War in the Pacific
Historic Resource Study
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H. Conclusion

The National Park Service's Pacific Area Office and War in the Pacific National Historical Park have prepared extensive lists of the area's historic resources arranged by ownership: National Park Service, Government of Guam, and private and further arranged by priority for stabilization needs within each group. As a supplement to these lists, there follows a general outline of stabilization/preservation issues concerning these historic features, without regard to present ownership.

I. Asan Beach Unit

1. Asan Point

On the west base of Asan Point is a varied collection of Japanese fortifications that constitutes a prime exhibit for interpreting Japanese beach defenses and the first day of the fight to liberate Guam.

No. 61. Pillbox, damaged during the fighting. Battle scars should remain, but an archeological excavation of the entrance could reopen the interior of the pillbox for interpretation.

Nos. 82 and 64. Concrete emplacements for 20cm (8-inch), short-barrel coastal guns. (Photographs show that a third emplacement was totally destroyed in the bombardment.) Iron I-beams and other ironwork have greatly rusted and there has been some spalling of concrete ceilings. Also, rock has fallen into some of the crevices and caves associated with the emplacements. Stabilization of both emplacements would enhance visitor safety and interpretive potentials.

Nos. 63. Concrete and coral wall. Although only partially standing, the wall is a rare example of this type of construction on Guam. Also, its continuing existence gives meaning to the storage crevices it once protected. It is plagued by the rapid regrowth of vegetation on its surfaces. Appropriate stabilization measures would eliminate the need for the constant removal of this vegetation.

On the east face of Asan Point ridge is a Japanese tunnel that appears not to have been damaged by American demolition teams.

No. 106. No particular stabilization needs are apparent. Periodic vegetation removal is required, as it is nearly everywhere on Guam.

2. Adelup Point

In addition to surviving Japanese fortifications, Adelup Point has the Kroll house foundation and concrete steps that provide an excellent overlook for interpreting the Asan beaches, Chorrito Cliff, and the city of Agana.

No. 41. Kroll house. The removal of vegetation from the foundation and its environs is required to disclose the terraces and rockwork. The foundation itself appears to be in good condition. An archeological investigation of the immediate area could be of value. The long flight of concrete stairs leading down to level ground now ends abruptly causing a sharp dropoff. An addition to the bottom of these steps would enhance their usefulness.

II. Agat Unit

The Agat Unit has three areas in which Japanese fortifications survive and which played important roles in defense of the beaches: Gaan Point, Apaca Point, and Bangi Point.

1. Gaan Point.

This knob of concrete and rock is the prime interpretive site in the Agat Unit.

Nos. 23 and 24. These gun emplacements and tunnels require only modest stabilization measures. Battle damage to the concrete should not be repaired except where it proves necessary to ensure the continued existence of the structures. Tunnels along the base of the knoll were closed by American demolition teams. Since they once contained a communications center, a limited archeological investigation might be justified.

No, 7. Latrine foundation. It has no known stabilization needs at present.

No. 9. Pillbox. This reinforced-concrete pillbox is overgrown with tree roots and other vegetation that should be removed. Its rear entrance should be excavated and stabilized as necessary. Battle damage should not be repaired, except where necessary to prevent further deterioration of the structure.

2. Apaca Point

No. 1. Pillbox. The tunnel entrance to this pillbox should be cleared of rock obstructions to allow entry, providing visitor safety is not thereby endangered.

No. 2. Pillbox. No apparent stabilization required except the removal of loose rock in the several crevices and stabilization of the limestone cliff where necessary.

No. 5. Pillbox at Rizal Point. This pillbox was demolished during the American bombardment. Its interpretive value lies in its ruinous state. Restoration would cancel this value. Stabilization is not required.

3. Bangi Island

No. 81. Gun emplacement. This unfinished emplacement for a 20cm coastal gun requires such stabilization as will inhibit continuing corrosion of exposed reinforcement bars and erosion of the tops of the concrete walls. Archeological investigation of the immediate area should assist in determining the site of the second 20cm gun of this battery.

No. 83. Pillbox, This structure is exposed to the ocean because or its low elevation. A concrete-lined entrance tunnel on the west side should receive stabilization measures because of its fragile construction and exposure to the elements.

III. Piti Guns Unit

No. 60. Three 140mm (5.6-inch) guns. All three weapons and their carriages should receive preservation treatment, including removal of nonhistoric paint. Gun No. 2 should remain in its dislocated position--at least until it is learned how it got that way. The earthen emplacements of Guns 2 and 3 should be stabilized (accurate restorations are probably impossible). Archeological investigation of the flanks of each position should be attempted to identify any remains of magazines and personnel shelters. Vegetation should be removed to restore the view of Apra Harbor.

IV. Mount Alifan Unit

No. 49. Concrete pillboxes. Three small concrete pillboxes joined by trenches. These structures appear to be in good condition. The trenches are partly covered with sword grass. While such grass needs to be controlled, vegetation assists in retarding erosion on Mount Alifan's earthen slopes.

All other sites on Mount Alifan are earthen in nature. The principal concerns are erosion and vegetation control. Any interpretive trail should avoid the more fragile of these sites as well as areas where concentrations of shrapnel and bullets are found.

V. Fonte Plateau Unit

No. 65. Japanese communications center. This large bunker on the rear side of the Fonte Plateau received modifications by American forces after the battle, such as metal gates at the two arched, concrete entrances and a concrete lining in the interior. While these additions should remain, an interior wooden partition should be removed. The paths leading to the two portals should be improved and stabilized.

Fonte Plateau depression. The dense, lush vegetation in this depression should be sufficiently cleared to allow interpretation of the depression and any personnel tunnels that may have survived combat.

VI. Asan Inland Unit

Like Mount Alifan's, the majority of the Asan Inland Unit's historic features are earthen or rock in nature. Visitation in this rugged area will be light and stabilization requirements are essentially those of erosion and vegetation control.

The more substantial features of the Asan Inland Unit are:

No. 59. Observation post. Stabilization needs for this reinforced-concrete structure, which is missing a roof, are minimal. Vegetation clearing is required.

No. 85. Pillbox. Battle damage on the face of this pillbox should not be repaired. The entrance to this lone pillbox in the Asan Inland Unit should be excavated for the interior to be interpreted.

No. 86. Bridge on Matgue River. The bridge appears to be in good condition. Vegetation debris should be kept clear of the deck and the general area clear of trash. In addition to its pre-war and wartime history, the bridge provides access to tunnels along the Matgue River.

VII. Mount Chachao-Mount Tenjo Unit

No. 99, jeep trail. This portion of the old Mount Tenjo Unit has several potholes and large puddles of mud following rain storms Four-wheel-drive vehicles go around these hazards, thus ruining surrounding vegetation, the road should not be upgraded, but these low areas should be improved.

No. 77. Site of pre-war gun emplacements and associated structures. An archeological investigation of the peak of Mount Tenjo might result in the positive identification and defining of these features.

VIII. Other Significant Areas Outside Park Boundaries

If at some future time federal funds should be available for the preservation or stabilization of World War II sites on Guam outside the park boundaries, four sites that could benefit from such measures are: General Obata's Command Post, Dungcas beach 20cm gun battery (including the guns), the Agana Tunnels, and the pillboxes on Dali Beach.

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Last Updated: 07-Mar-2005