USS ARIZONA MEMORIAL
Submerged Cultural Resources Study:
USS Arizona and Pearl Harbor National Historic Landmark
The work conducted on the USS ARIZONA and associated sites in Pearl Harbor was a complex undertaking. It involved cooperation among three major players: the U.S. Navy, the Arizona Memorial Museum Association and the National Park Service. Numerous individuals from each of these entities gave much of their time and energy to see the project through to its completion. Although this list is certainly not comprehensive, I would like to recognize some of these people for their efforts.
I won't dwell on individuals who have participated in authorship of this volume (including Gary Cummins and Bill Dickinson, Superintendents of the Memorial during the project), because their contributions will become apparent on reading the report. Several other employees of the memorial who continually gave much support to the project include Mark Senning, Farley Watanabe, Yvonne Menard, John Martini, Gary Warshefsky, Ric Smith, Andy Johnson, Lisa DuPratt, Mark Hertig, Mary Martinez, Lisa Collins, Dick Hilgendorf, Lina Fuamatu, Jamie Parish, Mark Tenaka-Sanders and the late Fred Kukonu. Daniel Martinez conducted important background research for the project each year besides writing the historical research chapter. Ray Emory, Pearl Harbor survivor, researched potential sites for Japanese submarines and aircraft. In addition, all members of the memorial staff made our frequent visits to Pearl Harbor a pleasure, and they put up with the disruptions we caused in their daily routines with warmth and good humor.
Jerry Livingston, besides his role as chief illustrator, was responsible for formatting the document in a desktop publication system and preparation of much of the camera-ready copy. Larry Murphy, besides being a co-author, was an important participant on the field level bringing his extensive background in underwater archeology and his photographic skills to the project. Larry Nordby, Chief of the Branch of Cultural Research in the NPS Southwest Regional Office, made a major contribution in his 1984 field renderings of the USS ARIZONA, port and starboard elevations, which the volume illustrator has incorporated into the final five perspectives. This, in addition to work he accomplished for us in 1986, made Larry a key figure in the ARIZONA project. Dave McLean, NPS Diving Officer from Lake Mead National Recreation Area, provided excellent daily coordination with Navy dive teams and was a valuable team member during all the field sessions. Jim Delgado, NPS Maritime Historian, obtained National Historic Landmark designation for both ARIZONA and UTAH, offered many helpful changes and additions to the historical record chapter and contributed a chapter to this report. Scott Henderson from the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC), in addition to authoring a chapter, volunteered for followup dives to his original research along with Jeff Grouvhog, also from NOSC. Jim Miculka, interpretive ranger from War in the Pacific National Historical Park, participated in the project and brought several volunteers-in-parks from Guam, including Joe Taitano and Suzanne Hendricks. Scott Lopez from Hawaii Volcanoes National Park participated frequently in the diving operations.
From the Arizona Memorial Museum Association, Gary Beito was very supportive of the survey work from its earliest stages. The clerks of the association bookstore were friendly to us despite our intrusive presence for weeks at a time over several years. The food and drinks donated by Concessionnaire Carol Lim are also appreciated. Pacific Area Director Bryan Harry, senior park service official in the study area, kept a quiet, watchful eye on the project as it unfolded but was ready to lend his support whenever necessary. This project also required smooth coordination between two NPS regional offices. Regional Directors of Western and Southwest Region (home office of SCRU) during the period the work took place were Howard Chapman and Stan Albright (Western) and Bob Kerr and John Cook (Southwest). Roger Kelly, regional archeologist for Western Region played an active role each year in ensuring that this interregional coordination and cooperation held together. Chief archeologist of the National Park Service, Doug Scovill, has programmatic authority over the Submerged Cultural Resources Unit and strongly supported the Pearl Harbor operation. Cal Cummings, senior service archeologist in Denver, paid an on-site visit in 1986 and offered comparisons to work he was involved with on the USS MONITOR.
As will become apparent to the reader, the U.S. Navy was a close partner in this operation from the inception. We enjoyed active participation by U.S. Navy divers from Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit One (MDSU) and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Mobile Unit One and Training and Evaluation Unit One in all phases of the research.
None of the activity would have taken place, however, without the sanction of Admirals Jeremiah, Anderson and Rorie, and Rear Admirals Boyle, Chadwick and Reimann. Commander Peck of MDSU supported the operation in the first few years. His successor, Commander David McCampbell, became intensely involved in the project and pulled out the stops in giving support to our operations; eventually, going beyond Pearl Harbor to various projects in Micronesia. In so doing, Commander McCampbell greatly advanced the concept of Project SeaMark, the name eventually assigned to the U.S. Navy/NPS cooperation on submerged resources work. That concept was first articulated by Commander James "Otto" Orzech as an active-duty training function for his reserve unit from Long Beach, California. Otto and his unit were primarily responsible for Navy support in the mapping of the USS UTAH, and Otto also was a major player in advancing the SeaMark concept to the Western Pacific. Commodore Rob Wells and Commodore David Wallace released fleet assets to assist NPS operations in Pearl Harbor and other joint ventures in the Pacific. Commander Steve Epperson provided services of his highly professional BOD divers for side scan and ordnance clearance activities on several occasions. Sub base support came from Captain Marshall. Lt. Michael Morrissey became an advocate for the SeaMark proposal with the Naval Surface Reserve Force in New Orleans and was largely responsible for securing funding for the work in 1986 at Pearl Harbor and later in Palau. Rob Hommon, archeologist with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, provided coordination regarding matters of legal compliance with environmental legislation. Brian O'Connor, diver from MDSU One participated both in his Navy capacity and at other times as a volunteer diver and researcher.
The University of Hawaii, and Dr. Alex Malahof in particular, are thanked for contributing the use of a research submersible to the 1988 survey effort.
This manuscript was reviewed in draft form by Larry Nordby, Doug Scott, archeologist with the NPS Midwest Archeological Center, Don Boyer with the Bureau of Land Management in Santa Fe, Neil Mangum, NPS Historian in Santa Fe, Chief Historian of the National Park Service, Ed Bearss and his staff including Kevin Foster, Jim Charleton and Jim Delgado. Joy Murphy did a technical edit of the contents. Fran Day, SCRU secretary, was responsible for typing the manuscript and mastering the interplay of several word processing systems.
In addition, we thank the following individuals and agencies for their help on the history section of this report.
Mike Boyd, Volunteer in Parks, Photo Archivist, USS Arizona Memorial Photo Collection.
Susan Schmaler, Volunteer in Parks, Photo Archivist, USS Arizona Memorial Photo Collection.
John De Virgilio, Volunteer in Parks, Photo Archivist, USS Arizona Memorial Photo Collection.
Chuck Haberlien, Photo Archivist, Naval Historical Center, Washington DC.
Jim Trimble, National Archives, Still Picture Division, Washington DC.
Bruce Andrae, US Navy Public Affairs, Puget Sound Navy Yard, Washington.
Robert Kirk, Craig Haffner. Greystone Communications, Glendale, California.
Robert Sumrall, Curator, US Naval Academy Museum, Annapolis, Maryland.
Last Updated: 27-Apr-2001