The pottery of Tuzigoot was in general not of a particularly good quality. The vessels made were simple in form, of average durability and for the most part undecorated. It was the imported types of pottery which gave to the pueblo what color and beauty its ceramics had. Pottery was abundant and in use for a great variety of purposes, but the potters of the pueblo, particularly in the later phases of life at Tuzigoot, were concerned for the most part with utilitarian and met artistic ends.
The overwhelming mass of pottery in use at Tuzigoot was not decorated. All the plain, as well as decorated sherds found at the various levels in the stratigraphic blocks of refuse were saved and counted. The percentage of plain in the various strata of the large block on the west slope varied from 91.2% in the lower levels to 98.7% in the upper levels. The percentage of plain in the block as a whole was 94.4%. The percentage of plain in the two blocks of refuse studied on the east slope was 96.7% and 98.4% respectively.
The percentage of undecorated whole vessels found in the entire excavation was 69.1%, a figure which gives an idea of the relative proportions of undecorated to decorated grave offerings, rather than of the general proportions of pottery types at the pueblo.
The most satisfactory figures for indicating the proportions of plain and decorated pottery came from the stratigraphic block on the west slope, because the material from this block includes the whole range of pottery developments at Tuzigoot. Ninety-four per cent of plain is probably a good average figure for the pueblo during its whole period of existence, with an increase in this percentage toward the end.
There were three important types of plain ware in use at Tuzigoot. They were a grey ware, a brown ware and a red ware. The names given to these are Prescott Grey Ware, Verde Brown Ware and Tuzigoot Red, the latter being a type of Mogollon Red Ware (Colton & Hargrave, 1935).
PRESCOTT GREY WARE1
Prescott Grey Ware is the basis for such types as Prescott Black-on-grey, Prescott Black-on-brown and Prescott Polychrome.
PASTE: Composed of a coarse grey paste often burning reddish brown in spots. The temper is of quartz sand, feldspar and mica. The mica particles always show on both the interior and exterior surfaces, no slip having been applied. The paste always contains more than fifty percent tempering material.
TEXTURE: Coarse, irregular and crumbly.
TECHNIQUE OF MANUFACTURE: Probably the paddle and anvil method was used.
SURFACE TREATMENT: Scraped on the inside in places but still irregular and bumpy. Smoothed on the outside, but unslipped. Mica and quartz show on the surfaces.
FORMS: Ollas, bowls and odd shapes, such as crude ladles or scoops. Ollas are heavy and globular with short necks which curve outward.
RANGE: West Central Arizona from the Verde River to the Big Sandy. Type sites: Fitzmaurice Ruin in the Agua Fria drainage east of Prescott and King's Ruin on Chino Creek a tributary of the Verde River.
VERDE BROWN WARE
Verde Brown Ware was the most common type of pottery at Tuzigoot during the earlier phases of the pueblo's existence. It was in early general use for all culinary and storage purposes. Later in the development of the pueblo, Brown Ware was largely superseded for culinary, but not for storage purposes, by a coarse variety of Tuzigoot Red.
PASTE: Grey-black to red-brown firing usually to a dark brown, but in cases of over-firing in oxidizing heats is either a glowing red-brown or a coppery metallic color. Temper consists of thirty to fifty per cent of coarse particles of feldspar, sometimes angular, but more generally rounded sand grains.
TEXTURE: Coarse and greatly variable within high degree of coarseness; temper varies from fine to extremely coarse; very porous; varies from durable to soft and weak, but in general is soft, porous, and weak.
TECHNIQUE OF MANUFACTURE: Probably the paddle and anvil was used in finishing the surface.
SURFACE TREATMENT: Smoothed but not polished; irregular but not lumpy; temper does not show on surface except for an occasional flake of mica; scraping marks generally apparent on the exteriors, particularly near the rims where they are generally horizontal in trend. Interior surface is generally rough and unsmoothed, showing many irregular depressions, possibly anvil impressions, but interiors also show scraping marks. No slip or wash was used.
FORMS: Mainly very large ollas; some bowls, usually small. Ollas are of two general body forms: Globular, (Plate X, a), and elongate or pear-shaped, (Plates VIII and X, c). Bases are rounded or elliptical. The necks of globular bodied ollas are short and either vertical, (Plate X, a), or curved inward and recurved at the rim. Necks of elongate bodied ollas are vertical or recurved and proportionately longer than those of the globular ollas. Rims are rounded and direct or out-flaring; out-bevelled and flaring; or rarely flat and direct. One flattened globular Brown Ware olla had possessed the secondary feature of lugs on either side, a few inches down from the orifice.
DIMENSIONS: Fourteen ollas and six bowls made of Verde Brown Ware were recovered from Tuzigoot and restored. The size range of the ollas is as follows: The smallest, height 11-1/4 inches, maximum diameter 11 inches, diameter of orifice 7 inches; the largest, height 27 inches, maximum diameter 24-1/4 inches, diameter of orifice 14 inches, (Plate VIII). The thickness of the walls of Brown Ware ollas averages about 1/2 inch.
The smaller ollas of the size of the smallest just described, or a little larger, were obviously used mainly in cooking, but smaller Brown Ware ollas of about this size were also frequently found sunk beneath floor-levels for storage purposes. The very large ollas, of the same general size as the largest mentioned, were used exclusively for storage, and were serving such purposes generally at the time of the abandonment of the pueblo.
The six bowls of Verde Brown Ware were found, together with other pottery offerings, in graves. They vary in size from 3-3/4 inches height by 5-3/4 inches diameter to 5 inches height by 8 inches diameter. All are thick-walled (about 3/8 inch), crudely moulded, and roughly finished.
Commoner than Brown Ware in the later phases of Tuzigoot was an undecorated red ware. It was the principal material in use for food bowls and small ollas (Plate IX).
PASTE: Grey to buff in color, firing to orange, yellow, or red. There is sometimes a core of greyish color in the centers of vessels, but more commonly the ware is an even yellowish-buff through the center, shading into a reddish tone at the surfaces. Temper consists of feldspar and undetermined darker particles, either angular or rounded in form. Commonly there is also present scattered soft particles of a brick red color.
TEXTURE: Moderately coarse to coarse paste with fine to coarse temper; moderately hard to very hard and durable; porous, often with open spaces in paste clearly visible; not friable. Texture irregular and variable within the same vessel.
TECHNIQUE OF CONSTRUCTION: Paddle and anvil construction and molded.
SURFACE TREATMENT: Surfaces of bowls smoothed and often polished on both interiors and exteriors; horizontal scraping marks apparent on both interiors and exteriors of bowls, especially near rims. Exterior surfaces of ollas smoothed and frequently highly polished; interior surfaces rough, unsmoothed, and characterized by irregular depressions as well as scraping marks. The surfaces are characterized by frequent firing clouds, black in color, often with yellow and grey gradations from the black cloud to the red surface. The majority of vessels are not slipped, but the use of a thin brick-red slip was not uncommon. Bowls were frequently smudged black on the interiors and sometimes the smudged surface was given a high polish.
FORMS: Vessel forms are bowls, generally equal to or less than a hemisphere, with rims rounded, flat, or outbevelled and most commonly direct or recurved, but sometimes incurving or flaring (Fig. 6). Ollas are either with globular bodies, (Plate X, d), or with a shoulder giving an effect of a "bulged Bottom", (Plate X, b). Olla necks are most commonly recurved with out-bevelled rims, but sometimes are vertical or inclined inward with direct or recurved rounded or out-bevelled rims.
DIMENSIONS: Red Ware bowls vary in size from 16-1/2 inches diameter by 6 inches depth to 2 inches diameter by 1 inch depth. They average about 9 inches diameter by 4-1/2 inches depth. Ollas are all small with a size range of from 8 inches height by 8 inches maximum diameter by 5 inches orifice to 4-5/8 inches height by 3-3/8 inches maximum diameter by 3-1/4 inches orifice.
TUZIGOOT RED DETAILS OF FORM
A total of one hundred and eight complete bowls of undecorated pottery were obtained in the excavation of Tuzigoot. One hundred and six of these were burial offerings; only two were recovered from rooms. All of these except the six Brown Ware bowls already mentioned were of Tuzigoot Red. Twenty-three of the later, or a little less than one-fourth of the total, had smudged black interiors, either polished or unpolished.
The general size range in bowls was from 16-1/2 inches diameter by 6 inches depth to 2 inches diameter by 1 inch depth. The exceptionally large bowl, of 16-1/2 inches diameter, was one of the two bowls found on the floors of rooms. Its size is exceptional and nothing approaching it was found elsewhere in the pueblo. The largest of the burial offering bowls was 12 inches diameter and 5-3/4 inches in depth.
The Red Ware burial offering bowls, including both smudged and unsmudged interiors, may be classified into four main groups on a basis of rim types.
Thirty-four, or about one-third, of the total have direct vertical rims (Fig. 6, d, e). Twenty-six have recurved rims, (Fig. 6, a, b, c). Eighteen have flared out-bevelled rims (Fig. 6, g). Four have incurved rims, (Fig. 6, h, i). The proportions of these rim types amongst the unsmudged and smudged bowls are about equal. Within the rim type groups, the tops of the rims, whether rounded, flat, or out-bevelled, vary with no correlation to the type. Three-fourths of the direct rim bowls have rims with rounded tops, (Fig. 6,d), the other fourth being slightly flattened. (Fig. 6, e). A little less than one half the recurved rim bowls have rims with the outward bevel (Fig. 6, c), the remaining half being divided about equally between rounded and flat tops, 6, a, b).
Half the flared bowls have out-bevelled rims (Fig. 6, g), the others being rounded (Fig. 6, f).
The incurved rim types are about equally divided between flat and rounded tops.
The most usual rim type, therefore, was a direct one with rounded top (Fig. 6, d), but the recurved rim with rounded or back-bevelled top is of frequent occurrence, (Fig. 6, a, c).
The great majority of bowls are in shape equal to or slightly less than a hemisphere, but a deep form is of general occurrence in all the rim type groups, and constituted the majority of the forms in the recurved rim type (Plate IX, a ).
In addition to the general standard bowl forms mentioned there were aberrant forms of uncommon occurrence. A series of these is illustrated in Plate IX, c. Only three bowls with flat bottoms were found.
Fourteen ollas of Tuzigoot Red were recovered in the excavation. The size range of these varies as follows: From height 16 inches by maximum diameter 11-1/2 inches by orifice 8 inches to height 4-5/8 inches by maximum diameter 3-3/8 inches by orifice 3-1/4 inches. Two general forms are distinguishable: One type with more or less globular body, (Plate X, d), the other with a shouldered body and the appearance of a "bulged bottom", (Plate X, d). Nine of these were burial offerings, all of which were small. Rims are most commonly rounded, sometimes with an outward bevel.
EVOLUTION OF PLAIN WARE FORMS
Our knowledge of the changes of vessel forms during the period of the occupation of Tuzigoot is both uncertain and limited. There were undoubtedly few very important changes in the forms of plain ware vessels during this period but an examination of the rim sherds from Stratigraphic Block #1 (See table in latter part of report) gives some indication of probably trends in the evolution of forms. These indications are summarized here for what they may be worth. They should be regarded as suggestive for future lines of work, rather than as conclusive for Upper Verde history or even for Tuzigoot history. The numbers of rim sherds found in the various strata of the block were small and it is their meagerness that makes their evidence doubtful. They may not constitute representative samples of the material. With these reservations, the following tabulations are presented:
RIM SHERDS OF PLAIN WARE FROM STRATIGRAPHIC BLOCK #1
The only generalization which we shall venture on a basis of these data (See Fig. 6) are the following: (1) That rounded rims were by far the most common throughout the period which this block represents; (2) That flat rims probably became more common in the latter phases of Tuzigoot's existence; (3) That direct rims were the most common forms throughout the period represented by the block; (4) That recurved rims were becoming somewhat more popular in the later phases of the pueblo; (5) That flared rims were popular in the earlier phases of the pueblo; (6) That incurved rims did not come into general use until the later periods of Tuzigoot ceramic history. On all of these generalizations we should be the first to cast doubt; they need further support.
There seems to be too little variation in the forms of the olla rims represented by the sherds in the stratigraphic block to make it worthwhile even to set down the data. But it might be said that there is some slight indication that ollas with a pronounced flare of the rims were commoner in the later periods than in the earlier. The out-bevelled olla rim appears in the earliest as well as the latest strata, and throughout the rounded top rim is the commonest form for ollas.
Unfortunately these data include both Tuzigoot Red and Verde Brown Ware. Perhaps separate studies of the two types will yield different results.
Thirty-seven distinct types of decorated pottery were found at Tuzigoot. A tabulation of the quantitative occurrence of these types follows: The sherds included in the tabulation represent every sherd of decorated pottery that was found in the excavation.
It seems probable that the afore tabulated sherds give a good general idea of the range of decorated pottery types and of the relative abundance of those types at Tuzigoot during its whole history. The sherds include the total collection of decorated pottery in the excavation. Every decorated sherd from every room was saved. Three stratigraphic blocks in the refuse area were worked out and the sherds from these are included in the counts. In addition, they include every decorated sherd from every trench. Since the trenches covered about one half the total area of the refuse accumulations on all sides of the pueblo and extended in all cases to the very bottom of the accumulations, it seems that the sherds from them should give a fair and representative sample of the decorated pottery types. But in the above tabulations there is undoubtedly an excessive proportion of the late types, such as Jeddito Black-on-yellow, which were naturally more abundant on the surface and in the fill of the rooms. However, in considering groups of contemporaneous types, the counts should give a fair idea of the relative abundance at the site of the various types at any one period.
In the tabulation the types have been arranged in geographical groups with the latest type of a region at the top of the group and the earliest at the bottom, conditioned, of course, on the state of our present knowledge in such matters. Where sherds were obviously all from the same vessel, they were counted as a single sherd, but of course it has not been possible in every case to determine this.
For convenience of reference, the following table taken from the aforementioned general table, gives the number of sherds of the most common types of decorated pottery at Tuzigoot:
These five types were, at different times, the most important types of decorated pottery in use at Tuzigoot. Two of these, Jeddito Black-on-yellow and the Winslow wares, were definitely imported types. The two Black-on-white types may have been made at Tuzigoot; Prescott Black-on-grey was, least questionably, a locally made product. It is significant that Jeddito Black-on-yellow is represented by almost as many sherds as are all the other important types considered together.
NEW DECORATED TYPES
There are in the above general tabulation four new decorated types of pottery which have not previously been described in the literature of Southwestern archaeology. These are Tuzigoot White-on-red, Tuzigoot Black-on-grey, Verde Red-on-buff, and Bidahochi Black-on-white. There is, in addition, a type which has not been adequately described heretofore - Prescott Black-on-grey - which will therefore be described briefly here, together with certain related types.
SYNONYMS: Verde Black-on-white (Gladwin, 1930, a, p. 140); Verde Black-on-grey (Gladwin, 1930, b, p. 176).
DESCRIPTION: Paste, temper, finish and forms are identical with Prescott Grey Ware. Decoration consists of a thin black carbon paint applied very crudely over the unslipped grey background, often almost indistinguishable from the latter. Bowls are decorated on the interiors. The most characteristic design element is the angular scroll, or key, in triangular or diamond-shaped form. It is repeated over the whole decorated surface or combined with other elements. Heavy dots and broad heavy lines are frequent. Brushwork is splashy and uniformly careless. For a complete description see Spicer and Caywood, "Two Prescott Black-on-grey Sites". (MS).
TYPE SITE: King's Ruin in the Chino Valley.
PASTE: Identical with Tuzigoot Red in Texture, surface, treatment, and technique of construction.
VESSEL FORMS: Small ollas and occasional bowls. The ollas are rarely as great as six inches in diameter. All that have been so far reported are shouldered forms with "bulged Bottoms" and short, slightly flaring necks with rounded rims.
DECORATION: The decoration is in a thick fugitive white paint on the exteriors of both bowls and ollas. Elements are broad lines with pendant dots, groups of large dots, irregular meanders, and zigzags. The execution of the elements is always crude and lines are characterized by messiness. The elements are rarely integrated into symmetrical designs, but are commonly applied as planlessly as the designs on Prescott Black-on-grey.
RANGE: The Upper Verde drainage from Beaver Creek to at least Sycamore Canyon. Has been found also at Fitzmaurice Ruin, near Prescott.
This type, (Platte XI, d), while closely similar in decoration to Prescott Black-on-grey, differs fundamentally in paste makeup.
PASTE: Either closely similar to that of Tuzigoot Red or of a type which is grey and fires to a grey or a dirty buff. Temper is fine and entirely lacking in mica, usually fine feldspar sand.
TEXTURE: Moderately fine, but variable to coarse.
SURFACE TREATMENT: Interiors of bowls smoothed, rarely polished. Exteriors of bowls smoothed and often polished. Scraping marks rarely visible on exteriors of bowls as wide smooth bands with a higher luster than the rest of the surface. No slip.
VESSEL FORMS: Shallow bowls, less than at hemisphere in form, with direct and rounded or flat rims.
DIMENSIONS: Moderate sized bowls, 7 to 8 inches diameter and 3 to 3-1/2 inches in depth.
DECORATION: For the most part repeats the decorative style of Prescott Black-on-grey, but the thin black paint is applied with neater brushwork. Design elements are angular scrolls, isolated swastikas, crosses and dots, and various variations on the angular scroll; one bowl utilizes fine lines and solid triangles that is reminiscent more of Kana-a Black-on-white than of any Prescott Black-on-grey elements. Elements are grouped in unframed or, rarely, framed bands on the interiors of bowls. Sometimes an isolated element, such as a swastika, occurs in the bottom of the bowls.
GENERAL DISCUSSION: Tuzigoot Black-on-grey was made at Tuzigoot and at several of the large valley pueblos nearby which were inhabited at the time Jeddito Black-on-yellow was common in the Upper Verde region. It is definitely a carrying over of the Prescott Black-on-grey decorative technique to a finer type of basic pottery and by potters who were more accomplished workers with the paint brush. It appears to have developed fairly early in the history of Tuzigoot and was made occasionally during a great part of the existence of the pueblo.
This is a definite variety of Red-on-bluff, but is not, according to Dr. Emil Haury, Gila Pueblo, a variety of Hohokam ware.
PASTE: Grey to buff paste. Temper, texture, surface treatment and technique of manufacture identical with Tuzigoot Red. Those vessels which happened to burn, or were intentionally burned, to a buff color were selected for decoration. Instead of the red slip occasionally applied to Tuzigoot Red, to this ware was occasionally applied a cream-colored slip of rather thick consistency.
VESSEL FORMS: Almost exclusively ollas, judging from the Tuzigoot sherds; an occasional bowl; ollas were rather small.
DECORATION: Decoration in red paint, crudely applied to the interiors of bowls and the exteriors of ollas. Design elements are parallel chevrons, interlocked angular scrolls, triangles with single hooks, lines with short pendant lines or blunt barbs, solid triangles pendant from broad lines. Only rarely are the elements integrated into systematic designs. One bowl from a pueblo near Tuzigoot was seen which was burnished black on the interior and on the exterior had large figures of crudely made cornstalks repeated about the surface.
RANGE: Insofar as it is known, the range of this ware seems to extend from at least as far south as West Clear Creek northward throughout the Upper Verde drainage to King's Ruin, on Chino Creek.
The geographical name for this type, (Platte XI, b), has been suggested by Hargrave because its paste makeup indicates undoubted origin in the Hopi country.
PASTE: Identical, except for color, with the paste of Jeddito Black-on-yellow. Temperless. The color after firing is the same as before firing -- a clear pearly grey white.
TEXTURE: Identical with Jeddito Black-on-yellow, fine and compact. Very hard and durable.
SURFACE TREATMENT: Smoothed and polished. No slip used.
TECHNIQUE OF MANUFACTURE: Coiling.
VESSEL FORMS: Bowls, small pitchers, and a ladle found. No ollas. Bowls large to medium hemispherical and less than hemispherical, rims somewhat incurved, but without the characteristic inward bevelling of the Jeddito Black-on-yellow bowls.
DECORATION; Decoration in thick black, iron-manganese paint which is frequently blistered over parts of its surface. Design elements are broken broad "life lines" framing a band on bowl interiors, stepped elements often interlocking, zigzags made of adjacent rectangles, groups of parallel narrow lines, solid triangles, and in general those elements which are found in the geometric designs of Jeddito Black-on-yellow. Elements arranged in bands on bowl interiors and pitcher exteriors. No exterior decoration on bowls.
RANGE: As yet unknown, probably was developed in the Hopi country. It has been found that this Black-on-white pottery can by firing in an oxidizing heat at a temperature of not over 500 degrees centrigrade be turned into a form identical with Jeddito Black-on-yellow The only difference occurs in those pieces which show the thick, blistered black decoration. This paint does not become like in appearance to the paint of Jeddito Black-on-yellow, but preserves a characteristic appearance of its own. It is our opinion that this Black-on-white is merely a Jeddito pottery type which has been fired under reducing conditions. Certain whole vessels of the type will be discussed more fully below.
HYBRID AND ABERRANT DECORATED TYPES
In addition to those sherds tabulated above there were five crossed, or hybrid types:
There were also some odd sherds which may be classed as aberrant forms and are not of sufficient importance to warrant naming and classification. They may be considered as illustrating isolated breaks from tradition in pottery decoration. Each of these forms is represented by only a single sherd.
VARIATION OF PRESCOTT BLACK-ON-GREY
One such aberrant sherd is part of the neck of a large olla. The paste is identical with that of Prescott Grey Ware as is the temper and finish. The interior surface is grey, the exterior brown. The interior is decorated in black with typical Prescott Black-on-grey motifs, repeated interlocked keys; the exterior was covered with a thick white wash and over the wash was painted in red a design consisting of solid triangles pendant from narrow parallel lines. A somewhat similar type has been found to be of extremely rare occurrence at Fitzmaurice Ruin, east of Prescott.
A sherd of Tuzigoot Red was found with decoration in crude broad lines in black of partially fugitive character. The sherd is part of an olla. The decoration is suggestive of that on the exterior surfaces of Prescott Polychrome. Several sherds have been found at large pueblos nearby and contemporary with the later phases of Tuzigoot.
Another sherd of Tuzigoot Red with smudged, but unpolished interior, part of a bowl, was found with a decoration of narrow barbed lines over the smudged interior. The decoration was in a very bright red, not at all comparable with the red in use on Verde Red-on-buff at Tuzigoot.
VARIATION ON RED-ON-BUFF
A typical early Red-on-buff design of groups of narrow short parallel inclined lines and repeated conventionalized "pelicans" was found on a sherd, which except for an excess of mica in the paste might have come from the Hohokam region. The exterior of the sherd which, like the interior, was buff in color and unslipped showed two narrow dark brown lines about an inch apart, very sharply executed almost as though ruled.
TUSAYAN CORRUGATED HYBRID
An unusual cross of Tusayan Corrugated with some other aberrant form is represented by one sherd. It is part of the rim of a bowl. The paste and the exterior are Tusayan Corrugated. The interior was apparently a light yellowish brown in color and over this had been painted a design in white.
These aberrant forms may be regarded as exceptional and isolated departures on the part of some individual potter from the conventional styles in vogue. A consideration of them is of value in that it affords an illustration perhaps of the manner in which the pottery styles of the ancient Southwest were enriched from time to time by the new ideas of experimentally inclined individuals. All of the described forms were undoubtedly made at Tuzigoot, because they are of local clays, with the possible exception of the sherd involving the Tusayan Corrugated technique. It is not likely that similar forms will be found elsewhere in the Upper Verde or in the Southwest in general.
POTTERY DECORATION ON WHOLE VESSELS
The study and comparison of pottery decoration from whole vessels is very interesting at this stage. In the course of excavation forty-six vessels were found representing twelve different pottery types. A very few of these were found whole, but those broken were repaired for museum display and study.
From the table on page 48, it may be seen that Jeddito Black-on-yellow is the most numerous type with Winslow Polychrome, Bidahochi Polychrome and Winslow Black-on-orange following. All of these types are native to one specific region quite removed from the Verde Valley. That the center for their distribution would probably have been somewhere north of Winslow, Arizona, has been proven by a study of their various pastes. Following the aforenamed types in number is the Bidahochi Black-on-white which is identical in makeup and design to the Jeddito Black-on-yellow, but not in color. Therefore, it is interesting to note that whatever might be said of Tuzigoot and its people much pottery came in by trade from the North. It is probable that the reason for this is that the people of Tuzigoot night have been too "wealthy" in worldly goods and products and not too skillful in pottery making to attempt to make beautiful pottery when it was possible to trade for it in cotton, salt, cloth and copper ores used in paints - all products of the Verde Valley.
So we find pottery making its way down from other villages and being used as burial offerings. However, only the smaller vessels of these foreign potters were found and not the larger ones which shows that northern people did not come south and occupy Tuzigoot or its neighboring towns. Of course, not all the inhabitants were sufficiently well off to have the foreign made bowls or small ollas placed in their graves as offerings; so a plain red bowl made by a member of the family had to suffice in many instances.
The designs on Jeddito Black-on-yellow found at Tuzigoot seem as though they might each tell a story if it were possible to interpret them. There is always the broken line around the interior of the bowl. This line occurs from one half inch to one and one half inches below the rim and is from one half inch to three quarters of an inch wide (Plate XII and Fig. 7). The design which occurs in the bottom of the bowl is always made within a circle usually outlined by a thin line. Sometimes the design is in four balanced elements, the two opposing members of which are the same. Again the design is laid out as though it told a story, (Fig. 7, b). The exterior decoration is usually in isolated panels, but continuous bands do occur.
As the Jeddito Black-on-yellow bowls are twice or more as wide as they are high and fairly flat bottomed, they lend themselves very well to decoration. They range in height from two and one half inches to four inches and in diameter from six inches to nine inches. The rims are in curving and usually flat on top.
This type might well have been the efforts of a potter who had found a new source of pigment for decoration on regular Jeddito Black-on-yellow ware and then fired her pottery in a reducting flame. From all external appearances it is exactly like Jeddito Black-on-yellow except in color. The bowl (Fig. 8, b) carries on it a design which was almost identical to one found by Mr. Clarence King at the Spring Creek Ruin. Besides the bowl a ladle, (Fig. 8, a), and a small pitcher, (Plate XIII), of the same ware were found.
A number of other decorated types occurred at Tuzigoot which, during the later period of occupation of the village, were traded in from the Winslow region. Amongst these were Winslow Polychrome (Plate XIV, a and c), Winslow Black-on-orange, Chaves Pass Polychrome and Chaves Pass Black-on-orange They are roughly contemporary with Jeddito Black-on-yellow, (For descriptions see Colton and Hargrave, 1935).
Following are the relative proportions of plain and decorated sherds in the strata of the three stratigraphic blocks (see following pages) worked out of the refuse at Tuzigoot, the undecorated pottery in each case considered as an undifferentiated whole:
PERCENTAGES OF UNDECORATED SHERDS
The tables bring out the fact that the proportion of decorated to undecorated pottery became somewhat smaller during the course of the history of Tuzigoot. Despite the considerable increase in the actual number of decorated vessels toward the end of the period of occupation, decorated pottery was nevertheless being used less than it was in the earliest periods. Together with the noted decline in the general proportion of decorated to undecorated wares, there is the notable fact of the great increase in imported decorated wares during the last phases of Tuzigoot's history. Before we consider the decorated wares, however, it will be well to set forth the chronological data on the plain ware types from Stratigraphic Block #1.
STRATIGRAPHIC BLOCK #1
TABULATION OF UNDECORATED POTTERY SHERDS
Although most of the decorated pottery types found at Tuzigoot were probably intrusive and the periods of their rise and decline had been roughly fixed in other areas, it was thought advisable to attempt to determine their sequence at Tuzigoot and their chronological relations to local types by means of stratigraphy.
Three sections of the refuse accumulations on the slopes below the rooms of the pueblo were marked out and were separated by trenches on four sides from the surrounding refuse. The debris in these blocks was roughly stratified, the boundaries of the strata being marked by differences in the character of materials deposited at various times in the areas. The lines of the strata, however, were irregular and did not follow planes either horizontal or parallel with the slope of the ridge. In two of the blocks, the planes (if they may be called such) of deposition were followed exactly in removing the debris, and the potsherds from three different groups of strata were kept separate. These two blocks were small ones worked out on the east slope. In the other large block on the west slope, the refuse was arbitrarily divided into five strata of 18 inches in thickness and the sherds of each stratum considered as a group.
Because of the extensive period during which it was deposited, the stratigraphic block on the west slope, which will here be designated BL0CK #1, yielded the most interesting results. Block #1 was situated 18 feet below the west walls of the rooms of Group III, almost in the center of Room 1, Group II. It was, as finally outlined for trowelling, 6 feet by 7 feet by 7 feet deep. The accumulation in which it occurred had attained a depth of about 9 feet, but almost two feet of the surface layer was discarded because it had been somewhat disturbed by previous diggers. A pot-hunting disturbance also was discovered to have effected the second stratum from the top, and as a result most of the sherds from it were thrown out. The tabulation of sherds found in the five strata into which Block #1 was divided is as follows:
STRATIGRAPHIC BLOCK #1
TABULATION OF DECORATED POTTERY SHERDS
Stratigraphic Block #2 was taken on the east slope, its western edge being 8 feet east of the east wall of Room 2, Group I. It was only 4 feet square and 4 feet deep. The upper Stratum, #1, was from 4 to 8 inches thick. The middle of the period of the pueblo's existence, Tuzigoot Black-on-grey began to be made and continued to be made until the final decline of the pueblo.
The earliest pottery which has been assigned a date anywhere in the Southwest that we find at Tuzigoot is Kana-a Black-on-white. The latest type is Jeddito Black-on-yellow. Basing ourselves on the time sequence in use by the Museum of Northern Arizona, this gives us a time range of from, at the latest, 1000 A.D. to, at the earliest, 1300 A.D. a period of at least three centuries during which h the site of Tuzigoot was occupied.
If we are justified in converting our quantitative statement of pottery types into other terms, we can reconstruct the general outline of Tuzigoot's history on the evidence of pottery alone, but the historical reconstruction so achieved fits in well with the architectural reconstruction already attempted.
When the site of Tuzigoot was first occupied, the pottery complex which was widespread immediately prior to 1000 A.D. in the Upper Verde obtained there. Kana-a Black-on-white, Deadman's Black-on-grey, Deadman's Black-on-white, and Deadman Black-on-red, together with Prescott Black-on-grey were the important decorated pottery types. The total quantity of all but the last of these constitutes only a very tiny proportion of all the decorated sherds found at Tuzigoot. This condition permits of three interpretations: only a short part of the period during which these types of pottery were in use in the Upper Verde is represented at Tuzigoot, or the population of the site was very small during this earliest period, or our sample of the sherds is not representative. The architectural evidence of the smallness of the early population justifies us in attaching considerable validity the second interpretation, but the other two must not be wholly discarded. No doubt the population during this earliest part of the occupation of the site was very small and it is very probable that the site began to be lived in only at the very end of the period during which the above pottery types were in use in the Upper Verde.
At the same time that these earliest Black-on-whites and Black-on-reds were being made or traded to Tuzigoot, the chief undecorated pottery was Verde Brown ware. It was in use for almost all culinary and storage purposes. But at the same time Tuzigoot Red was beginning to be made and some potters were making Prescott Grey Ware. Very little of the plain pottery was smudged.
Gradually after the first settlement of the site of Tuzigoot, new pottery types began to appear and finally took the place entirely of the earlier decorated types. The new types were Walnut Black-on-white, Tusayan Black-on-red and Tusayan Polychrome. These types were used in considerable abundance. The beginning of their use probably coincides approximately with the slight expansion immediately after the first settlement and continued through the temporary decline on into the beginning of the second expansion period. At the same time that they were in use, Prescott Black-on-grey was made in considerable abundance. Tuzigoot Red was becoming more and more popular and was gradually replacing Verde Brown Ware for many culinary purposes. There was no diminution in the quantity of Prescott Grey Ware.
During the second expansion period, Flagstaff Black-on-white began to assume greater importance. Verde Brown Ware continued to decline in importance, as it was superceded by Tuzigoot Red. Smudged ware and polished smudged ware became fairly popular. Still Prescott Black-on-grey was made in abundance and still it showed little or no improvement in quality. However, the local potters developed from it the slight improvement, Tuzigoot Black-on-grey which continued to be made on into the final period of the pueblo.
Curiously enough the decorated wares which assumed importance in northern Arizona toward the end of the thirteenth century Kayenta Polychrome, Tusayan and Kayenta Black on-white, had little vogue at Tuzigoot. They did not replace Flagstaff and Walnut Black-on-white or Tusayan Polychrome. Instead during this period, just preceding the great expansion of the pueblo about 1300, decorated pottery was gradually declining in importance and popularity at Tuzigoot. The efforts of the potters were turning almost entirely to the making of Tuzigoot Red and even in the manufacture of this, they were neglecting the old technique of smudging and burnishing the interiors of bowls.
As Tuzigoot Red began to supercede everything else in the way of ceramics at Tuzigoot about 1300, pottery began to be imported from the north and east. Jeddito Black-on-yellow, Bidahochi Polychrome, and Winslow ware suddenly took the place of all the decorated pottery that had been popular at the pueblo, except Prescott Black-on-grey. Considerable quantities of these types were imported. More sherds of Jeddito Black-on-yellow were found in the excavation than of any other type of decorated pottery. Evidently with the increase in population about this time, which was the greatest by far of any increase in the history of the pueblo, the inhabitants were becoming more wealthy and were able to import those fine northern wares in quantity. It was while these imported types were still in the ascendancy and before the later prehistoric Hopi and Jeddito types were ever introduced into the Upper Verde region that Tuzigoot came to the end, of its career.