1. Martyn J. Bowden conducts an illuminating discussion on how the Great Plains have been conceived and misconceived in "The Great American Desert in the American Mind: The Historiography of a Geographical Notion," in Geographies of the Mind: Essays in Historical Geosophy, David Lowenthal and Martyn J. Bowden, eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 119-147. See also Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains, reprint (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981), 152-160. First published 1931 by Ginn and Company, Boston.
4. See Dickinson Press, 23 September 1973; Williston Daily News, 5 August 1974; and 208 Water Quality Management Plan, 53. For flowage, see for example 1974 Water Resources Data for North Dakota: Surface Water Records (Washington, DC: USGS, 1975), 106-110.
22. Grazing of domestic livestock within the parkan open invitation to exotic specieswas allowed well into the 1950s (see 1963 Master Plan, unpaginated) and into the 1980s in the case of the Elkhorn, supposedly in order to maintain the historical character of the site (but see text at nn65-69, Chapter 1): "Chief Ranger's Monthly Report," 18 September 1974; "1980 Superintendent's Annual Report," 11. There is a brief reference to restoring native vegetation to heavily disturbed areas in Mission 66 for Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," unpublished MS, ca. 1956 (THRO-S), 2-3.
23. Osmer included a covert description, rough map, and photographs in his 1937 wildlife report (p. 9 ff.). The map seems to have been lost, or at least it is not extant with the park's original copy of the report.
Single-species research includes Donald Hazlett, "An Ecological Study of Artemisia Dominated Vegetation in Western North Dakota With Special Reference to the Concept of Allelopathy," master's thesis, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, 1972; Robert Dean Ralston, "The Structure and Ecology of the North Slope Juniper Stands of the Little Missouri Badlands," master's thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 1960; Benjamin L. Everett, "Use of Populus Sargentii in Tracing the Recent History of a River Channel," senior thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1965.
32. Geologic research includes: Michael B. Clark, "The Stratigraphy of the Sperati Point Quadrangle, McKenzie County, North Dakota," master's thesis, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1966; Mark A. Steiner, "Petrology of Sandstones from the Bullion Creek and Sentinel Butte Formations (Paleocene), Little Missouri Badlands, North Dakota," master's thesis, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1978; Bernard M. Hanson, "Geology of the Elkhorn Ranch Area, Billings and Golden Valley Counties, North Dakota," North Dakota Geological Survey Report of Investigations #18 (Grand Forks: NDGS, 1955), reprinted 1959; and John R. Tinker, Jr., "Rates of Hillslope Lowering in the Badlands of North Dakota," doctoral dissertation, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1970. Also useful is the booklet by John P. Bleumle and Arthur F. Jacob, Geology Along the South Loop Road (Medora: Theodore Roosevelt Nature and History Assn., 1973).
34. For example, Donald J. Berg and John A. Brophy, "An Investigation of Fossil Wood From the South Unit, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," unpublished MS, 1963 (THRO-L), 9. The authors ventured "a highly tentative guess" that identified the wood as Sciadopitys, but the research done in 1983 by Harold Coffin of Loma Linda University might contradict this.
Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004