Ross related that during the Civil War Whiskeytowners went to Shasta frequently for some patriotic occasion, and that most of them, like the majority of Shasta County citizens, were behind the Union cause. Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 12, NPS, DSC.

75. Toogood and Henderson, Tower House Historic District, pp. 33, 45-53. The latter page reference provides information concerning the Tower House as a cultural microcosm prior to ca. 1880. Judge Ross maintained that after the close of the Civil War, the social calender at Whiskeytown resumed, with balls and other typical gatherings. Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 12, NPS, DSC.

76. Shasta Courier, July 30, 1853, p. 1, and June 20, 1855, p. 2; Court of Sessions, Shasta County, February 1851-February 1858, pp. 26, 70-72, RDO, SCC.

77. J. Lamson, Round Cape Horn, Voyage of the Passenger-Ship James W. Paige From Maine to California in the Year 1852 (Bangor: Press of O. F. and W. H. Knowles, 1878), pp. 135-37. Frank Vandeventer sold the Oak Bottom House to A. J. Van Wie in February 1856. Deed Book E, p. 358, RDO, SCC. Judge Ross provided an undocumented detail concerning the social events at the Whiskeytown hotel: "Ben Mix used to have turkey shoots near his hotel in the fifties." Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 11, NPS, DSC.

78. Shasta Courier, February 4, 1860, p. 3; see also Ross, "Whiskeytown," pp. 7, 11, NPS, DSC. According to Ross (whose sources are not given), "A school was started in Shasta in 1853 and a schoolhouse built late in 1854, and first used in January 1855. By then there were quite a few children of school age in Shasta, and there must have been some in Whiskytown. It was declared to be a part of the Shasta School District, but there is no record available showing that any pupils went into Shasta to school, nor that a teacher went to Whiskytown. The Whiskytown School District formed in 1859 and an elementary school was continuously maintained until with the consolidation with French Gulch in the past year." During its first three years the Whiskeytown school could not have been very active, for in January 1858, the Shasta Republican noted that "no school has been kept at Middletown, nor Whisky Creek, nor French Gulch." Shasta Republican, January 30, 1858, p. 1.

79. Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 7, NPS, DSC.

80. Shasta Courier, August 11, 1855, p. 2, and October 13, 1855, p. 3; see also Shasta Courier, July 23, 1853, July 30, 1853, p. 3, March 11, 1854, p. 1, and January 2, 1858, p. 1.

81. Daniel B. Woods, Sixteen Months at the Gold Diggings (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), pp. 102-103. Woods was mining at Curtis' Creek, California. Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 26. As Greever pointed out and as this writer personally experienced, poison oak was troublesome in the mining areas; also, for the miners, mercury evaporation from the gold pans and sluices often caused eye troubles. Greever, The Bonanza West, p. 58.

82. Hittell, Mining in the Pacific States, quoted in Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 95.

83. Shasta Republican, June 7, 1856, p. 2, August 23, 1856, p. 2, February 7, 1857, p. 2, February 6, 1858, p. 2, April 3, 1858, p. 2, and April 24, 1858, p. 2; ibid., September 1864, as quoted in Cross, "Early Inns," p. 28, California Historical Society.

84 Camden, Autobiography, pp. 152-53; see also Winthrop, Via Western Express, p. 83, and Greever, The Bonanza West, p. 77.

85. Shasta Courier, February 23, 1856, p. 2.

86. Shasta Republican, February 29, 1857, p. 2, and May 15, 1858, p. 2. In Mining Frontiers, p. 8, Paul concluded, "Through carelessness, unfamiliarity with one another, and absorption with money—getting, the early mining population allowed local government and the administration of justice to lapse very nearly beyond recovery," which may explain the seeming indifference to convicting or pursuing law breakers.

87. Shinn, Mining Camps, pp. 7, 184, 151-52.

88. Marryatt, Mountains and Molehills, p. 124, quoted in Shinn, Mining Camps, pp. 146, 152.

89. Shinn, Mining Camps, p. 140.

90. Shinn, Mining Camps, p. 159; see also Hittell, Mining in the Pacific States, pp. 176 ff., and William Irelan, Jr., Sixth Annual Report the State Mineralogist, Part II (Sacramento: James J. Ayers,

91. Camden, Autobiography, pp. 141-42, 147, 152, 158. The last reference relates that Camden traveled to Europe in 1859 with his two children "and the Indian girl Kate," which may indicate that at least some of the Indian population assumed roles in the serving class of the white man's society. Camden, however, was an exceptional individual in the area of Shasta, and may have broken an unwritten social code without suffering the usual consequences born by poorer members of the community.

92. Shinn, Mining Camps, pp. 203-4; see also Paul, California Gold, p. 28.

93. Shasta Republican, April 5, 1856; see also Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 45, NPS, DSC. In his California Gold, p. 28, Paul notes that the state census of 1852 claimed that the Chinese population had reached 25,000, an enormous increase over the federal count of 660 in 1850. By 1860 the Chinese population was 34,933 out of a total population in California of 380,000. Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 35. Shinn qualified his statements on the restrictions put on Chinese miners with the observation: "In many of the camps of the flush period, however, Chinamen were allowed to hold and work claims, by paying their foreign tax." Mining Camps, p. 204.

94. Shasta Republican, December 26, 1857, p. 2; Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 35.

95. Shasta Herald, February 25, 1860, p. 2.

96. Deed Book 3, p. 45, and Deed Book 5, p. 31, RDO, SCC. Chinese miners were also working around the Tower House in October 1866, as a damage suit was brought against them by Charles Camden for washing away his toll road. Deed Book 2, p. 478, RDO, SCC.

97. Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 11, NPS, DSC.

Chapter 2

1. Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. xii.

2. B. F. Frank and H. W. Chappell, The History and Business Directory of Shasta County 1881 (Redding: Redding Independent Book and Job Printing House, 1881), pp. 169-70.

3. Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 3. For a description of a quartz mine and its operations at French Gulch in 1855, see Shasta Courier, August 25, 1855, p. 2.

4. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 41; Record Book R, p. 11, RDO, SCC.

5. The [California] State Register and Year Book of Facts: For the Year 1859 (San Francisco: Henry G. Lanley and Samuel A. Morison, 1859), p. 41.

6. Hittell, Mining in the Pacific States, p. 98.

7. Henry G. Hanks, Sixth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist, Part I (Sacramento: J. J. Ayers, 1886), pp. 11-13; see also William Irelan, Eighth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist (Sacramento: J. D. Young, 1888), p. 692, and Paul, Mining Frontiers, p. 32. For a discussion of contemporary stamp mills, their operation and power; of assaying and sampling gold; of specifications for a twenty-stamp quartz mill; and of mine timbering methods, see Irelan, Sixth Annual Report, pp. 90-92; E. B. Preston, California Gold Mill Practices, California State Mining Bureau Bulletin no. 6 (San Francisco, 1895), 85 pp.; W. H. Storms, Methods of Mine Timbering, California State Mining Bureau Bulletin no. 2 (San Francisco, 1894), 58 pp. The freight costs of the required stamp mill equipment must have also been prohibitive to some people, for a five-stamp mill weighted 23,825 pounds and a ten-stamp mill weighed 39,810 pounds according to the state mining report for 1886. Irelan, Sixth Annual Report, pp. 88-90.

8. Quotes from Hanks, Sixth Annual Report, p. 11, and P. C. Du Bois, F. M. Anderson, J. H. Tibbitts, and G. A. Tweedy, The Copper Resources of California, California State Mining Bureau Bulletin no. 23 San Francisco: California State Printing Office, 1902), p. 41; see also J. J. Crawford, Twelfth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist (Sacramento: A. J. Johnston, 1894), p. 244. As Paul notes in Mining Frontiers, p. 32, free milling gold is gold which amalgamates freely with quicksilver after being freed from the rock through the milling or crushing process.

9. Hanks, Sixth Annual Report, p. 11; Preston, California Gold Mill Practices, p. 10.

10. As quoted in Mining and Scientific Press 47, no. 18 (November 1883):284, and no. 26 [?] (December 1883 :397.

11. William G. Hodgson, "Shasta County," Eleventh Report of the State Mineralogist (Sacramento: A. J. Johnston, 1893), pp. 397-98; J. J. Crawford, Twelfth Report, pp. 247, 248, 250, 252, 253, 257. At least one mine owned by Whiskeytowner was operating within the park. The West End Mine, mentioned in an 1883 report, was still being worked in 1894. Crawford, Twelfth Report, p. 260. In the 1890 state mineralogist's report no mines were described for the area within the park. Mining, however, in the area north of the park, and in French Gulch, did receive specific mention. Alexander McGregor, "Shasta County," Tenth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist for the Year Ending December 1, 1890 (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1890), pp. 627-41.

12. Crawford, Twelfth Report, p. 254. By 1902 the Pugh and Lindsay Mine had changed hands and moved sites. The Pugh and Menzall Mine in Section 34, however, still operated with a stamp mill which processed six tons in twenty-four hours. Register of Mines and Minerals, Shasta County, California (San Francisco: California State Mining Bureau, 1902) p. 13.

13. Crawford, Twelfth Report, p. 250.

14. Mining and Scientific Press 77, no. 12 (September 1898):285.

15. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. vii.

16. M. E. Dittmar, "Northern California Resources," in California Mines and Minerals, comp. Edward H. Benjamin (San Francisco: California Miners Association, 1899), p. 373.

17. Register of Mines and Minerals, Shasta County, pp. 4-13. See Appendix J for the list of 1902 quartz mines and mills on the Register which fell within the park boundaries.

18. Mining and Scientific Press 75, no. 18 (October 1897):414.

19. Ibid. 76, no. 9 (February 1898):233, and 77, no. 12 (September 1898):288, and no. 20 (November 1898):485.

20. Dittmar, "Northern California Resources," pp. 373-74.

21. Mining and Scientific Press 78, no. 16 (April 1899):436; see also ibid., February 1899: 155, 211, and March 1899: 267.

22. Ibid. 78, no. 25 (June 1899):670; Register of Mines and Minerals, Shasta County, p. 13.

23. Du Bois et al., The Copper Resources, p. 51.

24. Mining and Scientific Press 80, no. 23 (June 1900):646; ibid. 83, no. 26 (December 1901):289; ibid. 89, no. 23, (December 1904):380; ibid. p. 102, no. 219 (November 1910):687; ibid. p. 104, no. 4 (January 1912):182; ibid. p. 104, no. 8 (February 1912):322; and ibid. p. 105, no. 25 (December 1912):no page.

25. C. A. Logan, "Sacramento Field Division, Shasta County," chapter of Report XXII Mining in California and Activities of the State Mining Bureau (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1926), p. 169; see also Mining and Scientific Press 106, no. 6 (February 1913):251, and no. 18 (May 1913:669; Harry G. Ferguson, "Gold Lodes of Weaverville Quadrangle, California," United States Geological Survey Bulletin no. 540, Part I (1912), p. 39; and G. C. Brown, "Shasta County," Report XIV of the State Mineralogist, Part VI (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1916), p. 794.

27. Qui Chin and others to Dennis Desmond, June 22, 1872, Deed Book 5, p. 3, RDO, SCC; Shasta's Resources (Redding: Supervisors of Shasta County, 1905), p. 32.

28. Shasta's Resources, p. 32.

29. Charles V. Averill, "Mineral Resources of Shasta County," in Thirty-Fifth Report of the State Mineralogist 1939 (Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1939), p 135; see also Enineering and Mining Journal 95, no. 10 (March 1913):542, and 96, no. 25 December 1913:1192.

30. Ferguson, "Gold Lodes," p. 46.

31. Redding Free Press quoted in Mining and Scientific Press 77, no. 20 (November 1898):485; see also Register of Mines and Minerals, Shasta County, pp. 3-12. Logan, "Shasta County," 1926, p. 181, gives a table of fifty-four quartz mines and prospects in Shasta County in 1912, only three of which were located within the park; see also Ferguson, "Gold Lodes," pp. 39, 49; Brown, "Shasta County," pp. 779, 780, 790, 796; Shasta's Resources, p. 32; and "Map of the Central Mineral Region of Shasta County, California" (Redding: U.S. Mineral Surveyor, 1908).

32. Brown, "Shasta County," pp. 751, 773, 775, 779.

33. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 19; W. Burling Tucker, "Redding Field Division," Monthly Chapter of Report XIX of the State Mineralogist 19, no. 1 (January 1923):11; C. A. Logan, "Sacramento Field Division, Notes on Mining During the Year 1923," Chapter of Report XX of the State Mineralogist 20, no. 1 (January 1924):15. In 1926 Logan noted, "Free gold quartz milling . . . has been quiet and production has fallen off since 1916. . . . In Whiskeytown district . . . only a little development work is going on, although at one time the district had several small gold producers." Logan, "Shasta County," 1926, pp. 123, 168-69.

35. C. McK. Laizure, "Redding Field Division, Shasta County," Report XVII of the State Mineralogist Mining in California During 1920, (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1921), p. 522; see also "Map of the Central Mineral Region."

36. Tucker, "Redding Field Division," p. 57; Logan, "Shasta County," pp. 174-75.

37. Logan, "Shasta County," pp. 521-23. Logan noted that the Gladys claims had been located in 1899 and had been worked "only by the owners." The 1902 Register of Mines and Minerals, Shasta County lists a mine, the Fox, in Section 34, owned by Edward Hart of Shasta. This very likely is the same mine later known as the Gladys. At the same time, however, the Register also lists the Blackstone Mine in Section 34 under the ownership of Hunter and McPhail of Shasta, which leaves the same possible conclusion—that this claim later became the Gladys. See Appendix J and the "Historical Base Map" section, for further information on these mines.

38. Engineering and Mining Journal 120, no. 7 (August 1925):263. In 1933 the Shasta View Mine consisted of twenty-one unpatented claims and a mill site in Sections 26, 27, 34, and 35, T32N, R6W, but the mine stood idle. Charles Averill, "Gold Deposits of the Redding-Weaverville Quadrangles," California Journal of Mines and Geology Quarterly Chapter of the State Mineralogist's Report 29, nos. 1 and 2 January and April 1933):48.

39. Logan, "Shasta County," p. 180.

40. Quotes from Redding Courier Free Press, February 13, 1915, and Engineering and Mining Journal 100, no. 24 December 1915):987; see also Logan, "Shasta County," p. 71, and Crawford, Twelfth Report, p. 247. In 1896 Crawford described the El Dorado and Eureka mines as comprising two claims located at 3,000 feet elevation, with developments consisting of a 150-foot tunnel on the vein and a 150-foot crosscut tunnel through the porphyry on the west side to the vein. The pay shoot had been traced 200 feet at the east end of the claim, and was found to be well mineralized, carrying high-grade copper sulphides. Two men were employed. J. J. Crawford, Thirteenth Report of the State Mineralogist for the Two Years Ending September 15, 1896 (Sacramento; A. J. Johnston, 1896), pp. 355-56. Ferguson described the mine in 1912: "The Eldorado mine (J. G. Connors, owner; Garvin & Gatney, lessees), is on the west side of Mill Creek about half a mile south of the Tower House. The property was located by William Paul about 1885, and the total production has been estimated at $25,000, of which $3,500 has been obtained by the present lessees between August, 1911, and July, 1912. . . . The gold is noticeably light colored and its fineness is much below the average for the district. It is said that its average value is about $14 an ounce and that some of it falls as low as $12." In the same year Brown remarked that as a free milling mine it was a small producer, and ranked fifth in the French Gulch Mining District, after the Gladstone, Milkmaid, Franklin, and Brunswick quartz mines. Ferguson, "Gold Lodes," p. 56; Brown, "Shasta County," pp. 773-74, 785.

41. Logan, "Shasta County," p. 171. According to a 1919 account, the El Dorado mine operators were shipping bar bullion to the mint, and it had been mortared. Engineering and Mining Journal 105, no. 11 (March 1918):531. The mill was constructed in 1909, when the Sherk Brothers leased the mine. Engineering and Mining Journal 87, no. 3 (January 1909): 181.

42. Notes on taped interview, Seasonal Ranger Bob Alward with Mr. Bickford, August 10, 1969, in Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WNRA) files.

43. Clarence Coates, "A Brief Historical Sketch of the Whiskeytown Area," 1974 MS, p. 7, WNRA, Whiskeytown, California; Redding Searchlight, July 1, 1932, p. 1; Anderson Valley News, June 30, 1932, p. 1. In 1933 Charles Averill discussed the mining resurgence in Shasta County: "Development of gold mines and prospects has been very active recently, and evidently will continue so for some time. The quartz or lode mines and prospects are described in considerable detail in the present report, and probably not very many of them have been missed. . . . In the case of placer mines the situation is a little different. Hundreds of persons have been at work on the streams of the area, during the past year and longer, engaged in small-scale placer mining, with pans and small sluice boxes, into which the gravel is shoveled by hand. One result of this is that practically all public land along the streams has been taken up by placer claim locations. The gravels of the area have already been so thoroughly worked by such methods, that the average return to the present day small-scale placer miner is barely enough to buy his food. When the small amounts produced by each individual are added up to make the statistical totals, however, the aggregate production in found to be considerable." Averill, "Gold Deposits," p. 5.

44. Averill, "Gold Deposits," pp. 11, 21-22, 31, 35, 60, 72-73, Five other gold quartz prospects described—the Shasta View, Gambrinus, Happy Jack, Oro Fino, and Mount Shasta—were mines worked prior to 1930 and were, at time of Averill's report, apparently idle. Ibid., pp. 26, 31, 38, 42, 48-49. The other two gold quartz prospects, the Ganim Mine already described, and the Kanaka or Sunshine Mine (Sec. 28, T32, R6W) were producing sporadic deposits of gold. See section on placer mining for information on placers referred to above.

45. Averill, "Mineral Resources," p. 138.

46. Ibid., p. 148.

47. Ibid., p. 135.

48. Ibid., p. 142; "Map of Shasta County" in ibid.

49. Lydon and O'Brien, Mineral Resources, pp. 4, 19.

50. J. C. O'Brien, "Current and Recent Mining Activities in the Redding District," California Journal of Mines and Geology 44, no. 4 (October 1948):358.

51. Averill, "Gold Deposits," p. 33.

52. Charles V. Averill and L. A. Norman Jr., "Counties of California, Mineral Production and Significant Mining Activities of 1949," California Journal of Mines and Geology 47 no. 2 (April 1951):370; see also Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 119. Averill and Norman also couched their description of the Sunshine Gold Mining Company mine in the past tense: the company "held" a group of claims near Schilling. Lydon and O'Brien's tabulated list of mines compiled between 1957 and 1962 indicated that the mine stood idle and that it was owned by a Houston-based company. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 119. In addition, see section on existing historical resources in this report.

53. The sectional index to mining claims provides easy access to the claims within the park boundaries. A tabulated list of all the mines in California in 1954-55 shows nothing within the park area. Henry H. Symons and Fenelon F. Davis, "California Mineral Commodities in 1955 and 1954," California Journal of Mines and Geology 54, no. 1 (January 1958):67-205.

54. As quoted in Alvin H. Lense, "Mineral Report for Placer and Quartz Mining Claims Located in the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California," June 15, 1973, MS, p. 9, WNRA, Whiskeytown, California; see also Ian Campbell, Fifty-Sixth Report of the State Mineralogist (San Francisco: California Division of Mines, 1960), p. 146, Ian Campbell, Fifty-Seventh Report of the State Mineralogist (San Francisco: California Division of Mines, 1961), p. 136, and Gordonn B. Oakshott, Fifty-Fifth Report of the State Mineralogist (San Francisco: California Division of Mines, 1959; p. 91.

55. Lense, "Mineral Report," pp. 7-9, WNRA; Early Stages of Development at WNRA, File H14, WNRA, Whiskeytown, California.

56. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, pp. 17, 28-29; Laizure, "Shasta County," p. 514; Logan, "Shasta County," p. 140. The copper production between 1895-1902 made Shasta County the leading mineral producer in California. Register of Mines and Minerals, Shasta County, p. 1. In his report on mineral production for 1930, Henry H. Symons explained that Shasta County experienced a marked production decrease after 1918 on account of the "falling off in the output of copper, the large plants of the Mammoth and the Mountain Copper companies being shut down." Henry H. Symons, Mineral Production and Directory of Mineral Producers for 1930, California Bureau of Mines Bulletin no. 105 (San Francisco, 1931), p. 153.

57. "Map of the Central Mineral Region"; Ferguson, "Gold Lodes," p. 49.

58. Laizure, "Shasta County," p. 522.

59. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 109; Du Bois, The Copper Resources, opp. p. 48.

60. William Irelan, Jr., Ninth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist For the Year Ending December 1, 1889 (Sacramento: State Office, J. D. Young, 1890), pp. 121-22; see also Young, Western Mining, pp. 127-31.

61. Redding Free Press, quoted in Mining and Scientific Press 77, no. 20 (November 1898):485; Charles G. Yale, "The Mineral Industry of California," in California Mines and Minerals, comp. Edward H. Benjamin (San Francisco: California Miners' Association, 1899), p. 18; "Denny's Map of Shasta County, California and Eastern Portion of Trinity" compiled from official sources, by Edward Denny & Company, San Francisco, 1904; "Map of Shasta County, California," issued by the State Mining Bureau, Ferry Building, San Francisco, 1902.

62. Yale, "The Mineral Industry of California," California Mines and Minerals, pp. 18-19. The duration of the Princess Hydraulic Company's operations on Clear Creek were not determined by this research, but most likely did not continue after 1913-14, when Chester Brown reported: "Hydraulic mining operations are very limited, due to the State debris law, as Shasta is one of the counties affected by this law." Brown, "Shasta County," p. 751.

63. Averill, "Gold Deposits," pp. 38, 72-73. For a brief period in 1950 Charles Tripp leased his property one mile southeast of the Tower House to James I. Scott who bulldozed the gravel above Clear Creek, and processed it with a trommel and sluice box. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 131.

64. For a good explanation of dragline and dry-land dredging, with illustrations and descriptions of equipment and methods used, see Charles V. Averill, "Gold Dredging in Shasta Siskiyou and Trinity Counties," California Journal of Mines and Geology 34, no. 2 (April 1938):96-126.

65. Ibid., p. 114. Earlier in the article Averill explained that dry-land dredging had failed throughout northern California, because most of the machines "were so poorly designed and constructed that they had no chance to succeed." Ibid., p. 97.

66. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 129. In his report Gold Dredging in California, J. E. Doolittle explained that the first successful dredge operated in California in 1897, and that the only type of dredge that worked successfully at the time of writing (1908) was the continuous bucket dredge. Doolittle believed that dredging was the only way to mine gravel "with an excess of water, and 50 feet of bedrock." J. E. Doolittle, Gold Dredging in California, California Bureau of Mines Bulletin no. 36 (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1908), pp. 10, 15, 19.

67. O'Brien, "Current and Recent Mining Activities," p. 358. Lydon and O'Brien also listed a dredge operation by A. W. Pipenstack at Oak Bottom for a brief time during 1946, but O'Brien made no mention of this in his report.

68. Quotes from Crawford, Thirteenth Report, p. 623; and Brown, "Shasta County," p. 804; see also Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Minerals, p. 154.

69. Logan, "Shasta County," pp. 171-72, 210-11.

70. Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Minerals, pp. 96, 154. According to Averill, "Mineral Resources," p. 174, one of the talc shipments contained twelve to fifteen carloads which valued at $10.00 to $10.50 per ton.

Chapter 3

1. Although not to be compared with a population census, the voting registers for Shasta County during the twentieth century give some indication of the size of Whiskeytown's community: in 1908, forty registered; in 1910, thirty-nine; in 1918, forty-four; in 1930, sixty; in 1940, 153; and in 1950, 139. [Shasta County, California] Index to Precinct Registers of Shasta County, California (individually bound volumes all published by Searchlight Print, Redding, in above given years). Peterson's research that showed Whiskeytown's population during the 1880s was about 150, and that during the turn of the nineteenth century Whiskeytown "regressed into 'ghost town' status, with a single store and post office serving a few outlying residents. A brief population spurt in the 1950s marked the death throes of this old town, as the workers who constructed the dam which would doom Whiskeytown . . . inhabited the village they were helping to destroy." Edward Peterson, In the Shadow of the Mountain (published by the author, 1965), p. 100. In 1926 Logan noted that most of Shasta County's 13,311 population lived in the valley regions contiguous to the Sacramento River. "Shasta County," p. 123.

2. Weekly Free Press, October 29, 1898, editorial page (as researched by Veronica Satorious of Redding, California).

3. Brown, "Shasta County," p. 775; see also Interview, Clarence Coates with Mrs. Proebstel of Redding, California, August 21, 1974, on tape at WNRA; Shasta Courier, September 26, 1919, p. 1; Edna Behrens Easton, "Charles Camden and the Camden Toll Road," The Covered Wagon 1960 (Redding: Shasta County Historical Society, 1960), p. 13.

4. Ross, "Whiskeytown," NPS, DSC. Grace Richards, Charles Camden's daughter, granted the state right-of-way for a "new state highway" in April 1924. Official Records, 55: 323-24, RDO, SCC. See also M. P. Brower, "Whiskey Creek Bridge," The Guardian 13, no. 10 (October 1961): 5. Neil Clay, Whiskeytown Relocation Project," The Guardian 11, no. 12 (December 1959):4. These California Division of Highways, District II, publications were generously researched and provided by Darold Bickett, of the Office of Local Assistance of the California Department of Transportation, Redding, California.

5. The Recreation Area Study Act of 1936 directed the National Park Service "to make comprehensive studies . . . to keep a national plan." The Whiskeytown Reservoir was part of the Trinity River Project authorized by Public Law 386, 84th Congress, August 12, 1955, the principal purpose of which was to increase the water supply for irrigation and other beneficial uses in the Central Valley of California. Early Stages of Development (Jan. 1957-1960) at WNRA, File H14, WNRA. See also Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 1; Coates, "A Brief Historical Sketch," p. 8, WNRA.

6. Areas Administered by the National Park Service and Related Properties as of January 1, 1972 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972), p. 98; Ross, "Whiskeytown," p. 10; NPS, DSC; Recollections of Mr. Frank Bickford, notes taken from taped interview. files, WNRA. According to Lydon and O'Brien, Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 1, approximately 85 percent of the county population in 1970 lived in the Redding-Enterprise, Shasta Dam, and Anderson-Cottonwood areas. In 1962 the Whiskeytown election precinct had only sixty-seven registered voters. Coates, "A Brief Historical Sketch," p. 7, WNRA.

Chapter 4

1. Interview, Anna Toogood with Mrs. Clinton Peltiers, by telephone, October 14, 1974.

2. Peltiers interview and information provided by Robert Grom, Chief of Interpretive Activities Branch, WNRA, in October 1974.

3. Information and aerial photographs provided by Robert Grom, WNRA.

4. Information provided by Robert Grom.

5. By special permission, the aged Tolbert brothers still live within the park in their frame house on the road to Igo. Having come to the area to mine during 1930s, they no doubt would be able to remember the many makeshift mining camps set up in the vicinity of Clear Creek from that period to the present. According to Robert Grom, many squatters have been evicted from the park since its establishment in 1965.

Chapter 5

1. The archeological base map prepared for the 1962 master plan is in the Map Files (RA-WHI/3005), NPS, DSC.

2. The writer, for instance, recommends that a copy of James Lamson's 1860 watercolor sketch entitled "Mr. Wingate's Dam on Clear Creek" be acquired for interpretive purposes at the park. The sketch is in the Lamson Collections, California Historical Society. (See section above on placer mining to identify Caleb Wingate as a local pioneer in the Whiskeytown area.)

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