Theodore Roosevelt
Administrative History
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1. The transformation was considered immediate, almost automatic: "There are many more wilderness areas useful principally for their inspirational and stabilizing effect on mankind, which should be brought into the parks, where they will be safe from the pressure of commercial exploitation." Harlean James, Romance of the National Parks (New York: Macmillan, 1939), 110. See also "NPCA Adjacent Lands Survey: No Park is an Island," National Parks & Conservation Magazine 53 (March-April, 1979).

2. John Muir, Our National Parks (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1901), 13; Freeman Tilden, The National Parks: What They Mean to You and Me (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951), 21.

3. See "State of the Parks Report 1980," passim; Gary Gregory, "State of the Parks 1980: Problems and Plans," and T. Destry Jarvis, "Adjacent lands and Intermingled Ownership Problems," both in National Parks in Crisis, Eugenia Horstman Connally, ed. (Washington, DC: National Parks & Conservation Assn., 1982).

4. For example, Robert Cahn's fifteen-part series in the Christian Science Monitor, "Will Success Spoil the National Parks?" (May-August 1968). See also Everhart, 61-74.

5. At Theodore Roosevelt there is some evidence of a relatively early shift away from the "park-as-an-island" viewpoint. In the 1967 Master Plan the image of an "oasis in the desert" was invoked twice: to contrast the topography of the badlands with the prairie's, and, more significantly, as a comparison between the land use and management of the park and that of the surrounding region. But in the 1973 Master Plan, these references were deleted from an otherwise identically-worded passage. Cf. 1967 Master Plan, 7; and 1973 Master Plan, 4. See also n1 above.

6. "State of the Parks Report 1980" (executive summary), 3.

7. Melvin E. Kazeck, North Dakota: A Human and Economic Geography (Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1956), 164-165; Robinson, History of North Dakota, 2; Lee C. Gerhard, Sidney B. Anderson, Julie A. Lefever, and Clarence G. Carlson, "Geological Development, Origins, and Energy Mineral Reserves of Williston Basin, North Dakota," American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 66:8 (August 1982), 990; Erling A. Brostuen, Petroleum—A Primer for North Dakota, NDGS Educational Series #13 (Grand Forks: NDGS, 1981), 1.

8. Kazeck, 164-165.

9. Brostuen, 8-11; letter of Micki Hellickson (Chief Naturalist, THRO) to author, 14 May 1985. So-called "thumper trucks" are also used.

10. Ron Anderson, North Dakota Oil and Gas Leasing Considerations, bulletin #29 (Fargo: North Dakota State University Co-operative Extension Service, 1981), 7-8. A case of severed mineral rights was enough to temporarily alter the make-up of the South Unit wilderness proposal (see Chapter 7).

11. Brostuen, 22. The unitization plan must also be approved by the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the state regulatory body overseeing such matters.

12. Before the passage of the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1976, tracts could be let through non-competitive preference-right leasing. Patterns and Trends in Federal Coal Ownership 1950-1980: A Technical Memorandum (Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment, 1981), 3, 14-15.

13. Arthur G. Leonard, Earle J. Babcock, and Leonard P. Dove, The Lignite Deposits of North Dakota, NDGS bulletin #4 (Grand Forks: NDGS, 1925), 38, 98-103; and Kazeck, 157.

14. For a late example, see Coal Age (Western Coal Edition), mid-April 1973, 136-142.

15. E. R. Landis, "Economic Geology," in U. S. Congress, Senate, Mineral and Water Resources of North Dakota, report to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 93d Cong., 1st sess., 1973, 47-49.

16. Kazeck, 161-163; Albert Jacobsen, "Address [by the] President of Amerada Petroleum Corporation at the Oil Dedication Banquet Held at Williston, North Dakota on October 24, 1953," North Dakota History 20:4 (October 1953), 184-185.

17. Petty, "Draft History," 70. See also the issues of the McKenzie County Farmer for 1953.

18. Oil and Gas Activity in 1981," North Dakota Geological Survey Newsletter, June 1982, 25-27.

19. Randy Bradbury, "North Dakota: the oil boom is on," High Country News, 19 March 1982, 7; "Oil and Gas Activity in 1981," 17-30; Gerhard et al., 989.

20. Sidney B. Anderson and John P. Bleumle, Oil Exploration and Development in the North Dakota Williston Basin: 1981 Update, NDGS Miscellaneous Series #62 (Grand Forks: NDGS, 1982), 3.

21. See E. T. Frydenlund (Minot, ND) to John W. Jay, Jr., (Supt., THRO), 17 May 1955, and Jay's reply of 20 May 1955 (THRO-S); Petty, "Draft History," 74-75; and K. A. Noble, "Uranium in Coal," in Mineral and Water Resources of North Dakota, 83-85.

22. Gerhard et al., 990, 1008-1009.

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Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004