1. Strictly speaking, the natural and historical scenes themselves are separate, because the park now manages natural resources to perpetuate the ecosystem which is thought to have prevailed before the beginning of European settlement in western Dakota Territoryhence, before Roosevelt's arrival in 1883. "Basic Operations Declaration," unpaginated.
3. "Natural Resources Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Theodore Roosevelt National Park (draft)," unpublished MS, 1983 (THRO-A), 34-35 (hereafter cited as NRM Plan"). It notes that, unlike the others, noise from the railroad is part of the historical scene, since Medora grew up because of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the 1880s.
11. Quotation from "North Dakota and the National Park Service," unpublished MS, 9 November 1982 (THRO-S), 5; Hellickson to author, 14 May 1985. The Park Service has indicated that it too would participate in an airstrip EIS, if prepared by qualified individuals.
20. For example, the "1981 Seasonal Visibility Summary Report for Theodore Roosevelt National Park," attached to memorandum of James Littlejohn (Monitoring Specialist, NPS Air and Water Quality Division, Denver) to Supt. (THRO), 15 March 1982 (THRO-A).
24. Management Prescription for the Badlands Planning Unit, Little Missouri National Grasslands (Billings, MT: Custer National Forest, USFS, 1974), 50. The restrictions around the Elkhorn Unit were tougher: no off-road vehicle use, crop irrigation, or seismic prospectingall of which were permissable in the buffer zones around the North and South units. Ibid., 43, 54, 56, 62, and 225; "Environmental Assessment: Elkhorn Unit Development," 14.
25. Management Prescription for the Badlands Planning Unit, 68; "1975 SFM," attached constraint maps. For the Department of the Interior's reaction to the buffer zone, see Stanley D. Doremus (Deputy Asst. Secretary of the Interior) to U. C. MacIntyre (Supervisor, Custer National Forest), memorandum, 12 August 1974, 1, in Addendum to the Management Prescription for the Badlands Planning Unit, Little Missouri National Grasslands (Billings, MT: Custer National Forest, USFS, m.d.).
26. See Robert W. Hammer (District Ranger, Medora Ranger District, USFS) to Harvey D. Wickware (Supt., THRO), 3 August 1979 (THRO-A). Attached to this letter is another map showing a buffer zone around the park.
32. Cf. Wickware's comments published in the Dickinson Press, 24 February 1983, with the letter of Lowell J. Ridgeway (ND Petroleum Council) to Sen. Mark Andrews (ND), 21 March 1983 (THRO-A). The park keeps a log in which visitors can note instances of hydrogen sulfide odor: "Researchers and Visitors Monitor Park Air Quality," unpaginated.
33. Hydrogen sulfide is first noticeable at concentrations of 150 g/m3 and decidedly noticeable at 500 g/m3: NPS Air and Water Quality Division, "Fact Sheet: Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) at Theodore Roosevelt National Park (THRO)," unpublished MS, 1983 (THRO-A), unpaginated.
35. "State Coordinator's Monthly Report," 30 March 1983. See also Dickinson Press, 24 February 1983; Wickware to the ND State Industrial Commission, 2 June 1980 (THRO-A); Lee C. Gerhard and Sidney B. Anderson, Oil Exploration and Development in the North Dakota Williston Basin, NDGS Miscellaneous Series #57 (Bismarck: NDGS, 1979), 16-17; "State Coordinator's Monthly Report," 2 February and 6 May 1983.
36. When the Forest Service drew up its master plan for the Little Missouri National Grasslands, it explicitly stated that energy development would mean the loss of some of the badlands' remoteness. See Management Prescription for the Badlands Planning Unit, 85.
Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004