War in the Pacific
Historic Resource Study
The National Park Service's Pacific Area Office and War in the
Pacific National Historical Park have prepared extensive lists of the
area's historic resources arranged by ownership: National Park Service,
Government of Guam, and private and further arranged by priority for
stabilization needs within each group. As a supplement to these lists,
there follows a general outline of stabilization/preservation issues
concerning these historic features, without regard to present ownership.
I. Asan Beach Unit
1. Asan Point
On the west base of Asan Point is a varied collection of Japanese
fortifications that constitutes a prime exhibit for interpreting
Japanese beach defenses and the first day of the fight to liberate Guam.
No. 61. Pillbox, damaged during the fighting. Battle scars should
remain, but an archeological excavation of the entrance could reopen the
interior of the pillbox for interpretation.
Nos. 82 and 64. Concrete emplacements for 20cm (8-inch), short-barrel
coastal guns. (Photographs show that a third emplacement was totally
destroyed in the bombardment.) Iron I-beams and other ironwork have
greatly rusted and there has been some spalling of concrete ceilings.
Also, rock has fallen into some of the crevices and caves associated
with the emplacements. Stabilization of both emplacements would enhance
visitor safety and interpretive potentials.
Nos. 63. Concrete and coral wall. Although only partially standing,
the wall is a rare example of this type of construction on Guam. Also,
its continuing existence gives meaning to the storage crevices it once
protected. It is plagued by the rapid regrowth of vegetation on its
surfaces. Appropriate stabilization measures would eliminate the need
for the constant removal of this vegetation.
On the east face of Asan Point ridge is a Japanese tunnel that
appears not to have been damaged by American demolition teams.
No. 106. No particular stabilization needs are apparent. Periodic
vegetation removal is required, as it is nearly everywhere on Guam.
2. Adelup Point
In addition to surviving Japanese fortifications, Adelup Point has
the Kroll house foundation and concrete steps that provide an excellent
overlook for interpreting the Asan beaches, Chorrito Cliff, and the city
No. 41. Kroll house. The removal of vegetation from the foundation
and its environs is required to disclose the terraces and rockwork. The
foundation itself appears to be in good condition. An archeological
investigation of the immediate area could be of value. The long flight
of concrete stairs leading down to level ground now ends abruptly
causing a sharp dropoff. An addition to the bottom of these steps would
enhance their usefulness.
II. Agat Unit
The Agat Unit has three areas in which Japanese fortifications
survive and which played important roles in defense of the beaches: Gaan
Point, Apaca Point, and Bangi Point.
1. Gaan Point.
This knob of concrete and rock is the prime interpretive site in the
Nos. 23 and 24. These gun emplacements and tunnels require only
modest stabilization measures. Battle damage to the concrete should not
be repaired except where it proves necessary to ensure the continued
existence of the structures. Tunnels along the base of the knoll were
closed by American demolition teams. Since they once contained a
communications center, a limited archeological investigation might be
No, 7. Latrine foundation. It has no known stabilization needs at
No. 9. Pillbox. This reinforced-concrete pillbox is overgrown with
tree roots and other vegetation that should be removed. Its rear
entrance should be excavated and stabilized as necessary. Battle damage
should not be repaired, except where necessary to prevent further
deterioration of the structure.
2. Apaca Point
No. 1. Pillbox. The tunnel entrance to this pillbox should be cleared
of rock obstructions to allow entry, providing visitor safety is not
No. 2. Pillbox. No apparent stabilization required except the removal
of loose rock in the several crevices and stabilization of the limestone
cliff where necessary.
No. 5. Pillbox at Rizal Point. This pillbox was demolished during the
American bombardment. Its interpretive value lies in its ruinous state.
Restoration would cancel this value. Stabilization is not required.
3. Bangi Island
No. 81. Gun emplacement. This unfinished emplacement for a 20cm
coastal gun requires such stabilization as will inhibit continuing
corrosion of exposed reinforcement bars and erosion of the tops of the
concrete walls. Archeological investigation of the immediate area should
assist in determining the site of the second 20cm gun of this battery.
No. 83. Pillbox, This structure is exposed to the ocean because or
its low elevation. A concrete-lined entrance tunnel on the west side
should receive stabilization measures because of its fragile
construction and exposure to the elements.
III. Piti Guns Unit
No. 60. Three 140mm (5.6-inch) guns. All three weapons and their
carriages should receive preservation treatment, including removal of
nonhistoric paint. Gun No. 2 should remain in its dislocated
position--at least until it is learned how it got that way. The earthen
emplacements of Guns 2 and 3 should be stabilized (accurate restorations
are probably impossible). Archeological investigation of the flanks of
each position should be attempted to identify any remains of magazines
and personnel shelters. Vegetation should be removed to restore the view
of Apra Harbor.
IV. Mount Alifan Unit
No. 49. Concrete pillboxes. Three small concrete pillboxes joined by
trenches. These structures appear to be in good condition. The trenches
are partly covered with sword grass. While such grass needs to be
controlled, vegetation assists in retarding erosion on Mount Alifan's
All other sites on Mount Alifan are earthen in nature. The principal
concerns are erosion and vegetation control. Any interpretive trail
should avoid the more fragile of these sites as well as areas where
concentrations of shrapnel and bullets are found.
V. Fonte Plateau Unit
No. 65. Japanese communications center. This large bunker on the rear
side of the Fonte Plateau received modifications by American forces
after the battle, such as metal gates at the two arched, concrete
entrances and a concrete lining in the interior. While these additions
should remain, an interior wooden partition should be removed. The paths
leading to the two portals should be improved and stabilized.
Fonte Plateau depression. The dense, lush vegetation in this
depression should be sufficiently cleared to allow interpretation of the
depression and any personnel tunnels that may have survived combat.
VI. Asan Inland Unit
Like Mount Alifan's, the majority of the Asan Inland Unit's historic
features are earthen or rock in nature. Visitation in this rugged area
will be light and stabilization requirements are essentially those of
erosion and vegetation control.
The more substantial features of the Asan Inland Unit are:
No. 59. Observation post. Stabilization needs for this
reinforced-concrete structure, which is missing a roof, are minimal.
Vegetation clearing is required.
No. 85. Pillbox. Battle damage on the face of this pillbox should not
be repaired. The entrance to this lone pillbox in the Asan Inland Unit
should be excavated for the interior to be interpreted.
No. 86. Bridge on Matgue River. The bridge appears to be in good
condition. Vegetation debris should be kept clear of the deck and the
general area clear of trash. In addition to its pre-war and wartime
history, the bridge provides access to tunnels along the Matgue River.
VII. Mount Chachao-Mount Tenjo
No. 99, jeep trail. This portion of the old Mount Tenjo Unit has
several potholes and large puddles of mud following rain storms
Four-wheel-drive vehicles go around these hazards, thus ruining
surrounding vegetation, the road should not be upgraded, but these low
areas should be improved.
No. 77. Site of pre-war gun emplacements and associated structures.
An archeological investigation of the peak of Mount Tenjo might result
in the positive identification and defining of these features.
VIII. Other Significant Areas Outside Park
If at some future time federal funds should be available for the
preservation or stabilization of World War II sites on Guam outside the
park boundaries, four sites that could benefit from such measures are:
General Obata's Command Post, Dungcas beach 20cm gun battery (including
the guns), the Agana Tunnels, and the pillboxes on Dali Beach.
Last Updated: 07-Mar-2005