Submerged Cultural Resources Study:
USS Arizona and Pearl Harbor National Historic Landmark
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Chapter I: Introduction

This Report

This monograph is one in a series of reports that emanate from the offices of the Submerged Cultural Resources Unit in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Intended to fulfill several functions, it is primarily a source document for managers and researchers who will be involved in future stewardship of the USS ARIZONA and other period resources in Pearl Harbor. This document discusses the road thus far traveled and suggests future directions. It becomes a milestone of sorts in the administrative history of the USS Arizona Memorial and serves to define explicitly the values believed worthy of protecting and interpreting in a national context.

This report also fulfills professional researchers' obligations to be explicit about what they did and why they did it. Their data permits a realistic evaluation of the research process by other professionals. The report also ensures the survival of the knowledge gained in a way that allows cumulative understanding, which is the ultimate pursuit of all scientific inquiry. For the general public, the following is a guide so readers may select chapters of greatest interest to them.

NPS Diving Officer McLean with Henderson
Figure 1.6. NPS Diving Officer Dave McLean, discusses dive sequencing with Scott Henderson from Naval Ocean Systems Center.
(NPS photo by Larry Murphy)

Chapter II discusses the history of the Pearl Harbor attack and complements the discussions of the archeological record presented in Chapter III. It is written by Daniel Martinez, who has served as an interpreter and historian at the Arizona Memorial for many years. Daniel emphasized the aspects of the attack that enriched our understanding of the remaining archeological vestiges in the harbor. Consequently, heavy emphasis is given to the USS ARIZONA and USS UTAH because they are the only two vessels still remaining, although we acknowledge that many others played important roles in that historic event. Historic photos credited to "NPS: USAR" in this section are from the photo collection maintained at the Memorial by the National Park Service. This chapter should interest a general reading audience.

Chapter III discusses the archeological method, activities and results. It emphasizes analysis and description of the remaining fabric of the ARIZONA and the UTAH from the perspective of an imaginary swim through the sites. It is written by the volume editor, Dan Lenihan, who was principal investigator for all phases of the field studies, and by Larry Murphy, a SCRU Archeologist who was intimately involved with the design and implementation of the project from the beginning. This chapter may be of general interest but tends to be more technical than Chapter I and II and is directed to a professional and managerial audience.

Chapter IV, a highly technical chapter that covers the special study of biofouling and corrosion conducted in 1986, was written by Scott Henderson of the Naval Ocean Systems Center in Hawaii. The chapter is aimed at scientists and park managers who face similar management issues.

Like most products of the Submerged Cultural Resources Unit, this document reflects a blending of the objectives of park managers with those of cultural-resource specialists (archeologists, historians and anthropologists). Chapter V focuses on the unique perspectives of the managers ultimately responsible for the site's disposition. Gary Cummins and Bill Dickinson served as consecutive superintendents of the USS Arizona Memorial from the beginning of the National Park Service stewardship to 1988. In this chapter, they describe the process of learning the nature of the resource they were managing and developing strategies for monitoring and caring for it. This chapter, although aimed at fellow managers, should prove interesting to most readers.

Chapter VI presents a framework for understanding the significance of various submerged remains of the Pearl Harbor attack as part of our national heritage. This chapter is written by National Park Service Maritime Historian James P. Delgado, who nominated all the sunken vessels thus far designated as National Historic Landmarks, including the USS ARIZONA and USS UTAH. This section of the report will particularly interest World War II historians and managers of war memorials who deal on a daily basis with public perceptions regarding worth and importance. It will also be informative to the anthropologist studying symbols and icons in American culture.

Last Updated: 27-Apr-2001