War in the Pacific
Historic Resource Study
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D. Agat Unit and Mt. Alifan Unit

II. Mount Alifan Unit (158 acres)

Compared to the Chorrito Cliff-Bundschu Ridge area, Mount Alifan is a gentle giant rising 871 feet above the Agat beaches. Less convuluted than the northern ridges but nonetheless steep in its upper reaches, the grass-covered and strongly defended mountain presented a challenge to the 4th U.S. Marines. A hike over the lower slopes through sometimes head-high grasses today is still a chore in Guam's tropical heat and humidity. The mountain contains more remains of the 1944 fighting than any other unit. For the most part, however, these remains are not reinforced concrete, but craters, foxholes, emplacements, caves, and rifle-pits in Alifan's red earth. Only two small features are constructed of concrete. Moreover, following capture of the mountain, American demolition teams sealed many caves on the forward slopes. The slopes contain many artifacts from the battle, including shell and bomb fragments and bullets. Any interpretive trail on the mountain will have to be routed to avoide damaging the fragile earthen remains and to discourage souvenir hunters.

Marines advancing up the slopes of Mt. Alifan, July 21, 1944.

Demolition teams blowing up Japanese dugouts, Mt. Alifan, July 21, 1944.

Nos. 16, 18 19, 19a, and 19b. These features are on a ridge running between Agar Junior High School arid Togcha River. No. 16 is a concrete base with a steel frame set in it. t is possibly the remains of a radio tower. Many artillery shell fragments were found in this area. Nos. 18 and 19 are two Japanese gun positions. Shelter caves are present at both sites. As elsewhere on Guam, the caves appear to have been partly closed by American demolition teams. These two sites most likely mark the location of a Japanese battery of two 150mm (6-inch) guns emplaced in this area. Nos. 19a and 19b are lightly east of No. 19, one on either side or Togcha River. No. 19a was a Japanese ammunition dump that exploded. Numerous shell casings were found here, particularly in the 8-foot depression caused by the explosion. Japanese and American hand grenades were also found. No. 19b is a large bomb crater. Nearby is a small shelter cave.

No. 16. Radio tower, Mt. Alifan.

Nos. 18 and 19. Gun emplacements and caves, Mt. Alifan.

Japanese 150mm gun, Mt. Alifan, August 1944 (Mt. Alifan features Nos. 18 and 19).

No. 19A. Ammunition dump, Mt. Alifan.

No. 19B. Bomb crater, Mt. Alifan.

Nos. 15, 21a and 21b, and 22. These features are on the lower slopes of Mount Alifan between Togcha River and the community of Santa Rita.

No. 15. Foxhole, Mt. Alifan.

No. 21A. Foxholes and cave, Mt. Alifan.

No. 21B. Foxholes, Mt. Alifan.

No. 22. Infantry position, Mt. Alifan.

No. 15 is a foxhole or a gun emplacement. It measures 4 by 8 feet. Remains of a possible radio tower are nearby. Shrapnel was found in this area. No. 2la consists of two depressions in the earth that appear to be foxholes. Nearby is a small, partly-sealed shelter cave. No. 21b, near 21a, is a depression on a ridge that possibly was an infantry position. No. 22 is also a depression on the edge of a ridge similar to No. 21b.

Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14, 43, 44, and 45. These several features are on the ridges between Togcha River and Torres School. No. 11 consists of two large bomb craters 800 feet west of Torres School. Each crater has a diameter of 33 feet. The area contains shrapnel, shell casings, and small arms ordnance. Vegetation has grown over both craters. No. 12 is a 6-inch naval shell that has been exploded. This fragile slope is covered with shrapnel. No. 13 is another bomb crater, wheras No. 14 is a shell crater. Erosion has occurred in this area because of foot travel. No. 43 is a profusion of shell casings and shrapnel. No. 44 consists of shell casings and shrapnel, and a hand grenade was found here. No. 45 is a foxhole north of Torres School.

No. 11. Bomb crater, Mt. Alifan.

Mt. Alifan, .30 caliber bullets and a shell fragment near feature No. 44, 1984.

Mt. Alifan, .30 caliber bullets and a shell fragment near feature No. 44, 1984.

Nos. 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 46, 47, 49, 50, and 51. This area encompasses the lower slopes of Mount Alifan between the inland boundary of "new" Agat and the headwaters of Togcha River. Although subject to erosion, this area possesses a potential for the development of an interpretive trail. No. 34 is an infantry trench 5 feet deep. No. 35 consists of gun emplacements reinforced with iron I-beams. A Japanese 75mm round was found here. No. 37 is a series of foxholes along a ridge. No. 38 Consists of trenches and a foxhole on a ridge. Also, a shelter cave was cut into the hillside. No. 39 furthers the concept of how heavily defended this area was. It, too, is composed of foxholes and trenches suited for the emplacement of automatic weapons. No. 46 is more gun emplacements and trenches. No. 47 has trenches, shelter caves, gun emplacements, and a foxhole. No. 49 contains a rarity on Mount Alifan--reinforced concrete. It consists of three emplacements for automatic weapons which are connected by a trench system (filled with sword grass). One emplacement is earthen, while the other two are small reinforced-concrete structures with one embrasure each. A third concrete structure served as a fire control center. The interiors of the cramped concrete structures are stifling hot. No. 50 is a large cave cut into the side of a day hill, It has two entrances. Finally, No. 51 is a bomb crater.

No. 34. Infantry trench, Mt. Alifan.

No. 35. Gun emplacements, Mt. Alifan.

No. 37. Foxhole, Mt. Alifan.

No. 38. Trenches and foxhole, Mt. Alifan.

No. 39. Machine gun emplacement, Mt. Alifan, 1984.

No. 39. Trench, Mt. Alifan, 1984.

No. 39. Trenches, machine gun emplacements, and foxhole, Mt. Alifan.

No. 46. Trenches and machine gun emplacements, Mt. Alifan.

No. 47. Trenches, caves, foxholes, and gun emplacements, Mt. Alifan.

No. 49. Pillboxes and connecting trenches, Mt. Alifan.

No. 49. Two concrete pillboxes, Mt. Alifan, 1984.

No. 49. Two concrete pillboxes, Mt. Alifan, 1984.

No. 51. Bomb crater, Mt. Alifan.

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Last Updated: 07-Mar-2005