2. William A. Ganoe, "Gouverneur K. Warren," Dictionary of American Biography, X (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964), pp. 473-74; Roald Tweet, A History of the Rock Island District Corps of Engineers (Rock Island: U. S. Army Engineer District, 1975), p. 25; Emerson G. Taylor, Gouverneur Kemble Warren, The Life and Letters of an American Soldier 1830-1882 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932), pp. 8-10.
3. Fred B. Hackett, Calendar for Oglala Sioux Names for Years from A. D. 1759 to A. D. 1908, Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department; Hyde, Spotted Tail's Folk, pp. 50-54; Robert M. Utley, Frontiersmen In Blue, The United States Army and the Indian 1848-1865 (New York: Macmillan, 1967), pp. 114-15.
7. Warren, Memoir, p. 87; Warren, Journal While on Sioux Expedition in 1855; Warren to Colonel John J. Abert, 21 March 1856, Letters Received, Topographical Bureau, National Archives, Record Group 77.
9. Warren to Colonel Abert, 23 August and 19 September 1855, and 28 January 1856, Letters Received, Topographical Bureau; Warren, Journal While on Sioux Expedition in 1855; Merrill J. Mattes, The Great Platte River Road: The Covered Wagon Mainline via Fort Kearny to Fort Laramie (Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, 1969), pp. 192-93.
15. Gouverneur K. Warren, Preliminary Report of Explorations in Nebraska and Dakota, in the Years 1855-'56-'57 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1875), pp. 14-15; W. H. Hutton, Journal for June 28-October 27, 1856, Warren Papers; Warren to William J. Warren, 24 May 1856, Warren Papers; Warren, Journal, 1856.
17. Warren, Memoir, p. 90; Warren, Journal, 1856; Warren, Preliminary Report of Explorations, p. 15; Vincent J. Flanagan, "Gouverneur Kemble Warren, Explorer of Nebraska Territory," Nebraska History, 51 (Summer 1970), 183.
30. John G. Neihardt, When the Tree Flowered, The Fictional Biography of Eagle Voice, a Sioux Indian (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970), p. 207; Warren, Official Journal of 1857; Warren to Sylvanus Warren, 3 September 1857, Warren Papers.
45. Audrey L. Haines, ed., The Valley of the Upper Yellowstone: An Exploration of the Headwaters of the Yellowstone River in the Year 1869 as Recorded by Charles W. Cook, David E. Folsom, and William Peterson (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965), p. xx; Stanley Vestal, Jim Bridger, Mountain Man (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970), pp. 203, 205; Hiram M. Chittenden, The Yellowstone National Park, ed. by Richard A. Bartlett (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), pp. 46, 48-49; Warren, Preliminary Report of Explorations, pp. 7, 10-11.
46. Warren's greatest service to the country came later, on the field of battle at Gettysburg. On 2 July 1863, the second day of the crucial battle, Warren reinforced the hill called Little Round Top just in time to fend off an attack by General John B. Hood's Confederates. The hill would have offered the enemy a commanding position on the flank of the entire Union army. Bruce Catton, The Army of the Potomac: Glory Road (Garden City, N. Y,: Doubleday, 1952), pp. 291-94.
47. William F. Raynolds, Report on the Exploration of the Yellowstone River (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1868), p. 4; Goetzmann, Army Exploration, p. 418. Unless otherwise indicated, the following narrative is based on Raynolds's report. Footnotes are provided only for portions quoted in the text.
55. On post-Civil War exploration and efforts to curb vandalism in the Yellowstone, see Kenneth H. Baldwin, Enchanted Enclosure: The Army Engineers and Yellowstone National Park, A Documentary History (Washington, D. C.: Historical Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, 1976).
56. Raphael P. Thian, Legislative History of the General Staff of the Army of the United States (Its Organization, Duties, Pay, and Allowances), From 1775 to 1901 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1901), p. 509.
Last Updated: 17-Mar-2005