1The Boundary Water Wilderness Act of 1978 extended to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) full wilderness status and enlarged the BWCA to 1,075,500 acres. Since 1978, it has been called the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW).
2Remarks made at the dedication of the Lindbergh House on the site of the Lindbergh interpretive Center, Little Falls, Minnesota, September 1973. This site is managed today by the Minnesota Historical Society as a state historic site.
20Statement of Charles S. Kelly, chairman of the president's Quetico-Superior Committee on May 22, 1964 at a Quetico-Superior Institute held in St. Paul, MN. Although the leadership of the council was dominated by Minnesota men, its advisory board included many prominent Americans representing a variety of interests and professions. For a detailed account of the organization and early efforts of the Quetico-Superior Council, see R. Newell Searle's A Land Set Apart (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1977).
22Ernest C. Oberholtzer, "A University of the Wilderness," American Forests 35, no. 11, November 1929): 692. In the same article, Oberholtzer referred to three other "principles" of the Quetico-Superior Council's international memorial forest. They spoke to modern forest practices to ensure maximum timber supply, game and fish management for maximum natural production, and an international board of forest, park and biological authorities to monitor the program. The Quetico-Superior Council was committed to what today is commonly called a multiple-use policy.
31Senior Administrative Assistant R.C. Slye files memorandum, 12 December 1938. Memorandum is an account of the debate held on December 9, 1938 and sponsored by the St. Louis County Club and Farm Bureau. Superior National Forest Archives, #5501, Duluth, MN.
37The Northwest Angle is the peculiar northward deviation of the state's boundary with Ontario and Manitoba. This boundary anomaly resulted from the requirement contained in treaties with Britain in 1783 and 1818 that, in delimiting the international boundary, surveyors must utilize the northwestern corner of Lake of the Woods, the 49th parallel, and the entry point of Rainy River into Lake of the Woods on the southeast. Samuel Dana, Minnesota Lands (Washington: American Forest Association, 1960) 64-65.
43U.W. Hella to Manager of the International Falls Chamber of Commerce Claude Blais, 26 July 1961, Minnesota Department of Conservation files, #45A77B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
45Chronology on Voyageurs National Park, February 1966. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Items 10 and 11 summarize an October 1961 memorandum from the NPS Midwest regional director to the NPS director recounting the events of his Minnesota visit.
48Governor Elmer Andersen to Representative Albert Quie, 11 December 1961, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN and Representative Walter Judd to NPS Director Conrad Wirth, 18 December 1961, Voyageurs National Park Archives.
57NPS Midwest Regional Director Howard Baker memorandum describing a plane trip over the border lakes region, 28 June 1962. Memorandum includes a chronology of NPS activities in northern Minnesota, undated, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
58When Regional Forester George James referred to the Crane Lake area, he was identifying USFS lands adjacent to Namakan, Sand Point and Crane Lakes. From 1963 to 1971 when Voyageurs National Park was authorized by Congress, the common reference to this area was "the Crane Lake area." However, it is interesting to note that during the entire eight-year effort for establishment of Voyageurs National Park, the waters of Crane Lake were never included on maps published by the USFS or the NPS as being part of the territory under their jurisdiction. The NPS did produce (1963) a planning document for internal use only, that showed a proposed Voyageurs National Park with Namakan, Sand Point, and Crane Lakes included. This map also showed a short stretch of the Vermilion River from its mouth on the south shore of Crane Lake to the river gorge a few miles south. The NPS included the river segment because of the historical significance of this location during the fur trade era. But the map was never published. When the Superior National Forest established its Crane Lake Recreation Area in 1966, it kept Crane Lake and its lakeside community outside its jurisdictional boundaries. Therefore, the designation Crane Lake Area has always been understood to include the two lakes to the north of Crane Lake, Sand Point and Namakan, now within Voyageurs, as well as Crane Lake and its community. The community today serves as an entry point to the park on the southeast.
61Baker to Wirth, 22 August 1962. Department of the Interior Secretary Stewart Udall in April 1962 established the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (BOR). Such a bureau was one of the recommendations contained in the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission's report, which was completed earlier in 1962. The BOR was to carry out nationwide recreational planning and coordinate recreation activities among federal agencies. Because these had been primary roles of the NPS since the 1930s, the BOR was seen by many in the NPS, including Director Wirth, as challenging its long-standing reputation as the preeminent federal recreation agency. Personnel and funds were transferred from the NPS to the BOR to help launch the new bureau. Director Wirth was severely criticized by some in the Kennedy administration for not supporting the BOR, and this may have caused him to move up the date of his retirement which took place in January 1964. Lacking the supportive constituency of agencies like the NPS and the USFS the BOR's role diminished through the remainder of the 1960s and 1970s until it was abolished very early in the Reagan administration. Ronald A. Foresta, America's National Parks and Their Keepers (Washington D C. Resources for the Future, 1964), Edwin M. Fitch and John F. Shankland, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (New York: Praeger, 1970); Conrad Wirth, Parks, Politics and the People (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980).
62Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings and Memorials Chairman Harold Fabian to the Secretary of the Department of the Interior Stewart Udall, 17 October 1962, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
65The gubernatorial election in 1962 was more vigorously contested by both parties than in previous contests because the state was moving from two to four-year terms for that office. The race became very close in the closing weeks of the campaign. It was then that a charge was made by a Minnesota Highway Department inspector that concrete was poured on a segment of I-35 near Hinckley at below-standard temperatures in order to rush the road completion. The implication was that the governor had something to do with that decision. Governor Andersen vehemently denied the charge. Andersen's staff later discovered that the inspector was a brother of a person working on the Rolvaag campaign staff. Eighth District Congressman John Blatnik called for an investigation by the Bureau of Public Roads, a move calculated to further embarrass the governor. (Mr. Blatnik would later introduce legislation to authorize Voyageurs National Park.) Andersen challenged Blatnik to answer questions regarding what Andersen maintained were false charges. Blatnik chose not to respond. Political experts at the time believe this event tipped the election in Rolvaag's favor.
67Superior National Forest staff, J.B. White memorandum, 21 November 1962, Superior National Forest Archives, Duluth, MN. The memorandum summarizes the November 15 meeting in Duluth with NPS personnel.
70E.M. Bacon memorandum to USFS Regional Forester George James, 5 December 1962. Bacon was the leader of a special task force, apparently out of Washington, to assess the NPS intentions in Minnesota. He reviewed NPS plans with Assistant Regional Director Chester C. Brown in Omaha. It is of interest that in his report he stated that the NPS hadn't determined if their proposal would call for a national park or a national recreation area. His personal opinion was that the proposed plan more nearly resembled a recreation area than a national park, which emphasizes preservation.
72The Voyageurs Route and a Proposed Voyageurs National Park (Omaha: National Park Service, March 1963). First of several drafts prepared by the NPS for internal use and interagency review. A copy of what the USFS called a Plan of Management-Namakan Lake Area was appended to this report. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
76Conservation Commissioner Clarence Prout to NPS Midwest Region Chief of Park and Recreation Planning Henry Robinson in Omaha; and Prout to USFS Regional Forester George James in Milwaukee, 21 January 1963, file #45A810F Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
77The official announcement of the agreement was made jointly by the two departments and included a congratulatory letter from the president dated January 3, 1963. Governor Harold Levander file #55668F, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
80Howard Baker to Conrad Wirth. Report on St. Paul meeting with Governor Andersen, regional USFS staff and Minnesota Department of Conservation staff, 11 February 1963, Superior National Forest Archives, Duluth, MN.
81George James file memorandum summarizing the St. Paul meeting with Governor Andersen, National Park Service officials and Minnesota Department of Conservation staff, 11 February 1963, Superior National Forest Archives, Duluth, MN.
86Andersen to Prout, 1 March 1963. Memorandum informed Prout of the content of his conversation with Wirth. Minnesota Department of Conservation file #56C95B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
96U.W. Hella to Clarence Prout, 4 April 1963, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #56C95B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Hella's reference to a national recreation area instead of a Voyageurs National Park was no doubt prompted by statements in the joint declaration of the Interior and Agriculture Departments "Treaty of the Potomoc," which supported the creation of national recreation areas. In some cases these areas would be managed by the USFS, in others the NPS, and in some instances, joint management would be appropriate.
98NPS Assistant Midwest Regional Director Harry Robinson to Minnesota Conservation Commissioner Clarence Prout, 20 June 1963. Letter requests information on existing ecological studies pertaining to the Kabetogama area. Of special concern was information on deer and beaver populations on the peninsula. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
99Eliot Davis to NPS Assistant Midwest Regional Director Robinson, 1 June 1963 on "Kabetogama Trip," and Davis, memorandum to NPS Regional Director Baker, 25 June 1963 on "Land Values" in the proposed area. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
104Clarence Prout memorandum regarding telephone call from Vice President of the Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company's Woodland Division George Amidon, 2 December 1963, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #56C95B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
105Minnesota Department of Conservation Deputy Commissioner Robert Brown to Director of Minnesota State Parks U.W. Hella, 9 December 1963, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #56C95B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
108George Amidon, oral history interview by Voyageurs National Park Historian Mary Lou Pearson, 12 July 1976, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Once before, in the late 1940s, M&O offered to exchange their Kabetogama lands for state lands closer to their mill. The governor supported the offer and the Minnesota commissioner of conservation, but it ran into heated opposition by some who said the state would be giving up valuable trust fund lands for a "worthless rock pile." It turned out to be embarrassing to the state and the Paper Company so the offer was withdrawn.
109Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company Woodlands Division Vice President George Amidon to NPS Acting Assistant Regional Director Harry Robinson, 24 March 1964, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #56C95B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
123Northeast Minnesota Organization for Economic Education press release, 2 September 1964 and Paulucci to Rolvaag, 17 September 1964, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #56C95B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
132Editorial, International Falls Daily Journal, 23 September 1964. The reference to road access was about a causeway and bridge connection from the mainland across Black Bay to the peninsula. The Kabetogama Peninsula would then no longer be isolated and would lay open to the kind of resort development found around most Minnesota lakes.
137Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company President Robert Faegre to Governor Karl Rolvaag, 18 February 1965, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #45B17B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
139Kawamoto interview and Ernest Oberholtzer to NPS Midwest Regional Director Lemuel Garrison, 30 March 1965. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Shortly after Mando announced its opposition to the Kabetogama site, Garrison received a letter from Oberholtzer, long-time advocate of public ownership of the boundary waters region. He explained that M&O had acquired the peninsula lands in the late 1930s after much of it had been logged and burned over. The USFS had hoped to purchase the lands and put it under its management program thus bringing it under public controla long-sought goal of the Quetico Superior Council. However, Governor Stassen, using newly acquired authority granted him by the Minnesota legislature, vetoed the USFS plan which allowed M&O to purchase the lands at a very low price. Shortly thereafter, they offered to exchange these lands for more valuable state forest lands in an adjoining county but with the provision that they (M&O) retain the flowage rights on the peninsula's shorelands which would rid them of any necessity to pay flood damages on any shorelines that passed out of their hands. (M&O owned the power plant and dams that regulated the level of Rainy Lake.) Oberholtzer said these lands would all be sold subject to that reservation and the owner would be helpless to ask for recompense. This advantage to the M&O was revealed in public hearings. In the course of the hearings, those opposed to the trade said Minnesotans were giving up good forest land for a rock pile. In the hearings on the park issue during the 1960s, Mando representatives would remind the public that the state could have acquired these lands in 1940 but rejected the offer. However, they did not mention that retention of flowage rights was a condition for the proposed exchange.
141NPS Division of National Park System Studies Chief Chester Brown memorandum to NPS Director Hartzog, 18 March 1965, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. This memorandum covered items discussed in a meeting with Secretary Udall.
145At mid-century, Minnesota's reserves of high-grade natural iron ores, which had been the mainstay of its iron mining industry since the 1890s, were rapidly declining. The industry began to turn to its vast reserves of leaner, low-grade ores called taconite, as a replacement for the richer ores. However, taconite required an elaborate beneficiation (upgrading) process before it could be used in the blast furnaces. Because of the large investment required to construct the processing plants, the industry, complaining of the onerous tax policy on its activities, asked for a constitutional change in the state's iron or taxing policies that would introduce some stability and fairness to the system. Resolving this problem became a precondition for making major investments in the new taconite industry. Initially there was strong resistance to the amendment proposition in northeastern Minnesota's iron ranges. But former Governor Andersen led a successful statewide educational campaign to convince voters that passage of the amendment would lead to major investments on the iron ranges, thus revitalizing an ailing industry and at the same time benefiting the entire state. Within twenty-four hours of its passage, U.S. Steel Corporation announced a plan to build one of the largest iron ore beneficiation plants in the world on the Minnesota Iron Range.
152NPS Acting Assistant Director for Resources Studies Howard Stegner, "Why a Voyageurs National Park." Speech delivered at the first general membership meeting of the Voyageurs National Park Association held in St. Paul on May 15, 1965. Minnesota Department of Conservation file #45B17B, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
154NPS Associate Regional Director George F. Baggley to Garrison, 30 June 1965. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Baggley's memorandum was a report on the Minnesota Outdoor Recreation Review Commission's hearing on June 18, 1965.
159Letters from the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture Orville Freeman to Kabetogama Lake Association President Herbert Townsend, 21 June 1965, and State Senator and Chairman of the Minnesota Outdoor Recreation Resources Commission Henry Herren, 13 July 1965, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
162Draft statement by NPS Midwest Regional Director Lemuel A. Garrison and Sigurd Olson that declared no further studies were required beyond those already made by the NPS and approved by the Department of the Interior proposing a national park in the Rainy Lake-Kabetogama peninsula region, 23 September 1965, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
163Chief of the Division of National Park System Studies Chester C. Brown to NPS Director George Hartzog, 24 September 1965, Legislative and Congressional Affairs Office files, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Memorandum regarding a Blatnik telephone call.
166NPS Midwest Region Planner Harold Jones to NPS Assistant Director for Cooperative Activities, 1 December 1965, Legislative and Congressional Affairs Office files, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.
167"Lumber Executive Hits Kabetogama Park Supporters," Duluth News-Tribune, 23 December 1966. Article was a response by George Amidon of Boise Cascade to Judge Edwin Chapman's criticism of Boise's position on the Voyageurs National Park proposal. Judge Chapman was president of the Voyageurs National Park Association.
170Malcolm O. Watson to Congressman John Blatnik, 17 January 1966, Minnesota Department of Conservation file #45124, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Shortly after the ads appeared, Congressman Blatnik received a letter from Watson stating the advertisements were misleading because they did not accurately state the source of funds used to pay for them. He noted that the money actually came from the Border Lakes Association, an organization of lakeshore property owners who had received a cash settlement from the M&O Paper Company for flood damages in 1950. (Flooding occurred due to faulty operation of the M&O dam at the west end of Rainy Lake.) M&O preferred a lump sum payment to an organization of claimants rather than settling a host of individual suits. Watson, who represented his father's interest on the board of directors of the Border Lakes Association, stated that the lump sum payment had grown to $40,000 by 1965. Late that year some anti-park board members were successful in voting a 10,000 donation to the newly organized Multiple Use Association which then used the funds to support the full-page advertisements and other activities of the association. Watson implied that major funding for Northland activities actually came from the Border Lakes Association rather than from widespread membership support.
173Archie D. Chelseth interview by author, 191 January 1990, Cloquet, MN. Chelseth was a staff assistant to Governor Levander from 1965-1969 with special responsibilities for the Voyageurs National Park project. At the time of the interview, Chelseth was an officer in the Potlach Corporation in Cloquet.
175Report of Preliminary Multiple-Use Plan for Kabetogama-Rainy Lake Area. Planning Associates Aguar, Jyring and Whiteman. February 1965, revised December 1966. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Aguar chose to use the term "natural area" instead of national park in his report to the county boards in January, 1967. Natural areas, in the system nomenclature of the NPS, are those that possess outstanding natural, scenic, scientific, and cultural resources of natural significance. In the classification hierarchy of the NPS, national parks must meet these criteria. The NPS determined that the Kabetogama Peninsula lands and adjacent waters met these conditions and if established as a national park, would be managed in a more restrictive manner than other units in the system such as national monuments, historic sites, or national recreation areas. Aguar believed that his county board clients and the residents on the periphery of the proposed park preferred a management plan which was less restrictive, thereby permitting a use pattern similar to the one in existence. His plan therefore, recommended a national recreation area rather than a national park. Aguar based his plan upon analysis of aerial photographs and maps and a boat and aerial reconnaissance of the Kabetogama area. His classification consisted of four categories: General Outdoor Recreation; Natural Environment Areas; Outstanding Natural Areas; and Historic and Cultural Sites. The report noted that recommendations for a management plan centered on the multiple-use concept would require more detailed study including the work of federal and state agencies active in the border lakes region.
187Edwin Chapman to Voyageurs National Park Association members, 14 September 1967. Minnesota Department of Conservation files, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, MN. Letter reports the successful land acquisition by the association at the September land sale.
189NPS Northeast Regional Director Lemuel A. Garrison to Midwest Regional Director Fagergren, 2 February 1967, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Memorandum written following a visit in Minneapolis in early February 1967 with park supporters and others close to the park issue.
193"Senator Mondale Calls for Establishment of the Voyageurs National Park," Congressional Record, 20 September 1967, 90th Cong. 1st sess. This was the text for Mondale's address to the Minnesota Conservation Federation, Duluth MN on September 16, 1967.
201Chief Russell E. Dickinson, Division of New Area Studies and Master Planning memorandum to Chief, Office of Resource Planning, WSC, 21 September 1967, Legislative and Congressional Affairs Office files, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.
205Kawamoto memorandum to NPS Midwest Regional Director Fagergren, 17 August 1987, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN. Memorandum regarded his field trip to meet with personnel from the Minnesota Department of Conservation.
210NPS Planner Courtland Reid memorandum to NPS Midwest Region Assistant Regional Director Theodore Swem, 13 October 1967, Legislative and Congressional Affairs files, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.
215Ronald A. Forestra, America's National Parks and Their Keepers, Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1984, 85. In 1964 interior Secretary Udall appointed Hartzog to replace Conrad Wirth. With this appointment, Udall sought to bring the NPS under closer scrutiny of departmental leadership (meaning Udall and the assistant secretaries) where he felt the interests of a wider segment of the public could be considered in making policy choices. Udall felt that Hartzog understood this philosophy better than Wirth who represented the earlier traditions of NPS administration.
218Voyagers National Park workshop transcript, 28 November 1967, Virginia, Minnesota. In the possession of Roger Williams, who was Governor Levander's coordinator of his interdepartmental committee on Voyageurs National Park.
225Ibid. This memorandum encouraged the governor to seek the support of the Upper Great Lakes Regional Commission for the Voyageurs proposal. During the last half of the 1950s, the National Park Service, with the financial support of the Mellon Foundation, made sea and lakeshore studies for the purpose of making recommendations for protection and preservation of some of America's outstanding shore zones. One report, Our Fourth Shore: Great Lakes Shoreline Recreation Area Survey (1959), resulted in the establishment of three national lakeshore recreation areas along the shores of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior between 1966 and 1970: Pictured Rocks (1966), Indiana Dunes (1967) and Apostle Islands (1970) along Lake Superior in Michigan; and Wisconsin and Sleeping Bear Dunes (1970) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's lower peninsula. Source: The National Parks: Shaping the System, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1985.
226Chelseth memorandum to Levander, 6 December 1967, Levander file, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Subject of memorandum was the contents of a bill authorizing Voyageurs National Park.
228Interdepartmental memorandum from J. Kimball Whitney, Minnesota Department of Conservation files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Report on a meeting held on December 26, 1967 with Durenberger, Herbst, Leirfallom and others.
233"Scored by Area GOP, Levander Defends Park Stand," International Falls Daily Journal, 5 December 1967 and E.J. Chilgren letter to the editor, St. Paul Dispatch, 6 December 1967 and "Big City Selfishness Basic to Demand for Kabetogama Peninsula," Mesabi Daily News, editorial published in the International Falls Daily Journal, 27 November 1967.
247Wheelock Whitney and Wallace Dayton to business and civic leaders in the Twin Cities area, 3 June 1968, Voyageurs National Park Association files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
248Voyageurs National Park Association file #1374, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Also personal conversations between the author and Lloyd Brandt during the 1980s and 1990s. The Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce actually helped launch the move for Voyageurs in April of 1965 when it provided funds and leadership to help establish the VNPA. Lloyd Brandt, then the Chamber's director of legislative affairs, assisted in the organizing of the VNPA and was a member of the first VNPA board of directors. He served for a time as its secretary and as president. Brandt said later that the Voyageurs project was one of several promoted by business interests in the Twin Cities area to help boost the lagging economy of the northeastern part of the state. Declines in the iron mining industry had contributed to a major loss of jobs across the entire region, and the taconite industry had only just begun to show promise.
249Other members of the Duluth committee were Bill Fayling, Glenn Maxham, Fran Skinner, Helen Seymore, "Joe" Goodsell, Dale Olsen, Henry Roberts, and Fred Witzig. Witzig and Zentner served as co-chairmen of the Duluth committee, 1969-1970.
253Ibid., 15 and Kay Franklin and Norma Schaeffer, Duel for the Dunes (Urbana: University of Illinois Press) 189. The idea for a Land and Water Conservation Fund to help finance acquisition of park and recreation land was advanced by Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall during the Kennedy administration. Funded largely by royalties from federal offshore oil-drilling leases, the LWCF provided Udall with a major source of revenue to carry out his goal of creating a "dynamic Park System" which would not only recognize the needs of the large western parks but also provide for establishment of parks closer to population concentrations. Voyageurs National Park and national lakeshores on Lake Superior and Lake Michiganall authorized in the 1960sbenefited significantly from the LWCF.
255"Management PlanCrane Lake Recreation Area," (Duluth: Superior National Forest) 1966. Regional Forester George James through approval of the Crane Lake Recreation Area Management Plan officially established the Crane Lake Recreation Area on March 24, 1966.
265Leirfallom memorandum, 6 June 1968, Levander files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Memorandum summarizing a meeting he held with George Amidon, Woodlands Manager for Boise Cascade Corporation on June 4, 1968. Memorandum is marked "confidential" and date June 6, 1968.
268Kawamoto memorandum to NPS Regional Director Fred Fagergren recounting a telephone conversation with Elmer Andersen on April 9, 1968. Undated, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
273"Blatnik Caught in Simmering Controversy Over Voyageurs," Duluth News-Tribune, 14 July 1968. The Duluth newspaper carried a special report on Congressman Blatnik's scheduling problem in its Sunday edition on July 14. The account was written by Robert Eisele of the newspaper's Washington bureau.
280Congressional Record, 19 July 1968, 7097-7099, A Bill to Establish a Voyageurs National Park, H.R. 18761, 90th Cong., 2 Sess., Government Printing Office, 1968. Summary of a bill introduced by Representative John Blatnik authorizing the establishment of Voyageurs National Park.
284Chelseth to Governor Levander's coordinating committee on Voyageurs National Park, 25 November 1968, Minnesota Department of Conservation files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
288Chelseth to Levander, 2 May 1969. Levander files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Higgins defended the Public Domain Committee's role in the Voyageurs National Park controversy.
289Chelseth to Andersen, 7 May 1969. Levander files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. Chelseth described the contents of implications of the proposed interim commission on the fate of the proposal for Voyageurs.
293Ibid. With any new administration comes pressure for changes in personnel at key positions in the several departments and bureaus. George Hartzog discloses in a book he wrote after he left office, that when Hickel took over as Interior Secretary, he received requests to fire him. Chief among his "enemies" were Senators Clifford Hansen of Wyoming and Gordon Allott of Colorado. Both were influential and senior members of the Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee which deals with parks and recreation matters. Hartzog learned early that a movement to fire him was underway and so he sought help from two individuals outside the parkWilliam Penn Mott, who later became NPS director under Reagan, and Nathaniel Reed. Hickel had offered the job to each of them when he took over at the Interior but they turned him down. However, both endorsed his retention as did several other influential "outsiders" and Hartzog was reappointed by President Nixon. George B. Hartzog, Jr. Battling for the National Parks (Mt. Kisco, NY: Moyer Bell, Ltd. 1988), 183-190.
305Allan R. Sommarston in his doctoral thesis, commented on the hearings in April 19 and 20, 1968 by the House Subcommittee on Parks and Recreation on the proposal for North Cascades National Park in Washington. The subcommittee was overwhelmed by a number of people [approximately 800] requesting to testify, which moved Representative Aspinall, Chairman of the House Committee and Interior and Insular Affairs, to remark that, "he had never seen anything like it." Allan R. Sommarston, Wild Land Preservation Crisis: The North Cascades Controversy (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1970) 135.
313The reality twenty-five years later doesn't match the expectations of the 1960s. The spring 1995 edition of the AAA travel magazine featured ten national parks as "relatively undiscovered parks" that offered "solitude along with the scenery." (Yvette LaPierre, "A Place to Park," Home and Away, 16, no. 2, March/April 1995: 14-19). Voyageurs was included in that group along with Apostle Islands National Lakeshore in northern Michigan. Significantly, all three are situated in the more remote sections of the upper Great Lakes states. Since the early 1980s the NPS has been working to encourage visitation to lesser-known parks in order to spread park visitation more evenly among the parks and among the seasons. Its most aggressive attempt in this effort has been at Voyageurs where a Tourism Development Task Force was organized with the participation of local residents to work on ways to stimulate visitation. ("National Parks for a New Generation," Report from the Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C.: 1985, 213).
315Sigurd Olson's statement prepared for the hearing did not reach the printing office in time to be included in the official record of the proceedings. Mr. Olson gave the writer a copy of the statement and the sentiments expressed therein are similar to those presented by Olson at subsequent hearings and in public speeches on the subject.
316Individuals representing the following organizations testified in favor of the park: VNPA and its Rainy Lake and Duluth Citizens Committee chapters, Minnesota Division of the Izaak Walton League, Democratic Farm Labor Party, North Star Chapter of the Sierra Club, Midland Cooperatives, Inc., and the Greater Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce. The following organizations were represented by individuals opposing the park: Boise Cascade Corporation, Minnesota Forest Industries Association, Koochiching County Republican Committee, Minnesota Arrowhead Association, Minnesota Timber Producers Association, Crane Lake Commercial Club, and the Northland Multiple Use Association.
317House Subcommittee, H.R. 10482, 10. Official position statement of Governor Harold Levander on the proposed Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Parks and Recreation for inclusion in the official record of the field hearings held in International Falls, Minnesota on August 21, 1969.
321"Voyageurs Park Faces Boost and Blow," Minneapolis Tribune, 6 September 1969. Report on the Public Domain Committee meeting held in Duluth on September 5 to hear testimony from various state, federal and local agencies. The NPS chose not to attend the hearing because they did not regard the meeting notice sent by the committee to be an official invitation.
328Congress created the Bureau of the Budget in 1921 to assist the president in preparing an executive budget. When Nixon became president, he revamped the bureau and changed its name to Office of Management and Budget in order to reflect its expanded budget-managing role. The OMB's new director, Robert Mayo, was an experienced and competent bureaucrat who had worked in the Treasury Department for almost twenty years before coming to the Bureau of the Budget. Robert L. Limebury. Government in America, 3rd ed. (New York: Little Brown and Co., 1986) 423 and 518-519.
351Boise Cascade's General Manager of Midwestern and Canadian Woodlands Division George Amidon to National Park Service Director Hartzog, 28 January 1970, Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
356MacGregor to Shemish, 4 May 1970, author's personal files. MacGregor's reference to poison was defined in a handwritten footnote at the bottom of his letter as "the poison of false information regarding my position and activities." The congressman had just begun a campaign for the Senate. His opponent was former Vice President Hubert Humphrey and he was concerned that his activity on Voyageurs be characterized in a positive light.
364Summary Position Paper on H.R. 10482, A Bill to Authorize Establishment of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota Senate Public Domain Committee, O.A. Sundet, Chairman, 17 June 1970, Minnesota Department of Conservation files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN.
366Leirfallom's real commitment to the Voyageurs project was always in question with some of Levander's closest advisors. This was particularly true of those who helped Levander shape his position on Voyageurs in the period from 1967 and 1969. Some thought Leirfallom originally supported the Crane Lake addition because it might serve to "kill the park." They were opposed to him testifying at major congressional hearings because they felt he might compromise the state's position on the park. They felt it was one thing for Leirfallom to cast doubt on the wisdom of establishing a park on the Kabetogama peninsula before a state Senate committee hearing. It was another to express these opinions at a congressional hearing.
367This reticence to speak out on the park issue vanished in the winter and spring of 1971 when the state legislature took up the issue of donating school trust fund land to the National Park Service to fulfill a requirement in the authorizing legislation for Voyageurs. The park issue was clearly drawn in this debate.
368Trust fund lands were those received by grant from the federal government with a condition that receipts from the lands be used for certain specified purposes. In Minnesota, such funds were dedicated to education. Most "school" lands are located in the northeastern part of the state with 51 percent in St. Louis and Koochiching Counties. Samuel T. Dana, Minnesota Lands Washington, D.C.: American Forestry Association, 1960) 190.
375This concern was no doubt heightened by Interior Secretary Udall's reorganization of the agency into three co-equal branchesnatural, historic and recreational. Under this plan a number of new units representing diverse and varied habitats were coming into the system. Udall was also successful in persuading Congress to pass the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act, which provided funds for expansion of the system. Udall knew that many National Park Service veterans feared that the more deliberate and selective system of the past was being compromised and thus opposed such rapid expansion of the system. Nevertheless, Udall and others in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations opted for a more ambitious course for the national park system. Kay Franklin and Norma Schaeffer, Duel for the Dunes, (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 189.
417Several sources were used to compile the Interior Committee's actions on the mark-up of the Voyageurs legislation including: Duluth News-Tribune and Duluth Herald articles on September 23 and 24, 1970; a memorandum from the director of the NPS Legislative and Cooperative Programs Division to the director of the NPS, September 24, 1970; files of the Legislative and Congressional Affairs Office, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.; VNPA executive committee meeting minutes for September 29, 1970; and the author's interview with John Blatnik on March 13, 1985.
420State legislators ran as conservatives and liberals at the time the park legislation was being considered. This practice was changed in 1974 when party labels were adoptedIndependent Republican for conservatives and Democratic-Farmer-Labor (DFL) for liberals.
421The Minnesota Resource Commission was set up by statute and was composed of seven members of the House and seven members of the Senate. The MRC did not speak for the Minnesota legislature but was primarily a research and advisory agency.
430Sigurd Olson to Senator Henry Jackson, telegram. 11 December 1970, Sigurd Olson files, Minnesota Historical Society Archives, St. Paul, MN. The eight conservation organizations Olson referred to included: National Audubon Society, Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs, Friends of the Wilderness, Izaak Walton League, Sierra Club, Wilderness Society, Voyageurs National Park Association, North Star Chapter of the Sierra Club, and the National Environmental Council.
432Elmer Andersen, interview. Mr. Andersen's assessment of Mondale and Mccarthy's contributions during the rush for approval of Voyageurs in the Senate in December 1970 was quite correct. Documentary evidence shows only one letter of support from Senator McCarthy in all the years the park proposal was before the people.
440After the Voyageurs National Park bill, H.R. 10482, came over from the House, the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs reviewed the legislation and added several amendments including the additional provision prohibiting the Interior Secretary from purchasing any private lands until the state formally donated its land. The reasons for this provision were explained in its report to the full Senate. Senate Report No. 91-1513, 91st Congress, Calendar No. 1524, 15 December 1970.
443Trust fund lands are those lands which were granted by the Federal Government to the states via the state Enabling Act of 1857 and to be held in trust for a specified purpose. In Minnesota, the purpose was education. The School Trust Fund carried the stipulation that receipts from land sales or economic activity on school lands be invested in a permanent fund. In 1960, 51 percent of these lands were located in Koochiching and St. Louis Counties. Dana, Samuel Task, Minnesota Lands (Washington D.C.: American Forestry Association, 1960), 190-191.
444These figures were obtained from an undated document in the archives at Voyageurs National Park under the heading "Transfer of Lands." The document prepared after the park was established also included the amounts paid by the State to acquire the Trust Fund Lands and the tax-forfeited lands acquired by the State from the counties for the appraised value of the lands. Lands in the Kabetogama State Forest were simply conveyed to the federal government as part of the donation.
446Ibid. Robert Herbst was the first Commissioner of the newly created Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. He served briefly as Deputy Commissioner of the former Conservation Department and left to become Executive Director of the Izaak Walton League. He left that position to accept the leadership position in the new Department of Natural Resources.
448"Necessary Legislation To Make Voyageurs National Park a Reality." Public announcement of a major conservation project by Robert Herbst, Commissioner of the Department of Natural Resources, 9 March 1971.
450Statement by former Governor Elmer L. Andersen, president of the Voyageurs National Park Association, 9 March 1971. It is both interesting and ironical that on the same day the land transfer bills were filed, an article appeared in the Minneapolis Tribune referring to a speech made on the same day by a leading figure in the national environmental movement questioning the wisdom of the National Park Service for supporting the act authorizing Voyageurs National Park. Speaking at a natural resources conference in Portland, Oregon, Daniel Poole, president of the Wildlife Management Institute, complained that the park act authorized public use activities previously unacceptable in any of the other natural areas in the National Park System. Poole cited snowmobiling, boating and the use of seaplanes as examples of such activities. He saw this as a departure from National Park policy. In an interview after his talk, Poole observed that some appeals for national parks, "...are being promoted by political and economic interests and preservationists but for conflicting purposes." He also observed that some park proposals are sold on the basis of the tourism they will generate. "Voyageurs Terms Called Detrimental," Minneapolis Tribune, 10 March 1971.
451Undated circular appealing for support of S.F. 1026 and H.F. 1337, the land transfer bills for Voyageurs National Park. Prepared by the Izaak Walton League of America (Minnesota Division) for distribution at an annual outdoor sports show in Minneapolis.
452"Voyageurs National Park Fact Book," Minnesota Resources Commission, St. Paul, March 1971. Years later during an interview with U.W. Hella, former Director of Minnesota State Parks and Recreation, Mr. Hella told the author that the Fact Book provided information in a format that made it easy for legislators and staff personnel to be accurately informed on a number of topics germane to the debate on the park. He believed it came to be regarded by legislators as a trusted source of information thus dispelling rumors and needless bickering. The interview with Mr. Hella was conducted on October 23, 1990 in St. Paul.
461Some of the witnesses appearing or providing statements in support of the legislation included: Senate Majority Leader and chief sponsor of the land donation bill, Senator Holmquist; former Governor Elmer L. Andersen, president of the VNPA; former Governor Harold Levander; Jack Everett, consulting geologist and first chair of the Duluth Chapter of the Citizens Committee for Voyageurs National Park; David Zentner, President of the Minnesota Division of the Izaak Walton League; Earnest Reusseau, President of the International Fails Chamber of Commerce; DNR Commissioner Robert Herbst; David Roe, President of the Minnesota AFL-CIO; Dean McNeal, President of the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce; Richard Thorpe, President of the North Star Chapter of the Sierra Club; U.W. Hella, Director of Minnesota State Parks; Anton Sterle, President of the United Northern Sportsmen; John Kawamoto, planner in the Midwest Regional Office of the National Park Service; Judge Mark Abbott, International Falls; Archie Chelseth, VNPA; Erick Kendall and Ed Sletton, Minnesota Association of Cooperatives; William Dean, Assistant Director for Cooperative Programs in the Midwest Regional Office of the National Park Service; George Esslinger, International Falls; and Sam Morgan, attorney for the VNPA.
468Individuals and organizations testifying or filing statements with the Natural Resources and Environment Committee in opposition to S.F. 1026 authorizing the donation of State lands to the United States for Voyageurs National Park during the April 5 and 12 hearings including: M. Russell Allen, Executive Secretary of the Minnesota Timber Producer's Association; Frank T. Frederickson, Woodlands Manager for Boise Cascade Corp.; Ed Chilgren, Northland Multiple Use Assn.; William W. Essling, spokesperson for the Boundary Waters Landowners Assn.; Hollis B. Ryan, Minnesota Arrowhead Assn.; Ray Higgins, former state Senator from Duluth; Russell Daniels, President of the Crane Lake Area Assn.; James Makuski, resort owner. Sources: Einar Karlstrand, "Voyageurs Said Threat to State Forest Industries," Duluth Herald, 15 April 1971; F.T. Frederickson "Questions Fairness of Park Land Donation," International Falls Daily Journal, 4 April 1971; "Opponents of Park Ask Referendum," Duluth News-Tribune, 13 April 1971; Curt Bernd, DNR to U.W. Hella, 6 April 1971, author's files; Erick Kendall, VNPA, "Summary of Voyageurs National Park April 12 Opposition Testimony at the State Senate Committee Hearing," author's files.
476Director U.W. Hella, Division of Parks and Recreation, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to Legislature's Natural Resources Subcommittees regarding establishment of Voyageurs National Park, 5 April 1971.
487Tom Mathews, "State Senators Block Voyageurs Park Plan," St. Paul Pioneer Press, 25 April 1971. Comment by Senator Harold Krieger during Senate Natural Resources and Environment Committee debate, April 24, 1971.
488Christopher Wren, "How to Wreck a National Park," Look Magazine, 16 June 1970, 77-80. This story appearing in a high circulation national magazine in the 1970s describes how park rangers were trying to cope with the cars and crowds at Grand Teton National Park in the summer of 1970. George Hartzog, then Director of the NPS, said it wasn't really people who clogged the parks but what they brought with themcars, trailers, campers, etc. Of course, Voyageurs, a water-based park, was not likely to have the vehicular problems that continued to confront the NPS in the more popular parks.
505Barry Mackintosh, "The National Parks: Shaping the System," U.S. National Park Service, Division of Publications, Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1984). GPO #129-2:P23/3.
507Ibid, p. 62. Congress participated in this unprecedented expansion by passing the Wilderness Act in 1964, the Land and Water Conservation Act, which helped fund land acquisition in new units, the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, the National Trails System Act, and in 1969, the Environmental Policy Act, in addition to approving the 69 new units.
508Nine units were added to the National Park System in the Midwest alone in the six years 1965-1971 including Herbert Hoover National Historic Site in Iowa, St. Croix National Scenic Riverway in Minnesota and Wisconsin, Apostle Islands National Lakeshore in Wisconsin, Sleeping Bear Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores in Michigan, Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Illinois, George Rogers Clark National Historical Park and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Indiana, and Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota.
512Brooks interview, p. 4. Wendell Anderson and Rudy Perpich were elected Governor and Lt. Governor respectively in 1970 and both were reelected in 1974. When Walter Mondale gave up his seat to become Vice President, Governor Anderson, in the first year of his second term resigned, elevating Perpich to Governor. Perpich promptly appointed Anderson to fill the Senate seat vacated by Mondale.
523"Proceedings of a Conference on Planning in the Voyageurs National Park Area," Governor's Voyageurs National Park Management Committee and Voyageurs National Park Association. Coordinator, Minnesota State Planning Agency. International Falls, MN, December 1973.
524Arrowhead Regional Development Commission Executive Director Rudy Essala to State Planning Agency Director Peter Vanderpoel, 28 November 1975. The document that was transmitted was called Subregional Plan for the Voyageurs Planning Area.
527NPS Midwest Region Chief of Cultural Resources F.A. Ketterson, Jr. to Gregory Kinney, 7 May 1990. Letter provides transfer dates for the inquiring Kinney but no explanation for shifting back and forth between regions. Voyageurs National Park Archives, International Falls, MN.
539"Crumbling Hierarchy," Editorial New York Times, 14 September 1972. Just how significant the restrictions on land acquisition were for Voyageurs was shown in an article published in the Duluth News Tribune in January 1973. The story reviewed the land acquisition progress through 1972 for several new NPS units in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Apostle Islands National Lakeshore had appraised all of the unit's mainland area and twenty islands. Federal and State lands were acquired by donation. The process of acquisition and negotiation for purchase at Apostle Islands (established 1970) went forward without the restrictions imposed at Voyageurs. The same was true for St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, which was established in 1969. Voyageurs could not purchase private lands in the park until all state lands were donated. The Essling legal challenges cited occasioned additional delays. "Land Being Acquired for National Parks," Duluth News-Tribune, 21 January 1973.
547Ibid. In 1964, the NPS issued new policy guidelines reflecting greater adherence to ecological thinking in the management of its units. The new policy reflected the recommendations of the A. Starker Leopold report in 1963, which recommended that the "biotic associations within each park be maintained, or where necessary recreated, as nearly possible, conditions that prevailed when the area was first visited by the white man," Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience, 2nd Ed., University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1987, p. 198-199 and A. Starker Leopold, "Wildlife Management in the National Parks," Living Wilderness, Spring 1963.
551Letter from Robert Herbst to George B. Hartzog, 13 April 1972. Voyageurs National Park archives, International Falls, MN. Herbst's role in securing deletion of Black Bay was not forgotten by environmentalists who testified against Herbst's nomination for Assistant Secretary of the Interior in the Carter administration. Al McConagha, "Environmentalists Trying to Block Herbst Nomination," Minneapolis Tribune," 30 January 1977.
558The Federal Register is a legal newspaper published every business day by the National Archives and Records Administration. It contains Federal agency regulations, proposed rules and notices, Executive Orders, proclamations and other presidential documents. National Archives website.
Last Updated: 23-Jan-2009