Theodore Roosevelt
Administrative History
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1. See John Burroughs's assessment in the epigraph to the Afterword of this history.

2. A bibliography of their work can be found in "CRM Plan," 72-74.

3. "Mission 66 for Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," 4. The park had also received some development money in the early 1950s in anticipation of the celebration of the centennial of Roosevelt's birth. See The New York Times, 11 September 1955, 83.

4. Howard W. Baker (Reg. Dir., Region II) to Harry V. Johnston (Minneapolis, MN), 15 December 1959 (THRO-S).

5. See, respectively, Strand, 48; Richard H. Maeder, "Annual Report of Information and Interpretive Services: 1961," memorandum, 10 January 1962 (THRO-S); Strand, 50; Newell F. Joyner (Regional Museum Curator) to Asst. Reg. Dir., memorandum, 25 May 1961 (THRO-S); "North Unit District Ranger Monthly Report," 2 July and 1 September 1957; Wallace D. McCaw, "Annual Report of Information Services: 1962," memorandum, 22 January 1963 (THRO-S).

6. "Interpretive Prospectus," 7-8.

7. Ibid., 15.

8. Ibid., 15-16.

9. Ibid., 10-14.

10. Ibid., 1.

11. Charles H. McCurdy (NPS) to Asst. Reg. Dir. (MWRO), memorandum, 29 August 1967 (THRO-S).

12. McCurdy to Assoc. Reg. Dir. (MWRO), memorandum, 2 June 1966 (THRO-S).

13. John O. Lancaster (Supt., THRO) to Reg. Dir. (MWRO), "Scope of Collection Statement," memorandum, 12 November 1973 (THRO-A). This document is scheduled to be revised at the end of 1985.

14. Ibid. Parts of the park collections were photographed in 1974 as part of preservation measures begun a year earlier. "Chief Ranger's Monthly Narrative Report," 5 October 1973 and 4 April 1974.

15. Edwin C. Alberts, "Regional Naturalist's Summary Notes," unpublished MS, June 1962 (THRO-S), 25-26. The thematic imbalance in the museum collection can be traced to its origins in the late 1940s when it was conceived as a vital part of the commemoration of Roosevelt. In fact, William Lemke wanted a museum specifically as a replacement for the statue of Roosevelt called for in P. L. 80-38. See WL to M. J. Connolly (Asst. Secretary, Greater North Dakota Assn.), 9 March 1948, and to Hermann Hagedorn (Secretary, Roosevelt Memorial Assn.), 10 March 1948; and John W. Jay, Jr. (Supt., THRO) to Mrs. William Lemke, 14 September 1953 (all WL Papers).

16. Alberts, 1-3, 10. The most popular exhibit featured a 90-second recording of Roosevelt's voice. See Ibid., 4-5; "Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report," 8 October and 9 November 1965.

17. Alan David Capelle, "An Observation and Analysis of the Visitor Center Complex at Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, 1975, 9.

18. These new exhibits were installed in June 1982. "1982 Superintendent's Annual Report," 7.

19. John W. Jay, Jr. (Supt., THRO) to Reg. Dir. (Region II), memorandum, 12 November 1959 (THRO-A); Ray H. Mattison (Historian, Region II) to Regional Chief of Interpretation (Region II), 27 November 1959 (THRO-A).

20. At one point he proposed to buy, restore, and stock with longhorns the Bellows (now McLeod) Ranch about ten miles south of the Elkhorn Unit, which he would then donate to the government to be made a part of the park. His proposal was rejected because, among other things, it required an act of Congress to authorize new park boundaries: Harrison V. Johnston to Ann Brown, n.d. (THRO-A). See also Howard W. Baker (Reg. Dir., Region II) to Supt. (THRO), memorandum, 5 July 1962 (THRO-A); and Conrad L. Wirth (Director, NPS) to Asst. Secretary of the Interior, memorandum, 20 July 1962 (THRO-A).

21. Maeder, "Annual Report of Information and Interpretive Services: 1961," unpaginated.

22. Ibid.; Alberts, 6-7.

23. Alberts, 17. Guided nature walks were finally begun in 1966. Arthur L. Sullivan, "Annual Information and Interpretive Service Report for 1967," memorandum, 26 January 1968 (THRO-S); "Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report," 12 August 1966, 3.

24. Horse mounted rangers: Billings County Pioneer, 25 July 1968. Coal vein: McCurdy to Asst. Reg. Dir., 29 August 1967. Elkhorn Unit: Bismarck Tribune, 12 July 1976. Sun viewing: "Chief Naturalist's Annual Report for 1981," memorandum, 23 February 1982 (THRO-A), 3. Surrey rides: McCurdy to Asst. Reg. Dir., 29 August 1967. There have been few living history programs given; see McKenzie County Farmer, 21 August 1975, but for an exception see "1976 Superintendent's Annual Report," 4-5.

The most popular interpretive activity in the park's history was the caravan to the burning coal vein near Buck Hill in the South Unit (now burnt out). The auto tour left Cottonwood Campground nightly after the regular campfire program. Even though the hour was late, and it was a twenty-mile round trip to the burning seam, few passed up the opportunity. A ranger described the turnout this way: "Although the duration of the tour averages about 2 hours, visitor response is unbelievable, averaging 30 to 60 people each night but sometimes the tours numbered in excess of 100 people. . . . The trip is more a curiosity about the view [of the red-hot coal] at night." Lary D. Barney, "Annual Information and Interpretive Service Report for 1968," memorandum, 31 January 1969 (THRO-S).

25. 1963 Master Plan, unpaginated.

26. Ibid., and Alberts, 16.

27. First quote: Barney, "Interpretive Service Report for 1968." Second quote: "Recapitulation of Environmental Education Program to Schools in Vicinity," memorandum, 1972 (THRO-S). See also Paul F. McCrary (Environmental Education Coordinator, MWRO), open memorandum, 1 November 1968 (THRO-S).

28. Sullivan to Reg. Dir. (MWRO), memorandum, 26 February 1969 (THRO-S); "Recapitulation of Environmental Education Program," unpaginated. See also McCrary to Glen Sherwood (Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center), 5 March 1969 (THRO-S).

29. McCrary, "Environmental Study Areas," memorandum, 12 December 1968 (THRO-S).

30. Sullivan to Reg. Dir. (MWRO), memorandum, 3 September 1968 (THRO-S).

31. Glenn D. Gallison (Acting Asst. Reg. Dir., MWRO), open memorandum, 24 June 1969 (THRO-S); James B. Thompson (Supt., THRO) to William F. Hodny (Bismarck, ND), 16 October 1970 (THRO-S). Quote from Thompson, "Annual Information and Interpretive Service Report for 1969," memorandum, 9 February 1970 (THRO-S).

32. See "Recapitulation of Environmental Education Program," unpaginated; "1975 Superintendent's Annual Report," 5.

33. "1972 Superintendent's Annual Report," 3.

34. "Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Proposed Master Plan, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, North Dakota," unpublished MS, ca. 1975 (THRO-A), 50. See also p. 47.

35. A later program which has been an unqualified success and can be traced to the environmental education project is the Youth Conservation Corps. Theodore Roosevelt has hosted YCC enrollees since 1974. The young men and women in the YCC have performed valuable maintenance tasks while learning about the natural history of the park. See Annual Management Review, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota (Medora: NPS, 1980).

36. Quotation from TRNHA, "Publications Program: Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," unpublished MS, May 1971 (THRO-A), 6. See also Petty, "Draft History," 68. Edward C. Blackorby, the biographer of William Lemke, was on the first board of directors.

37. Alberts, 19-20; Michael O. Wintch, "Narrative Annual Report of Cooperating Association: Theodore Roosevelt Nature and History Association," unpublished MS, 1 March 1966 (THRO-S), 2.

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Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004