When the opportunity arose to write the history of natural resource
management in the national park system, my wife, Judy, urged me to seek
the assignment. And when I discussed the idea with John E. Cook, then
director of the National Park Service's Southwest Regional Office in
Santa Fe, he readily and enthusiastically agreed. Through funding
allocations and other administrative decisions, John cleared the way for
this project. When politics within the Service several times threatened
early termination, he made sure the project was given the time and
thought necessary, asking only that I proceed at all deliberate speed.
John is a third-generation Park Service employee, who loves the Service
more than anyone I know; yet his devotion to its many traditions never
led him to interfere with my study of the Service's history or to place
constraints on my writing. I shall always be grateful for his generous
support and trust.
Serving as a volunteer for the National Park Service while taking a
leave of absence from her position as librarian with the Museum of
International Folk Art in Santa Fe, Judy Sellars accompanied me on
numerous research trips, becoming closely familiar with the topics being
studied and giving invaluable assistance with the research. Throughout
the project, during countless conversations on the road and at home, she
provided important insights that helped me revise and refine this
analysis of Park Service history. She also commented on each chapter of
the manuscript. I am thankful for her continued support and
Although I am responsible for the research and writing, this study
was in many ways a broad cooperative effort. Dozens of generous people
gave their time and support to nurture the project to conclusion. They
critiqued all or most of the manuscript, or gave me advice and support
at crucial times during my work. Special thanks go to Edwin C. Bearss,
William E. Brown, Susan L. Flader, Jane N. Harvey, F. Eugene Hester,
Robert J. Krumenaker, Barry Mackintosh, Charles H. McCurdy, Mary
Meagher, George J. Minnucci, Jr., Jerry L. Rogers, Jay Shuler, William
R. Supernaugh, and Robert M. Utley. I am indebted to JoAnn Y. Ortiz and
Rebecca M. Post, who undertook a wide variety of secretarial tasks to
move this work along. The library staff of the National Park Service's
Santa Fe office was always exceedingly helpful. I am grateful to Amalin
Ferguson, Peg Johnson, and Michael Gonzales for all their efforts on my
behalf. And for their support in the metamorphosis of my manuscript into
publication, I thank especially Charles Grench, editor in chief of Yale
University Press, and Margaret Otzel, production editor. I also thank
copyeditor Vivian B. Wheeler and indexer Laura Moss Gottlieb for their
I am grateful for the special support I received from Roland T.
Bowers, Susan P. Bratton, Victor H. Cahalane, Judy Chetwin, Vanessa
Christopher, John Conoboy, Gary E. Davis, John G. Dennis, Tom DuRant,
Linda Eade, S. Norman Ewanciw, Nancy Potts Flanagan, Milford Fletcher,
Vivian M. Garber, John W. Henneberger, Robert J. Howard, Glen Kaye,
Ronal C. Kerbo, Gerald D. McCrea, David Nathanson, Dwight T.
Pitcaithley, James B. Snyder, and Roger Young.
Many others made contributions to this effort: Craig D. Allen,
Leslie P. Arnberger, Robert L. Arnberger, Lisa Backman, Robert D.
Barbee, Barbara Baroza, Reginald H. Barrett, Robert Beauchamp, James M.
Benedict, Mark S. Boyce, Jim Brady, Jeffrey Bradybaugh, Willys E.
Bramhall, Edgar B. Brannon, Jr., Richard H. Briceland, Harry A.
Butowsky, Clara Cassidy, Howard H. Chapman, Stuart E. Coleman, Wayne B.
Cone, Richard (Rick) Cook, Tim Coonan, Bruce Craig, Richard Crawford,
Mary Shivers Culpin, Richard Curry, John P. Debo, Jr., Don Despain,
Michael J. Devine, Rolf Diamant, Russell E. Dickenson, Lary M. Dilsaver,
James J. Donoghue, David J. Donohue, F. Dominic Dottavio, Tom Ela, Boyd
Evison, Rick Ewig, Richard D. Falb, Michael V. Finley, Ronald A.
Foresta, Dawn McGilvrey Foy, Denis P. Galvin, Marshall Gingery, Art
Gómez, Jerome A. Greene, Linda W. Greene, William P. Gregg, Neal G.
Guse, Jr., Aubrey Haines, William L. Halvorson, Wayne Hamilton, Shirley
Harding, David Harmon, Annette Hartigan, Thomas L. Hartman, Peter
Hayden, Gary Y. Hendrix, Ruthanne Heriot, Darlene S. Herrera, Marjorie
Hoffman, David Humphrey, Jonathan B. Jarvis, Einar Johnson, Renee
Jussaud, Bruce Kaye, Richard Keigley, Bruce M. Kilgore, Zack Kirkland,
Samuel H. Kunkle, Keith R. Langdon, Gary L. Larson, Robert M. Linn,
Laura Loomis, Lourdes Lujan, John Mack, Manuel Mandell, Kitty Manscill,
Stephen Mark, Richard W. Marks, Robert Martin, Clifford Martinka, Mary
Maruka, Henry E. McCutchen, Brian McHugh, Abigail Miller, Sue Mills,
Robert C. Milne, Rene C. Minnick, Ben Moffett, Kenneth Morgan, Ernest
Morrison, Jody Morrison, Duncan Morrow, Louise Murie-MacLeod, Susan
Myers, Dan Nealand, O. V. Olsen, Russ Olsen, Gordon C. Olson, Mary
Padilla, Dale Pate, Jim Peaco, John Peine, Grant A. Petersen, Randall R.
Pope, L. Lee Purkerson, Edie Ramey, Charles E. Rankin, Donald W. Reeser,
Linda Ries, John Thomas Ritter, William B. Robertson, Molly N. Ross,
Edwin L. Rothfuss, Jimmy Rush, Joseph L. Sax, Paul Schullery, Susan
Schultz, Marvel Schumacher, Ellen Seeley, C. Mack Shaver, Napier
Shelton, Steven Slack, Richard B. (Rick) Smith, Michael Soukup, Laura
Soulliere, George Sprugel, Jr., Howard R. Stagner, Barbara R. Stein,
Robert T. Steinholtz, Tom Tankersley, Julie Thomas, Ben H. Thompson,
Vivie Thue, Ed Trout, Kent Turner, John D. Varley, Stephen D. Veirs,
Jr., Gary S. Waggoner, Frederic H. Wagner, William H. Walker, Jr.,
Glennie Wall, Louis S. Wall, Jim Walters, Douglas Warnock, Janelle
Warren-Findley, Thomas H. Watkins, Michael D. Watson, Betty Wauer,
Roland H. Wauer, Robert A. Webb, David J. Weber, Donald H. Weir,
Jannette Wesley, Beverly Whitman, Lee Whittlesey, Arthur Wilcox, Robin
W. Winks, Kenna Wood, Terry Wood, Bebe Woody, David G. Wright, R. Gerald
Wright, Keith A. Yarborough, and Barbara Zafft. Beyond those listed
above, I thank the many staff members of the National Park Service's
Santa Fe office who gave me support.
In addition to hundreds of informal discussions, I interviewed the
following: Leslie P. Arnberger, Robert L. Arnberger, Robert D. Barbee,
James M. Benedict, Mark S. Boyce, Jeffrey Bradybaugh, Susan P. Bratton,
Richard H. Briceland, Victor H. Cahalane, Stuart E. Coleman, John E.
Cook, Tim Coonan, Richard Curry, John P. Debo, Jr., John G. Dennis, F.
Dominic Dottavio, Tom Ela, Michael V. Finley, Milford Fletcher, William
P. Gregg, Neal G. Guse, Jr., Aubrey Haines, Thomas L. Hartman, Peter
Hayden, Gary Y. Hendrix, John W. Henneberger, F. Eugene Hester, David
Humphrey, Einar Johnson, Bruce M. Kilgore, Zack Kirkland, Robert J.
Krumenaker, Samuel H. Kunkle, Keith R. Langdon, Robert M. Linn, Richard
W. Marks, Robert Martin, Charles H. McCurdy, Brian McHugh, Mary Meagher,
Kenneth Morgan, Russ Olsen, John Peine, Randall R. Pope, L. Lee
Purkerson, William B. Robertson, Molly N. Ross, Edwin L. Rothfuss,
Richard B. (Rick) Smith, James B. Snyder, Laura Soulliere, George
Sprugel, Jr., Howard R. Stagner, William R. Supernaugh, Ben H. Thompson,
Ed Trout, Kent Turner, Stephen D. Viers, Jr., William H. Walker, Jr.,
Douglas Warnock, Roland H. Wauer, Arthur Wilcox, Garree Williamson,
David G. Wright, R. Gerald Wright, and Keith A. Yarborough.