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Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter One,
"National Parks Are Where You Find Them:" The Origins of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

Chapter Two,
"We're Going For The Right Thing:" The Legislative Struggle to Create Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, 1971- 1977

Chapter Three,
Changes on the Land: The Early Management of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, 1977-1983

Chapter Four
Plans, Programs and Controversy: The Reassessment of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, 1977-1983

Chapter Five,
"A Local and National Treasure:" Managing the Sleeping Bear Dunes Park, 1984- 1995

Conclusion,
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore At Twenty-Five


Appendix One,
Budgetary Progress of Sleeping Bear Dunes N.L.

Appendix Two,
Selected Past and Present Employees of Sleeping Bear N.L.

Appendix Three,
Selected Visitation Statistics

Appendix Four,
Public Law 91-479

Chapter 1 Notes

Chapter 2 Notes

Chapter 3 Notes

Chapter 4 Notes

Chapter 5 Notes

Conclusion Notes

Figures

Images

Bibliography



A Nationalized Lakeshore:
The Creation and Administration of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
Chapter 1 Notes

Chapter 1 Notes



[1]Gurdon S. Hubbard, The Autobiography of Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard, Introduction by Caroline M. McIlvaine, (New York: Citadel Press, 1969), 135.

[2]Ibid, 133-4; George Weeks, Sleeping Bear, Yesterday and Today (Franklin, Mich.: Attwerger and Mandel Publishing, 1990), xiii.

[3]Ibid, 38-80.

[4]Milo M. Quaife, Lake Michigan (New York: Bobbs-Memll, 1944), 280-8; John and Ann Mahan, Wild Lake Michigan (Stillwater, Minn.: Voyageur Press, 1991), 21; Marla J. McEnaney, William H. Tishler, Arnold R. Alanen, Farming at the Water's Edge: An Assessment of Agricultural and Cultural Landscape Resources in the Proposed Port Oneida Rural Historic District at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan (Omaha, Neb.: Midwest Region, National Park Service, 1995), 24-31.

[5]Ron Cockrell, D.H. Day's Kingdom: A Special History Study of Glen Haven Village Historic District (Omaha, Neb.: Midwest Region, National Park Service, 1984), 4-14;

[6]Tom Ruchenberg, Reflections in a Tarnished Mirror: The Use and Abuse of the Great Lakes (Sturgeon Bay, Wisc.: Golden Glow Publishing, 1978), 36-7. 6 Norman John Schmaltz, Cutover Land Crusade: The Michigan Forest Conservation Movement, 1899-1931, Ph.D. dissertation University of Michigan, 1972, p.247; Raleigh Barlowe, "Changing Land Use and Policies: The Lake States," The Great Lakes Forests: An Environmental and Social History, edited by Susan B. Flader, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), 172-3.

[7] Christopher Parnall to Arthur S. Huey, March 28,1949, D.H. Day State Park file, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Allen T. Edmunds Library, Administrative History Collection, Empire, Michigan. Hereafter this collection will be referred to as SBDL Records; Cockrell, D.H. Day's Kingdom, 11-24; Weeks, Sleeping Bear: Yesterday and Today, 58-80; Leelanau Tribune (Leland, Mich.), August 8,1958; J.W. Hannen, "David H. Day, Distinguished Citizen, Passes," Michigan Roads and Pavements, April 19,1928, p.8.

[8] State Park Commission Minute Book, 1920-1921, State Park Files, Box 35, Record Group 94-260, State Archives of Michigan, Lansing, Michigan. Hereafter referred to as State Archives of Michigan.

[9] Russell Carpenter, "The Development of a Tourist Industry in the Little Traverse Bay Region," unpublished M.A. Essay, Loyola University, Public History Program, Chicago, 111., 1994; Russell McKee, "It Was a Very Stylish Age," Mackinac: The Gathering Place, edited by Russell McKee (Lansing: Michigan Natural Resources Magazine, 1981), 19-23; Margaret Beattie Bouge, Around the Shores of Lake Michigan: A Guide to Sites (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 289-91.

[10] Weeks, Sleeping Bear: Yesterday and Today, 39-40, 46-9; Margaret Beattie Bogue, Around the Shores of Lake Michigan, p.308-9; James Gale Inglis, Northern Michigan Handbook for Travelers (Petoskey, Mich.: Geo. Spring, 1898), 51; Leonard Case, Benzie County: A Bicentennial Reader (Benzonia, Mich.: Benzie County Bi-Centennial Commission, 1976), 77-84.

[11] The Grand Traverse Region, Historical and Descriptive (Chicago: H.R. Pace & Co., 1884), 249; Lawrence and Lucille Wakefield, Sail & Rail: A Narrative History of Transportation in the Grand Traverse City Region (Traverse City, Mich.: By the author, 1980), p.46-8; Edmund M. Littell, 100 Years in Leelanau (Leland, Mich.: The Print Shop, 1965), 41-43; Golf and Yacht Clubs, Resort Directory of Leland and Surrounding Region (Leland, Mich.: Leelanau Enterprise, 1937).

[12] Robert Dwight Rader, et al Beautiful Glen Arbor Township: Facts Fantasy & Fotos (Leland, Mich.: The Glen Arbor History Group, 1977), 58-65; Leelanau County Association of Commerce, The Captives: Being the Story of a Family's Vacation in Leelanau County (Michigan), The Land of Delight (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Leelanau County Association of Commerce, 1924).

[13] Christopher Parnall to Arthur Huey, March 28,1949, SBDL Records; Cockrell, D.H. Day's Kingdom, 29-32.

[14] Eileen Patricia Walsh, The Last Resort: Northern Minnesota Tourism and the Integration of Rural and Urban Worlds, 1900-1950. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., 1994, 42-3, 136-7; Allan D. Wallis, Wheel Estate: The Rise and Decline of Mobile Homes, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 30-5;

[15] Herbert F. Larson, BE-WA-BIC Country: The Story of the Menominee Iron Range in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (New York: Carton Press, 1963), 334-5. 15 Leelanau County Association of Commerce, The Captives: Being the Story of a Family's Vacation in Leelanau County (Michigan), the Land of Delight (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Leelanau County Association of Commerce, 1924).

[16] Cockrell, D.H. Day's Kingdom, 34; Traverse City Record, April 17,1928; Glen Lake Country Club, Glen Lake, Leelanau Co. Michigan (Traverse City, Mich.: L.R. Henderson, 1931); Mary Ellen Hadjsky, Personal Communication, July 15,1998.

[17] Arthur C. Elmer, "Parks and Recreation Division," Department of Conservation, Thirteenth Biennial Report, 1945-1946 (Lansing: State of Michigan, 1946), p.l65-7; United States Department of the Interior, A Study of the Park and Recreation Problem of the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1941), 186-9.

[18] 18 John I. Rogers, Report on Field Inspection and Study of Proposed State Park Areas: Benzie and Leelanau Counties, File 8, Box 19, Record Group 78-102, State Archives of Michigan; Arthur C. Elmer to Director and Conservation Commission, May 14,1946, SLBD Records.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Dr. C.G. Parnall, et al to Those Interested in the Day Forest Estate, August 31,1949, SLBD Records.

[21]Ibid; Christopher Parnall to Ralph Mueller, May 4,1949, SLBD Records.

[22] J.D. Stephansky, Chief, Lands Division to Messrs. MacMullan, Walker, Harris, et al, March 2, 1966, SLBD Records.

[23] Department of Conservation, Fourteenth Biennial Report, 1947-1948 (Lansing: State of Michigan, 1948), 229-3; Holland (Michigan) Evening Sentinel, December 5,1953; Adrian (Michigan) Telegram, December 4,1953; Marquette (Michigan) Mining Journal, September 12,1956; Neal R. Pierce and John Keefe, The Great Lakes States: People, Politics and Power in the Five Great Lakes States (New York: Norton, 1980), 186-7; Helen Washbum Berthelot, Win Some, Lose Some: G. Mennen Williams and the New Democrats (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995), 199-201.

[24] Charles F. Boehler, Benzie State Park Potential Expansion, Benzie and Leelanau Counties, June 17,1954; Paul W. Thompson, Platte River Plains and Its Relation to Lake Michigan History, Michigan Natural Areas Council, 1954, Legislative History Files, SLBD Records.

[25] Kathleen Stocking, Personal Communication, July 22,1998.

[26] Cockrell, D.H. Day's Kingdom, 35-6; Louis Warnes to Arthur Elmer, Chief of the Parks Division, June 25, 1956; Pierce Stocking to Directors, Michigan Department of Conservation, October 10,1956; R.O. Dodge, Regional Supervisor, Parks & Recreation, to Arthur Elmer, March 8,1957, Legislative History Files, SLBD Records.

[27] National Park Service, Our Fourth Shore: Great Lakes Recreation Area Survey (Washington, D.C.: United States Department of the Interior, 1959), 21; Norman F. Billings, "Exercise Caution When Selecting Location On Lake," Michigan Conservation Magazine (April 1945) 2,10.

[28] Conrad L. Wirth, Parks, Politics and the People (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980), 281-4.

[29] Ibid, 192-3; George B. Hartzog, Jr., Battling for the National Parks (Mt. Kisco, NY: MoyerBell, 1988), 197-9.

[30] Allen T. Edmunds to Herb Evison, January 28,1978, Dick Russell Papers, Archives and Graphic Research, Harpers Ferry Center, Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Allen T. Edmunds Obituary, Courier (May 1985); Ernest Brooks to Conrad L. Wirth, October 31,1956, Accounting Files, Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Records, P-435575, National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Branch, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Hereafter this source will be cited as NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region.

[31] E. Winton Perkins to Regional Director, July 8, 1957; Allen T. Edmunds to Birt Darling, Lansing State Journal, April 24,1958; Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Progress Report, September 30, 1957; E. Winton Perkins to George Thompson, August 11,1957, Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Records, NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region.

[32] E. Winton Perkins to Lewis D. Brown, U.S.G.S., September 19,1957; Daniel Tobin, Regional Director to Edmund B. Rogers, July 29, 1957; Prospectus: Great Lakes Region and Pacific Coast Recreation Area Surveys, December 28, 1956, Allen T. Edmunds to Thomas Owen, Utah State University, May 4,1960; NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region.

[33] Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Helicopter Flight Notes, March 28,1958 to May 9, 1958; Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Reconnaissance Reports: Betsie Point, Platte River Plains, South Manitou Island, Empire Dunes, Sleeping Bear Extension, North End of Sleeping Bear, and Good Harbor Bay, July 9-14,1958, NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region.

[34] "Tawas Point Study Area," MichiganŚIndividual Areas file. Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Records, NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region; E. Genevieve Gillette, Oral History Transcripts, transcript 23A, p.2, E. Genevieve Gillette Papers [hereafter referred to as the Gillette Papers], Bentley Historical Library, Michigan Historical Collections, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Hereafter this depository will be referred to as the Bentley Library.

[35] Our Fourth Shore: Great Lakes Shoreline Recreation Area Survey (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1960), 7-9.

[36] Our Fourth Shore, 2, 6-9; Ron Cockrell, A Signature of Time and Eternity: The Administrative History of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana (Omaha, Neb.: National Park Service, 1988), 48; Great Lake Shoreline Survey, Remaining Shoreline Opportunities in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York (Washington, D.C.: United States Department of the Interior, 1959), 17,19, 55.

[37] Great Lakes Shoreline Survey, Preliminary Progress Report, September 30, 1957, n.p.; Shirley DeLongchamp, "Henry Ford's Upper Peninsula," A Most Superior Land: Life in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, edited by Russell McKee, (Lansing: Michigan Natural Resources Magazine, 1983), 77-83.

[38] George A. Palmer, Assistant Regional Director to Regional Director, July 28,1959, Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Records, NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region; Outdoor America (April 1960), 10-12; Detroit News, August 7,1960; Conrad Wirth, Director National Park Service to Kent Chandler, April 12,1960, Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Records, NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region.

[39] E. Winton Perkins, Great Lakes Survey Progress Report, September 30,1957, Great Lakes Shoreline Survey Records, NARAŚMid-Atlantic Region.

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