1. The transformation was considered immediate, almost automatic: "There are many more wilderness areas useful principally for their inspirational and stabilizing effect on mankind, which should be brought into the parks, where they will be safe from the pressure of commercial exploitation." Harlean James, Romance of the National Parks (New York: Macmillan, 1939), 110. See also "NPCA Adjacent Lands Survey: No Park is an Island," National Parks & Conservation Magazine 53 (March-April, 1979).
3. See "State of the Parks Report 1980," passim; Gary Gregory, "State of the Parks 1980: Problems and Plans," and T. Destry Jarvis, "Adjacent lands and Intermingled Ownership Problems," both in National Parks in Crisis, Eugenia Horstman Connally, ed. (Washington, DC: National Parks & Conservation Assn., 1982).
5. At Theodore Roosevelt there is some evidence of a relatively early shift away from the "park-as-an-island" viewpoint. In the 1967 Master Plan the image of an "oasis in the desert" was invoked twice: to contrast the topography of the badlands with the prairie's, and, more significantly, as a comparison between the land use and management of the park and that of the surrounding region. But in the 1973 Master Plan, these references were deleted from an otherwise identically-worded passage. Cf. 1967 Master Plan, 7; and 1973 Master Plan, 4. See also n1 above.
7. Melvin E. Kazeck, North Dakota: A Human and Economic Geography (Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1956), 164-165; Robinson, History of North Dakota, 2; Lee C. Gerhard, Sidney B. Anderson, Julie A. Lefever, and Clarence G. Carlson, "Geological Development, Origins, and Energy Mineral Reserves of Williston Basin, North Dakota," American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 66:8 (August 1982), 990; Erling A. Brostuen, PetroleumA Primer for North Dakota, NDGS Educational Series #13 (Grand Forks: NDGS, 1981), 1.
10. Ron Anderson, North Dakota Oil and Gas Leasing Considerations, bulletin #29 (Fargo: North Dakota State University Co-operative Extension Service, 1981), 7-8. A case of severed mineral rights was enough to temporarily alter the make-up of the South Unit wilderness proposal (see Chapter 7).
12. Before the passage of the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1976, tracts could be let through non-competitive preference-right leasing. Patterns and Trends in Federal Coal Ownership 1950-1980: A Technical Memorandum (Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment, 1981), 3, 14-15.
15. E. R. Landis, "Economic Geology," in U. S. Congress, Senate, Mineral and Water Resources of North Dakota, report to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 93d Cong., 1st sess., 1973, 47-49.
16. Kazeck, 161-163; Albert Jacobsen, "Address [by the] President of Amerada Petroleum Corporation at the Oil Dedication Banquet Held at Williston, North Dakota on October 24, 1953," North Dakota History 20:4 (October 1953), 184-185.
21. See E. T. Frydenlund (Minot, ND) to John W. Jay, Jr., (Supt., THRO), 17 May 1955, and Jay's reply of 20 May 1955 (THRO-S); Petty, "Draft History," 74-75; and K. A. Noble, "Uranium in Coal," in Mineral and Water Resources of North Dakota, 83-85.
Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004