2. Not so with ethnographic work. In his "Eagle Trapping Along the Little Missouri River" (North Dakota History: Journal of the Northern Plains 50:1, Winter 1983, 4-22), Walter E. Allen gives a number of citations.
4. Apart from the information gleaned from circumscribed pre-construction surveys. Ibid., 3; James E. Sperry, "A Preliminary Archeological Survey of Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," unpublished MS, 1981 (THRO-S). See also Sperry to John J. Reynolds (Chief, Division of Planning, OSC), 29 July 1974, attached to Final Environmental Assessment for Squaw Creek Campground, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park (Denver: DSC, 1976), 104; and "Draft Environmental Statement, Proposed Master Plan, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, North Dakota," unpublished MS, ca. 1975 (THRO-A), 17. For a partial list of pre-construction surveys, see "CRM Plan," 23-25.
11. See Osmer, appendix; and "CRM Plan," 4. In the mid-1960s George M. Johnson reported the remains of wooden lodges in the Achenbach Hills. See his "The Badlands and Teddy's Park," Living Wilderness 31:96-97 (1967), 24.
17. Merrill J. Mattes, "Historic Resource Survey, North Unit, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," 19 June 1974, attached to Final Environmental Assessment for Squaw Creek Campground, 96-97. Mattes thought its supposed route up the Squaw Creek drainage to be "rooted in a vague oral tradition."
19. For a bibliography of these studies, see "CRM Plan," 72-74. See also Dee C. Taylor, "Archeological Investigations of the Elkhorn Ranch Site," unpublished MS, 1959 (THRO-L), 10, 13-14; and Russell Reid (Supt., SHSND) to WL, 6 April 1948 (WL Papers).
22. He did find a path that likely led to the privy, but couldn't find its exact location even after diligent searching, "much to the delight of local cowboys who thought the whole thing was ridiculous." Ibid., 69.
32. James B. Thompson (Acting Reg. Dir., RMRO) to James Sperry (Supt., SHSND, and State Historic Preservation Officer) 1 July 1982 (THRO-A); Bruce MacDougal (Chief of Registration National Register Programs, NPS) to Federal Preservation Officer (NPS), memorandum, 29 October 1982 (THRO-A); "CRM Plan," 2-3, 10; "1976 Superintendent's Annual Report," 8.
38. Jackson E. Price (Asst. Director, NPS) to Reg. Dir. (MWRO), memorandum, 14 October 1964 (THRO-S); A. Clark Stratton (Asst. Director, Design and Construction, MWRO) to Reg. Dir. (MWRO), memorandum, 7 October 1968 (THRO-S); "Staff Meeting Minutes," 19 September 1966.
41. At the time (1967) the route of the Long X Trail, over which longhorns were driven, was considered to be a certainty. The work of Mattes and other historical archeologists (referred to above) had not yet occurred, so it was thought a fact that the Long X followed the Squaw Creek drainage through the North Unit. This, not politics, might have been the justification for placing longhorns in the North Unit.
44. Robert D. Powell, "Draft Resource Management Plan for Wildlife-Feral Horses," unpublished MS, 16 August 1977 (THRO-A), 1 (revision of 1976 original). The explanation is repeated in "NRM Plan," 42.
47. The horses are not "free-roaming" under the terms of the law and so are not available under the "Adopt-a-Horse" program. Harvey D. Wickware (Supt., THRO) to Leonard S. Boser (Pierz, MN), 27 October 1981 (THRO-A); Powell, "Draft Resource Management Plan for Wildlife-Feral Horses," 13.
51. "Staff Meeting Minutes," 15 June 1965; Dickinson Press, 29 May, 11 June, and 9 July 1965; Powell, "Draft Resource Management Plan for Wildlife-Feral Horses," 2; "Basic Operations Declaration," unpaginated.
53. "State Coordinator's Monthly Report," 27 December 1972, 4 October 1973; "Basic Operations Declaration," unpaginated; "Chief Ranger's Monthly Narrative Report," 10 May and 9 July 1974 (the last Tescher claim was forfeited in June 1974); John O. Lancaster (Supt., THRO) to Governor Arthur Link (ND), 2 July 1974 (THRO-A).
55. Powell, "Draft Resource Management Plan for Wildlife-Feral Horses," 1-2; "Environmental Assessment: Proposed Feral Horse Reduction, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," unpublished MS, 19 April 1978 (THRO-A), 1.
60. For a short time the staff thought about using "direct reduction"shooting, in other wordsas that seemed "the most economical [method] and the least disruptive to other park resources." Wrote Superintendent Lancaster: "We are well aware of public sentiment regarding this method of reduction but consider Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park to be a special case since the animals are captive and under closer management than other wild horses in the western United States." Lancaster to Assoc. Reg. Dir. (RMRO), memorandum, 11 August 1976 (THRO-A). He might also have championed shooting in the name of historical authenticity, since that was the preferred method of "reduction" in Roosevelt's day. See text at n45 above.
61. The 1978 round-up was preceded by an environmental assessment and a month-long public comment period, during which the plan drew no disapproval "Environmental Assessment: Proposed Feral Horse Reduction," passim; "Chief Ranger's Monthly Narrative Report," 8 September 1977; Lancaster to Reg. Dir. (RMRO), memorandum, 5 July 1978 (THRO-A).
64. Hellickson to author, 8 October 1985. Sources do not agree on the exact number of horses captured in the two NPS-sponsored round-ups of 1978 and 1981. Cf. "Chief Ranger's Monthly Narrative Report," 14 November 1978; Powell to Lancaster, memorandum, 13 September 1978; and "Basic Operations Declaration," for the 1978 round-up. Cf. "Chief Ranger's Monthly Narrative Report," 9 November 1981; "1981 Superintendent's Annual Report," 14; and "Basic Operations Declaration" for the 1981 round-up.
65. Restoration of Medora: Warren D. Hotchkiss, "Information and Interpretive Services Report for 1965," memorandum, 26 January 1966 (THRO-S). Clearing of homesteads: "Chief Ranger's Monthly Narrative Report," 10 December 1975; "1981 Superintendent's Annual Report," 13 (Paddock Cabin); Petty, "Draft History," 72, 89.
A Forest Service management plan for the Little Missouri National Grasslands, published in 1975, mentions the desirability of preserving the "traditional way of life" of the regiona clear reference to balancing the needs of energy development with those of ranching. Final Environmental Statement: Management Plan, Rolling Prairie Planning Unit, Little Missouri National Grasslands (Billings, MT: Custer National Forest, USFS, 1975), 34.
Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004