CHECK LIST OF BIRDS.
[All species indicated with * inhabit both parks, otherwise Sequoia Park only.]
Compiled and identified by WALTER FRY, supervisor.
KEY TO HABITATION.
ORDER PYGOPODES: DIVING BIRDS.
Family GAVIIDÆ: Loons.
Loon. Gavia immer (Brünn.).Rare winter visitant.
Red-throated loon. Gavia stellata (Pontop.).Rare winter visitant.
ORDER STEGANOPODES: TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS.
Family PHALACROCORACIDÆ: Cormorants.
Farallone cormorant. Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus (Ridgw.).Rare winter visitant.
ORDER ANSERES: LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS.
Family ANATIDÆ: Ducks, geese, and swans.
American merganser. Mergus americanus Cass.Winter migrant.
Red-breasted merganser. Mergus serrator Linn.Fall migrant.
Hooded merganser. Lophodytes cucullatusSummer resident.
Mallard. Anas platyrhyncha LinnCommon winter visitant.
Green-winged teal. Nettion carolinense (Gmel.).Winter visitant.
Blue-winged teal. Querquedula discors (Linn).Rare winter visitant.
Cinnamon teal. Querquedula cyanoptera (Vieill.).Winter migrant.
Shoveler. Spatula clypeata (Linn.).Common winter visitant.
Pintail. Dafila acuta (Linn.).Fall migrant.
Wood duck. Aix sponsa (Linn).Rare winter resident.
Canvasback. Marila valisineria (Wils.) Winter visitant.
Ring-necked duck. Nyroca collaris (Donov.).Rare winter visitant.
Buffle-head. Charitonetta albeola (Linn).Rare winter visitant.
Snow goose. Chen hyperborea hyperborea (Pall.)Very rare winter visitant.
Ross snow goose. Exanthemops rossii (Cassin.).Very rare winter migrant.
Canada goose. Branta canadensis canadensis (Linn).Rare winter migrant.
White-cheeked goose. Branta canadensis occidentalis (Baird).Very rare winter migrant.
Whistling swan. Olor columbianus (Ord).Very rare winter migrant.
ORDER HERODIONES: HERONS, IBISES, ETC.
Family ARDEIDÆ: Herons, egrets, bitterns.
American bittern. Botaurus lentiginosus (Montag.). Summer resident.
Least bittern. Ixobrychus exilis (Gmel.).Rare summer resident.
Court-Treganza blue heron. Ardea herodias treganzai.Summer resident.
Anthony green heron. Butorides virescens anthonyi (Mearns).Rare summer resident.
Black-crowned night heron. Nycticorax nycticorax nævius (Bodd).Rare spring visitant.
ORDER PALUDICOLÆ: CRANES, RAILS, ETC.
Family RALLIDÆ: Rails, gallinules, and coots.
Coot. Fulica americana Gmel.Summer resident.
ORDER LIMICOLÆ: SHORE BIRDS.
Family RECURVIROSTRIDÆ: Avocets and stilts.
Black-necked stilt. Himantopus mexicanus (Mull.).Spring migrant.
Family SCOLOPACIDÆ: Snipes arid sandpipers.
Wilson snipe. Gallinago delicata (Ord.).Common winter visitant.
Least sandpiper. Pisobia minutilla (Vieill.).Winter visitant.
Red-backed sandpiper. Pelidna alpina sakhalina (Vieill).Migrant.
Family CHARADRIIDÆ: Plovers.
Killdeer. Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (Linn.).Resident.
Mountain plover. Podasocys montanus (Towns.).Winter visitant.
ORDER GALLINÆ: GROUSE, TURKEYS, PHEASANTS, QUAIL, ETC.
Family TETRAONIDÆ: Grouse.
Plumed partridge (commonly called mountain quail.) *Oreortyx picta plumifera (Gould).Resident; quite abundant in high elevations.
Valley partridge (commonly called valley quail.) Lophortyx californica vallicola (Ridgw.).Abundant resident of the foothills.
Sierra grouse. *Dendragapus obscurus sierræ (Chapman).Resident. Plentiful in all high elevations.
Family PHASIANDIÆ: Pheasants.
Ring-necked pheasant. Phasianus torquatus Gmel.Very rare; recently propagated. Resident.
Merriam wild turkey. Meleagris gallopavo merriami (Nelson).Resident. Recently propagated. Very scarce.
ORDER COLUMBAE: PIGEONS.
Family COLUMBDIÆ: Pigeons.
Band-tailed pigeon. *Columba fasciata fasciata Say.Summer visitant; fall and winter migrant.
Mourning dove. *Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (Linnaeus).Resident everywhere.
ORDER RAPTORES: VULTURES, EAGLES, HAWKS, OWLS, ETC.
Family CATHARTDIÆ: American vultures.
California vulture; condor. Gymnogyps californianus (Shaw).Resident; very rare.
Turkey vulture. *Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied.Common resident.
Family FALCONIDÆ: Hawks and eagles.
White-tailed kite. Elanus leucurus (Vieill.).Resident in low elevations.
Sharp-shinned hawk. Accipiter velox (Wilson).Winter visitant.
Cooper hawk. *Accipiter cooperii (Bonap.).Resident.
Western red-tail. Buteo borealis calurus Cass.Resident.
Red-bellied hawk. Buteo lineatus elegans Cass.Rare resident.
Swanson hawk. Buteo swainsoni Bonap.Rare spring visitant.
Rough-legged hawk. Archibuteo lagopus sanctijohannis (Gmel.).Rare winter visitant.
Ferruginous rough-legged squirrel hawk. Archibuteo ferrugineus (Licht.).Rare migrant.
Golden eagle. *Aquila chrysætos (Linn.).Common resident.
Bald eagle. *Haliæetus leucocephalus (Linn.).Common resident.
Western sparrow hawk. Falco sparverius phalæna (Lesson).Common resident.
Prairie falcon. Falco mexicanus Schlegel.Rare winter visitant.
Pigeon hawk. *Falco columbarius columbarius Linn.Common winter visitant.
Family TYTDIÆ: Barn owls.
Barn owl. Tyto pratincola (Bonap.).Common resident of the foothills.
Family STRIGIDIÆ: Horned owls, etc.
Long-eared owl. Asio wilsonianus (Less).Rare resident.
Short-eared owl. Asio flammeus (Pontop.).Rare winter visitant.
Spotted owl. Strix occidentalis (Xantus).Rare resident.
Saw-whet owl. Cryptoglaux acadica acadica (Gmel.).Resident in winter.
California screech owl. *Otus asio bendirei (Brewst.).Very common resident.
Pacific horned owl. Bubo virginianus pacificus Cassin.Resident.
Pygmy owl. *Glaucidium gnoma pinicola Wagler.Very common resident.
ORDER COCCYGES: CUCKOOS, ETC.
Family CUCULIDÆ: Cuckoos.
Road-runner. Geococcyx californianus (Less.).Common resident.
California cuckoo. Coccyzus americanus occidentalis Ridgw.Rare summer resident.
Family ALCEDINDIÆ: Kingfishers.
Belted kingfisher. Ceryle alcyon alcyon (Linn.).Occasional summer resident.
ORDER PICI: WOODPECKERS, ETC.
Family PICDIÆ: Woodpeckers.
Cabanis woodpecker. Dryobates villosus hyloscopus Cabanis and Heine.Common resident.
Willow woodpecker. Dryobates pubescens turati (Malh.).Occasional summer resident.
Nutall woodpecker. Dryobates nuttallii (Gamb.).Common resident.
Red-breasted sapsucker. *Sphyrapicus ruber ruber (Gmel.).Winter visitant.
California woodpecker. *Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi (Ridgw.).Common resident.
Lewis woodpecker. *Asyndesmus lewisi Riley.Winter visitant.
Red-naped sapsucker. Syphrapicus varuis nuchalis Baird.Rare resident in winter.
Red-shafted flicker. Colaptes cafer collaris Vigors.Common resident.
Flicker. *Colaptes auratus luteus Bangs.Winter visitant.
ORDER MACROCHIRES: GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, AND HUMMINGBIRDS.
Family CAPRIMULGIDÆ: Goatsuckers.
Dusky poor-will. *Phalaenoptilus nuttalli californicus Ridgw.Common resident.
Western nighthawk. *Chordeiles virginianus hesperis Grinnell.Autumn visitant and occasional summer resident.
Family MICROPODIDÆ: Swifts.
Black swift. Cypseloides niger borealis (Kenn.).Summer resident.
Vaux swift. Chaetura vauxi (Towns.).Migrant
White-throated swift. Aeronautes melanoleucus (Baird).Summer visitant.
Family TROCHILIDÆ: Hummingbirds.
Black-chinned hummingbird. Archilochus alexandri (Bourc. and Muls.).Common summer visitant, lower elevations.
Anna hummingbird. Calypte anna (Less.).Summer visitant.
Rufous hummingbird. *Selasphorus rufus (Gmel.).Plentiful spring migrant and abundant summer visitant.
Calliope hummingbird. Stellula calliope (Gould).Summer visitant.
ORDER PASSERES: PERCHING BIRDS.
Family TYRANNIDÆ: Tyrant flycatcher.
Arkansas kingbird. Tyrannus verticalis Say.Summer resident.
Cassin kingbird. Tyrannus vociferans Swains.Summer resident.
Ash-throated flycatcher. Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens (Lawr.).Summer visitant.
Say phoebe. *Sayornis sayus (Bonap.).Resident.
Black phoebe. Sayornis nigricans (Swains.).Resident.
Olive-sided flycatcher. *Nuttalornis borealis (Swains.).Summer visitant.
Western wood pewee. *Myiochanes richardsonii richardsonii (Swains.).Resident in summer.
Little flycatcher. Empidonax pusillus pusillus (Swains.).Summer resident.
Western flycatcher. *Empidonax difficilis difficilis Baird.Summer visitant.
Family ALAUDIDÆ: Larks.
California horned lark. Otocoris alpestris actia Oberh.Resident at Barnafe Flats.
Family CORVIDÆ: Crows, jays, magpies, etc.
Yellow-billed magpie. Pica nuttallii (Aud.).Summer visitant.
California jay. Aphelocoma californica californica (Vig.).Common resident.
American raven. Corvus corax sinuatus (Wagl.).Common resident.
Western crow. Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis Ridgw.Common resident.
Clark nutcracker. *Nucifraga columbiana (Wils.).Common resident.
Blue-fronted jay. *Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis (Ridgw.).Abundant resident of the higher elevations.
Family ICTERIDÆ: Blackbirds, orioles, etc.
Yellow-headed blackbird. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonap.).Summer visitant.
San Diego red-wing. Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgw.Fall migrant.
Bicolored blackbird. Agelaius gubernator californicus Nelson.Resident.
Tricolored blackbird. Agelaius tricolor (Aud.).Common resident.
Bullock oriole. *Icterus bullockii (Swains.).Resident nesting season only.
Brewer blackbird. *Enphagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.).Resident.
Family FRLNGILLIDÆ: Finches, sparrows, etc.
Western evening grosbeak. *Hesperiphona vespertina montana Ridgw.Rare summer visitant.
California pine grosbeak. Pinicola enucleator californica Price.Resident.
California purple finch. Carpodacus purpureus californicus Baird.Common resident.
Cassin purple finch. *Carpodacus cassinii Baird.Resident.
House finch. *Carpodacus maxicanus frontalis (Say.).Resident very plentiful.
Willow goldfinch. Astragalinus tristis salicamans (Grinn.).Rare resident in lower elevations.
Green-backed goldfinch. *Astragalinus psaltria hesperophilus Oberh.Abundant resident.
Lawrence goldfinch. Astragalinus lawrencii (Cass.).Summer visitant.
Pine siskin. *Spinus pinus pinus (Wils.).Resident.
English sparrow. Passer domesticus (Linn.).Resident.
Western vesper sparrow. Pooecetes gramineus confinis Baird.Fall migrant and summer resident.
Western savannah sparrow. Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus Bonap.Fall visitant.
Western lark sparrow. Chondestes grammacus strigatus Swains.Resident, very rare.
Gambel sparrow. Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (Nutt.).Winter visitant.
Western chipping sparrow. *Spizella passerina arizonæ Coues.Rare resident.
Brewer sparrow. Spizella breweri Cass.Rare resident of foothills.
Thurber junco. Junco oreganus thurberi Anthony.Summer resident.
Bell sparrow. Amphispiza belli belli (Cass.).Summer resident in foothills.
Rufous-crowned sparrow. Aimophila ruficeps (Cass.).Winter visitant.
Heermann song sparrow. Melospiza melodia heermanni Baird.Resident.
Rusty song sparrow. Melospiza melodia morphna Oberh.Winter visitant.
Lincoln sparrow. *Melospiza lincolnii lincolnii (Aud.).Summer resident in high elevations.
Thick-billed sparrow. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha Baird.Summer resident.
Yakutat fox sparrow. Passerella iliaca meruloides (Vig.).Fall and winter visitant.
San Diego towhee. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx Baird.Winter visitant.
California towhee. *Pipilo fuscus crissalis (Vig.).Common resident.
Green-tailed towhee. Oreospisa chlorura (Aud.).Winter migrant.
Black-headed grosbeak. Zamelodia melanocephala (Swains.).Summer resident.
Lazuli bunting. *Passerina amoena (Say.).Common summer resident.
Lark bunting. Calamospiza melanocorys Stein.Fall migrant.
Mountain song sparrow. *Melospiza melodia montana (Hensh.).Common summer visitant.
Family TANAGRIDÆ: Tanagers.
Louisiana tanager: Western tanager. *Piranga ludoviciana (Wils.).Summer visitant; leaves immediately after nesting period.
Family HIRUNDINIDÆ: Swallows.
Western martin. Progne subis hesperia Brewst.Summer visitant.
Cliff swallow. *Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons (Say.).Common summer visitant.
Barn swallow. Hirundo erythrogastra Bodd.Summer resident at the Marble Fork Bridge.
Tree swallow. Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieill.).Abundant spring and summer resident.
Violet-green swallow. Tachycineta thalassina lepida Mearns.Common summer resident.
Bank swallow. Riparia riparia (Linn.).Summer resident in Elk Park.
Rough-winged swallow. Stelgidopteryx serripennis serripennis (Aud.).Rare summer resident.
Family BOMBYCILLIDÆ: Waxwings and phainopeplas.
Cedar waxwing. *Bombycilla cedrorum Vieill. Common in summer and occasional winter visitant.
Phainopepla. Phainopepla nitens (Swains.).Summer resident.
Family LANIIDÆ: Shrikes.
California shrike. Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Ridgw.Summer resident.
Family VIREONIDÆ: Vireos.
Western warbling vireo. Vireosylva gilva swainsonii (Baird.).Common summer visitant.
Hutton vireo. Vireo huttoni Cass.Abundant resident.
Family MNIOTILTIDÆ: Wood warblers.
Lutescent warbler. Vermivora celata lutescens (Ridgw.).Summer visitant in low elevations.
Brewster yellow warbler. *Dendroica æstiva brewsteri Grinnell.Abundant summer resident.
Audubon warbler. *Dendroica auduboni (Towns.).Winter visitant; occasional summer resident.
Black-throated gray warbler. Dendroica nigrescens (Towns.).Summer resident.
Townsend warbler. *Dendroica townsendii (Towns.).Common winter visitant.
Hermit warbler. Dendroica occidentalis (Towns.).Migrant.
Macgillivray warbler. *Oporornis tolmiei (Towns.).Summer resident.
Pacific yellow-throat. Geothlypis trichas arizela Oberh.Rare resident in Elk Park.
Long-tailed chat. Icteria virens longicauda (Lawr.).Summer visitant along the streams.
Pileolated warbler. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pall.).Rare summer visitant along the streams of the foothills.
Family MOTACILLIDÆ: Wagtails.
Pipit. Anthus rubescens (Tunst.).Common winter migrant.
Family CINCLIDÆ: Dippers.
Dipper. Northern water ouzel. *Cinclus mexicanus unicolor Bonap.Common resident along the streams.
Family MIMIDÆ: Thrashers, etc.
Western mocking bird. Mimus polyglottos leucopterus (Vigors).Very rare summer visitant in low elevations.
California thrasher. Toxostoma revidivum (Gamb.).Common resident.
Family TROGLODYTIDÆ: Wrens.
Rock wren. *Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus (Say.).Resident in low elevations.
Dotted canyon wren. Catherpes mexicanus punctulatus Ridgw.Common resident.
Parkman wren. Troglodytes ædon parkmanii Aud.Resident in foothills.
Family CERTHIIDÆ: Creepers.
Sierra creeper. *Certhia familiaris zelotes Osgood.Resident in high elevations.
Family SITTIDÆ: Nuthatches.
Slender-billed nuthatch. *Sitta carolinensis aculeata Cass.Common resident.
Family PARIDÆ: Titmice.
Plain titmouse. *Baeolophus inornatus inornatus Gambel.Common resident.
Bailey chickadee. *Penthestes gambeli baileyae Grinnell.Resident.
Pallid wren-tit. Chamaea fasciata henshawi Ridgway.Occasional winter visitant.
California bush-tit. Psaltriparus minimus californicus Ridgw.Common resident.
Family SYLVIIDÆ: Kinglets, gnat catchers, etc.
Western golden-crowned kinglet. *Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird.Winter visitant.
Western ruby-crowned kinglet. Regulus calendula cineraceus Grinnell.Winter visitant.
Western gnat catcher. Polioptila-cærulea obscura Ridgw.Rare resident.
Family TURDIDÆ: Thrushes, solitaires, bluebirds, etc.
Townsend solitaire. *Myadestes townsendii (Aud.).Winter visitant and occasional summer resident.
Russet-backed thrush. Hylocichla ustulata ustulata (Nutt.).Spring and summer visitant.
Sierra hermit thrush. Hylocichla guttata sequoiensis (Belding). Occasional summer resident.
Western robin. *Planesticus migratorius propinquus (Ridgw.).Resident; very plentiful everywhere.
San Pedro bluebird. Sialia mexicana anabelæ Anthony.Very rare summer resident.
Mountain bluebird. *Sialia currucoides (Bechst.).Summer resident in high elevations.
ORDER UNGULATA: DEER, ANTELOPE, CATTLE, SHEEP, AND GOATS.
[All species indicated with * inhabit both parks, otherwise Sequoia Park only.]
Family CERVIDÆ: Deer.
California wapiti. Cervus nannodes Merriam.Twenty elk were transferred from Kern County, Cal., to the park in 1905, four of which died soon after arrival from their injuries sustained while in captivity. The elk were at first kept within fenced inclosure in a section of the park on the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River, but now roam in many other parts of the park and adjacent territory. Young have been born, and it is now estimated that there are from 40 to 50 head in the herd. The first calf elk was born in the park on March 9, 1906.
California mule deer. *Odocoileus hemionus californicus (Caton).Deer are very abundant in the parks; a conservative estimate of their number has been set at 2,500 within the Sequoia Park. They may be seen in all portions of the parks during summer season.
Family BOVIDÆ: Sheep.
Sierra mountain sheep. Ovis canadensis sierræ (Grinnell).These sheep from the eastern slope of Mount Baxter have recently been described as a distinct species, and there are still a number of them on the east slope of the Sierra. They are of unusual occurrence in the park, and were last seen August 19, 1910, on north spur of Mount Silliman at an elevation of 10,600 feet.
ORDER RODENTIA: RODENTS OR GNAWERS.
Family SCIURIDÆ: Squirrels.
Yellow-bellied Marmot. *Marmota flaviventer flaviventer (Audubon and Bachman).Very abundant throughout their range, and may be seen at all times during summer and autumn seasons. They live principally in crevices of rocks near glade or stream, and are most plentiful at Hockett and Sand Meadows. They are often called ground hog and woodchuck. They furnish much of the food for the lion, wolf, and lynx, and are often used as food by man.
Fisher's ground squirrel. *Citellus beecheyi fisher (Merriam).Not plentiful throughout their range; principally along road and trail thoroughfares near water. They are a serious pest to agriculture and spread contagion; and the State of California has enacted a law compelling their destruction, which is expected to lead to their final extermination
Alpine chipmunk. Eutamias alpinus (Merriam).Fairly abundant in the park and found most plentiful in the vicinity of Mount Silliman and Alta along the upper edge of timber line.
Sierra Nevada chipmunk. *Eutamias frater (Allen).Very abundant in the parks.
Columbia gray squirrel. *Sciurus griseus griseus Ord.Very abundant.
California chickaree. *Sciurus douglasii albolimbatus Allen.Very abundant.
Family PETAURISTIDÆ: Flying squirrel.
San Bernardino flying squirrel. *Sciuropterus alpinus californicus Rhoads.Not abundant in the parks, and owing to their nocturnal habit are seldom seen by park visitors.
Family MURIDÆ: Rats and mice.
Common mouse. Mus musculus Linn.This mouse introduced from Europe inhabits greater portion of the settlement in the valley west of the park, and has drifted into the park to a point at Rocky Gulch station, which is the only place at which it has been seen in the park.
California mouse. Peromyscus californicus californicus (Gambel).Not abundant in the park; they inhabit principally the chemisal thickets of the foothills near the western park boundary.
Gambel mouse. *Peromyscus maniculatus gambelli (Baird).Gambel mice are more plentiful than all other species.
Big-eared mouse. *Peromyscus truer gilberti (Allen).Live principally in the brush thickets near the open forestsNot abundant.
Streator brush rat. *Neotoma fuscipes streatori Merriam.Very abundant throughout their range and menace to campers, as they will carry away foodstuff and small camp articles if given the opportunity.
California meadow mouse. Microtus californicus californicus (Peale).Inhabits principally grassy localities, both wet and dryFairly abundant.
Cantankerous meadow mouse. *Microtus mordax mordax (Merriam).These mice are to be found about all the meadows throughout their range and are fairly abundant.
Family GEOMYIDÆ: Pocket gophers.
Alpine pocket gopher. *Thomomys alpinus alpinus Merriam.Fairly abundant throughout their zones, but most plentiful near the streams and marsh places.
Fresno pocket gopher. *Thomomys angularis pascalis Merriam.Found in most places throughout their range, appearing most abundant where there is rich, loose soil, other than in marsh places.
Family HETEROMYDÆ: Pocket rats and pocket mice.
Allen pocket mouse. Perognathus californicus dispar Osgood.The only place in the park that the Allen pocket mouse has been seen is at Salt Spring on The Middle Fork of the Kaweah River, where it inhabits a grass meadow of wild oats.
Tulare pocket rat. Dipodomys merriam nitratoides Merriam.Of rare occurrence in the park, having been seen only in the vicinity just below the junction of the Middle and Marble Forks of the Kaweah River, where they inhabit the open grass ridges.
Family ZAPODIDÆ: Jumping mice.
Allen jumping mouse: *Zapus trinotatus alleni (Elliot).Fairly abundant throughout their range, inhabiting principally the grassy meadows bordering the open forests.
Family ERETHIZONTIDÆ: American porcupine.
Western porcupine. Erethizon epixanthum epixanthum Brandt.Porcupines inhabit but few localities of the park, and have only been seen at Alta and Willow Meadows, where they are found living in the cliff crevices. Their workings are also visible at Putnam Canyon, where they have done harm to small coniferous timber by gnawing away the bark, the innermost portion of which is consumed as food.
ORDER LAGOMORPHA: PIKAS, HARES, AND RABBITS.
Family OCHOTONDÆ: Pikas.
Sierra Nevada pika. Ochotona albatus Grinnell.Found in various places throughout their range, living principally in the "rock slides" along the steep slopes, where they live in family groups. They are found most abundant in the vicinity of Mount Vanderver, Alta, Silliman, Twin, and Evelyn Lakes, the latter mentioned being the lowest place of their occurrence in the park, at the elevation of 8,600 feet. They are often called little chief hares, conies, and strayed rats.
Family LEPORIDÆ: Hares and rabbits.
Sierra prairie hare. Lepus campestris sierrae Merriam.Not plentiful in the park, but may be seen during summer season in the vicinity of Alta Meadow, Granite Basin near the summit of Mount Vanderver, and at Twin Peaks. They are commonly called "snowshoe rabbits."
California hare, jack rabbit. Lepus californicus richardsonii (Bachman).This species of hare is abundant in the territory adjacent to the park to the west, in both foothill and valley, but is found within the park to the extent of about 2 miles along the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River where they may be seen at all seasons during the year.
Bachman brush hare, "cottontail." Sylvilagus bachmani bachmani (Waterhouse). Brush hare are very common in the park, and may be seen at all times during the year throughout their range.
Ashy brush hare, "blue rabbit." Sylvilagus bachmani cinerascens (Allen).Fairly abundant throughout their range, living principally in the chemisal thickets, at which place they may be seen throughout the year.
ORDER CARNIVORA: FLESH-EATING MAMMALS.
Family URSIDÆ: Bears.
Black and brown bear. *Ursus americanus americanus Pallas.Found in all portions of the parks where food is plentiful. They are not ferocious, and under all ordinary circumstances will run away from presence of man. Their hibernating period usually dates from December to March, during which time young are born. The young are commonly two, occasionally four in number. Young of the same litter often vary in color from cinnamon brown, black, black with white breast. Their number is estimated at 600 in the Sequoia Park.
Family CANIDÆ: Dogs, wolves, foxes.
Mountain coyote. *Canis lestes Merriam.Not abundant, and are seldom seen. They are found most plentifully during summer in the vicinity of Hockett and Alta Meadows and Little Kern River. They come lower into the heavy forest belt during winter.
Valley coyote. *Canis ochropus Eschscholtz.Inhabit principally the valley and foothill region west of the parks, but during the summer season they frequent the higher elevations, going well into the transition zone, returning again in the autumn. They seem less plentiful from year to year. They are a serious pest to game, killing all kinds of small game and often the deer.
High Sierra fox. *Vulpes necator Merriam.Not abundant in the parks, but are occasionally seen in the vicinity of Cahoon, Alta, and Willow Meadows. Several specimens have been trapped in the vicinity of Atwell Mill and Mineral King, east of the park.
California gray fox. *Urocyon californicus californicus (Mearns).Very abundant in the parks, but are most plentiful in the more brushy country below the coniferous belt, where they live near the openings.
Family FELIDÆ: Cats.
Pacific coast cougar. *Felis oregonensis oregonensis Rafinesque.Not abundant in the parks, perhaps not exceeding half dozen individual animals at any one time. They are very wary and greatly avoid presence of man. They inhabit principally rough, broken country, raising their young (commonly two, sometimes three or four) in dense brush thickets or rock crevices. Their food is flesh exclusively, which they prefer to kill themselves. Being strong and powerful they prefer large game, such as deer, colts, hogs, etc. They were once abundant throughout the Sierra, but are rapidly being diminished by extermination and civilization. Their indiscriminate slaughter at all seasons and the steady encroachment of settlement, together with the State bounty that is offered for their destruction, make possible their final extermination within a few years. They are known by many common names, but for this locality that of "mountain lion."
California lynx. *Lynx ruffus californicus Mearns.Fairly abundant throughout the parks and may be expected in any portion thereof during summer season; but owing to deep snow in the higher elevations in winter they are forced down below the coniferous forest in the more brushy country. They prey on all the small animals and birds and frequently kill small fawns. They are not courageous and under ordinary circumstances flee from presence of man, but will fight when crowded.
Family PROCYONIDÆ: Raccoons, etc.
California ring-tailed cat. *Bassariscus astutus raptor (Baird).Fairly abundant throughout their range in the parks, but most plentiful in the territory below the coniferous forests. Their presence is often noted at Colony Mill, Rocky Gulch, and Clough Cave, where no doubt they seek mice that inhabit the place, of which they are very fond as food. They are easily tamed, often becoming pets. The animal is often called "civet cat," but the name is erroneous.
California raccoon. Procyon psora psora (Gray).Not abundant throughout their range in the park, only appearing along branches of the Kaweah river, where they pass the day in hollow trees or crevices of rocks, doing most of their hunting for food at nighttime.
Family MUSTELIDÆ: Weasels, etc.
Western badger. *Taxidea taxus neglecta (Mearns).Not common in the parks and owing to their nocturnal habits are seldom seen. They are found in most localities along open ridges in the lower and around the meadows in the higher elevations, and seem most plentiful at Hockett and Sand Meadows. They live in burrows dug by themselves.
Wolverine. *Gulo luteus Elliott.Rare and seldom seen in the parks. They are most numerous in the vicinity of Mount Vanderver, Silliman, and Alta. They are very voracious and eat anything in way of flesh that they can capture or find dead. They can not run fast enough to catch many animals, and obtain most of their food by opening the burrows of other animals, their long claws and great strength enabling them to dig rapidly. Under ordinary circumstances they will not attack man, neither do they seem to fear him, and will fight viciously when captured.
Western spotted skunk. *Spilegale phenax phenax Merriam.Very abundant in the parks and may be seen during all seasons of the year. They live about the ledges, dense brush thickets, and in burrows dug by themselves. They are principally crepuscular and nocturnal in habit. They are bold, and have so much confidence in their means of offense and defense that they seldom run from anything.
California skunk. *Mephitis occidentalis occidentalis Baird.Abundant in the parks, and may be seen at all seasons of the year. They seem to have little choice of locality, and may be found any place where they can obtain food and shelter. They usually occupy hollow logs, piles of brush, or dig burrows for themselves. They are self-reliant, bold, and inquisitive. They do not fear man or beast. They are chiefly crepuscular and nocturnal in habit.
Pacific pine marten. *Martes caurina caurina (Merriam).Abundant in the parks throughout the coniferous forest belts. They roam about at all seasons and are often seen in immediate vicinity of tourist camps during the summer.
Pacific fisher. *Martes pennanti pacifica (Rhoads).Fairly abundant in the parks. They live principally near wet meadows and streams. Owing to their nocturnal habit they are seldom seen.
California weasel. Mustela xanthogenys xanthogenys Gray.The only known place that California weasels inhabit in the park is at the junction of the Middle and Marble Forks of the Kaweah River. They are sometimes killed west of the park, but are not plentiful.
Mountain weasel. *Mustela arizonensis (Mearns).Generally distributed throughout the parks, but common in few localities. They are most plentiful in the heavy forest belt in the vicinity of Giant Forest.
ORDER INSECTIVORA: MOLES AND SHREWS.
Family TALPIDÆ: Moles.
California mole. *Scapanus latimanus latimanus (Bachman).Not abundant in the parks, but found in most places where the soil is loose and of good depth. They are entirely subterranean in habit. They eat no vegetable food. Their principal food is grubs and other larvae, insects, and earthworms.
Family SORICIDÆ: Shrews.
Sierra Nevada shrew. Sorex amonenus Merriam.Not abundant in the park. They are found most plentifully in the vicinity of little Kern River, Hockett, and San Meadows, where they inhabit wet meadows and places along the grassy banks of streams.
Monterey shrew. *Sorex montereyensis Merriam.Not abundant in the parks. They inhabit principally the heavy forest belt, and have been seen no farther south than at Giant Forest.
ORDER CHIROPTERA: BATS.
Family VESPERTILONIDÆ: Bats.
Little California bat, Myotis californicus californicus (Audubon and Bachman). Not abundant in the park, but appear most plentiful during autumnal migration. They may be seen at twilight coming from crevices in rocks along the banks of the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River.
Western red bat, Mycteris borealis teliotis (H. Allen). Have been seen only at Clough Cave and Marble Fork Bridge in Elk Park.
Hoary bat, *Nycteris cinerea (Beauvois). Inhabit the more dense forests of the parks. They migrate from the parks during winter. They are not plentiful.
Mountain trout only inhabit the waters of the parks, and but very few are found in General Grant National Park, due to insufficient water. The trout are numerous of species, natural and imported. The native trout has several distinct species closely blending, and is native to all the sea-reaching streams and rivers to the barrier cascades and has been largely introduced above in mountain streams and lakes within the parks. Imported species have been artificially propagated and show remarkable adaptability to the waters where planted. But very few waters of the parks remain yet unstocked.
The different trout species of the parks are as follows:
Kern River Rainbow trout, Salmo Gilberti (Jordan). Native; transplanted to many of the park waters.
Golden trout of Volcano Creek, Salmo Roosevelti Evermann. Native; transplanted to a few of the park waters.
Golden trout of Soda Creek, Salmo Whitei Evermann. Native; transplanted to many of the park waters.
Cut-throat trout, Salmo Mykiss Walbaum. Native; planted to many of the park waters.
Eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontanalis (Mitchell). Imported; planted to many of the park waters.
Rainbow trout, Salmo irideus Gibbons. Native; planted to many of the park waters.
Loch Leven trout, Salmo Trutti Levensis (Walker). Imported; planted to many of the park waters.
Persons desiring to fish in the waters of the Sequoia and General Grant National Parks must secure a sporting fishing license, as required by the laws of California. These laws provide that every person over the age of 18 years who obtains fish without obtaining a license is guilty of a misdemeanor. The license fees are as follows:
To citizens of the United States who are bona fide residents of the State of California, $1.
To citizens of the United States not bona fide residents of the State of California, and to persons not citizens of the United States, $3.
These licenses may be obtained from any county clerk or from the State board of fish and game commissioners. The main office of the State board of fish and game commissioners is located in the Mills Building, San Francisco, and branch offices are located as follows: Forum Building, Sacramento; Consolidated Realty Building, Los Angeles; Forsyth Building, Fresno. Every person applying for a license must give his residence, age, height, nationality, color of eyes, and color of hair. All fishing must be done in conformity with the State laws regarding open season, size of fish, and limit of catch.
Last Updated: 19-Apr-2010