ADAMS, D. A. 1963. Factors influencing vascular plant zonation in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 44:443-456.
ANDREWS, W. F. 1938. Report on the plan to restore and protect Fire Island. Acme Photo Corp. for the Long Island State Park Commission. Babylon, N.Y.
ART, H. W. 1971. Atmospheric salts in the functioning of a maritime forest ecosystem. Ph.D. Thesis. Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
______, 1972. Atmospheric salts in the function of a maritime forest ecosystem. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 53(2):27.
______, 1974. A review of nutrient fluxes through the organic matter components in temperate forest ecosystems. in D. L. Dindal, ed. Proceedings of the 3rd soils microcommunities conference (Syracuse, New York, October 15-17, 1973). U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Office of Technical Services. Technical Information Center, Springfield, Va. CONF-731015.
______. F. H. BORMANN. G. K. VOIGT, and G. M. WOODWELL. 1974. Barrier island forest ecosystem: Role of meteorologic nutrient inputs. Science 184:60-62.
______, and P. L. MARKS. 1971. A summary table of biomass and net annual primary production in forest ecosystems of the world. Pages 1-32 in H. E. Young, ed. Forest Biomass Studies (Proc. 15th I. UFRO Congress) University of Maine Press, Orono, Maine.
ATTIWILL, P. M. 1966. The chemical composition of rainwater in relation to cycling of nutrients in mature eucalyptus forest. Plant Soil 24:390-407.
______. 1968. The loss of elements from decomposing litter. Ecology 49:142-145.
AU, S. 1969. Vegetation and ecological processes on Shackleford Bank, North Carolina. Ph.D. Thesis. Duke University, Chapel Hill, N.C. 170 pp.
BARINOV, G. V., and E. I. RATNER. 1959. Some features of the assimilation of substances through the leaves after foliar application. Sov. Plant Physiol. 6:333-340.
BARSHAD, I. 1964. Chemistry of soil development. Pages 1-70 in F. E. Bear, ed. Chemistry of the soil. Am. Chem. Soc. Monogr. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York.
BASKERVILLE, G. L. 1965. Dry matter production in immature fir stands. For. Sci. Monogr. 9:362-478.
______. 1966. Dry matter production in immature balsam fir stands: roots, lesser vegetation and total stand. For. Sci. 12:49-53.
BLANCHARD, D. C. 1964. Sea-to-air transport of surface active material. Science 146:396-397.
______. and L. SYZDEK. 1972. Variation in aitken and giant nuclei in marine air. J. Physical Oceanog. 2(3):255-262.
BLOCH, M. R., D. KAPLAN, V. KERTER, and J. SCHNERB. 1966. Ion separation in bursting air bubbles: an explanation for the irregular ion ratios in atmosopheric precipitations. Nature 209:802-803.
BORMANN, F. H. 1970. The ecosystem conceptnecessary basis for land use. Pages 19-25 in Proceedings of the golden anniversary meeting New England section Soc. Amer. For. Society of American Foresters. Boston, Mass.
______, and G. E. LIKENS. 1967. Nutrient cycling. Science 155:424-429.
______, G. E. LIKENS, and J. S. EATON. 1969. Biotic regulation of particulate and solution losses from a forested ecosystem. BioScience 19:600-610.
BOURDEAU, P. F., and H. J. OOSTING. 1959. The maritime live oak forest in North Carolina. Ecology 40:148-152.
BOYCE, S. G. 1951a. Source of atmospheric salts. Science 113:620-621.
______. 1951b. Salt hypertrophy in succulent dune plants. Science 114:544-545.
______. 1954. The salt spray community. Ecol. Monogr. 24:29-67.
BOYKO, H. 1966. Salinity and aridity. Monographiae Biologicae 16. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hauge. 408 pp.
BOYNTON, D. 1954. Nutrition by foliar application. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 5:31-54.
BRAUN, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of Eastern North America. Hafner Publ. (1967 facsimile ed.) N.Y. 596 pp.
BRAY, J. R. 1956. Gap phase replacement in a maple-basswood forest. Ecology 37:598-600.
______. 1963. Root production and the estimation of net productivity, Can. J. Bot. 41:65-72.
______, and E. GORHAM. 1964. Litter production in forests of the world. Adv. Ecol. Res. 2:101-157.
BROWN, C. A. 1959. Vegetation of the outer banks of North Carolina. Louisiana State University Studies. Coastal Studies Series No. 4. 179 pp.
BROWN, J. S. 1925. A study of coastal ground water with special reference to Connecticut. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-supply Pap. 537. 101 pp.
BUCKMAN, H. O., and N. C. BRADY. 1960. The nature and properties of soils, 6th ed. MacMillan Co., New York. 567 pp.
BURGES, A. 1967. The decomposition of organic matter in the soil. Pages 479-492 in A. Burges and F. Raw, eds. Soil biology. Academic Press, London.
BURK, C. J. 1961. A botanical reconnaissance of Portsmouth Island, North Carolina. Jour. Elisha Mitchell. Sci. Soc. 77:72-74.
______. 1962. The North Carolina Outer Banks. A floristic interpretation. Jour. Elisha. Mitchell Sci. Soc. 78:21-28.
______. 1968. A floristic comparison of lower Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the North Carolina Outer Banks. Rhodora 70:215-227.
CARLISLE, A., A. H. F. BROWN, and E. J. WHITE. 1967. The nutrient content of tree stem flow and ground flora litter and leachates in a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) woodland. J. Ecol. 55:615-627.
CHAPMAN, V. J. 1964. Coastal vegetation. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 245 pp.
CHRYSLER, M. A. 1904. Anatomical notes on certain strand plants. Bot. Gaz. 37:461-464.
______. 1905. Reforestation at Woods Hole, a study in succession. Rhodora 7:12 1-129.
______. 1910. Ecological plant geography of Maryland coastal zone, West Shore district. Md. Weather Serv. Spec. Publ. 3:149-197.
______. 1930. The origin and development of the vegetation of Sandy Hook. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 57:163-176.
CLARKE, F. W. 1924. The data of geochemistry, 5th ed.. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 770. 841 pp.
CLAYTON, J. L. 1972. Salt spray and mineral cycling in two California coastal ecosystems. Ecol. 53:74-81.
COHEN, P., O. L. FRANKE, and B. L. FOXWORTHY. 1968. An atlas of Long Island's water resources. N.Y. Water Resour. Comm. Bull. 62. 117 pp.
COKER, W. C. 1905. Observations on the flora of the Isle of Palms, Charleston, South Carolina. Torreya 5:135-145.
COLE, D. W., S. P. GESSEL, and S. F. DICE. 1967. Distribution and cycling of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and calcium in a second-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem. Pages 198-232 in H. E. Young, ed. Symposium on primary productivity and mineral cycling in natural ecosystems. University of Maine Press, Orono, Maine.
COLLANDER, R. 1941. Selective absorption of cations by higher plants. Plant Physiol. 16:691-720.
CONRAD, H. S. 1935. Plant associations of Central Long Island. Am. Midl. Nat. 16:433-516.
CONWAY, E. J. 1942. Mean geochemical data in relation to oceanic evolution. Proc. R. Ir. Acad. 48(B8):1 19-159.
______. 1943. The chemical evolution of the ocean. Proc. R. Ir. Acad. 48(B8):161-212.
COOPER, H. H., JR., F. A. KOHOUT, H. R. HENRY, and R. E. GLOVER. 1964. Sea water in coastal aquifers. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-supply Pap. 1613-C. 84 pp.
COWLES, H. C. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Bot. Gaz. 27:95-116, 167-202, 281-308, 361-391.
CRANDELL, H. C. 1962. Geology and ground-water resources of Plum Island, Suffolk County, New York. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-supply Pap. 1539-X. 35 pp.
CURTIS, J. T. 195l. An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32:476-496.
CURTISS, A. H. 1879. A visit to the Shell Islands of Florida. Bot. Gaz. 4:117, 132, 154.
DAVIS, J. H. 1942. The ecology of the vegetation and topography of the Sand Keys of Florida. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publ. No. 524:113-195.
DAVIS, J. H. 1957. Dune formation and stabilization by vegetation and plantings. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Beach Erosion Board Tech. Mem. 101. 47 pp.
DOLAN, R., P. J. GODFREY, and W. E. ODUM. 1973. Man's impact on the barrier islands of North Carolina. Amer. Scientist 61:152-162.
DUNCAN, W. H. 1974. Vascular halophytes of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America north of Mexico. Pages 23-50 in R. J. Reimold and W. H. Queen, eds. Ecology of halophytes. Academic Press, New York.
DUVIGNEAUD, P., and S. DENAEYER-DESMET. 1970. Biological cycling of minerals in temperate deciduous forests. Pages 199-225 in D. E. Reichle, ed. Analysis of temperate forest ecosystems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
EDWARDS, C. A., D. E. REICHLE, and D. A. CROSSLEY, JR. 1970. The role of soil invertebrates in turnover of organic matter and nutrients. Pages 147-172 in D. E. Reichle, ed. Analysis of temperate forest ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
EGLER, F. E. 1942. Checklist of ferns and flowering plants of the Seashore State Park, Cape Henry, Virginia. N.Y. State CoIl. For. Syracuse Univ. Bull. New York, 60 pp.
EMMANUELSSON, A., E. ERIKSSON, and H. EGNER. 1954. Composition of atmospheric precipitation in Sweden. Tellus 6:261-267.
EPSTEIN, E. 1966. Dual pattern of ion absorption by plant cells and plants. Nature 212:1324-1327
ERIKSSON, E. 1952a. Composition of atmospheric precipitation I. Nitrogen compounds. Tellus 4:215-232.
______. 1952b. Composition of atmospheric precipitation II. Sulfur, chloride, and iodine compounds. Tellus 4:280-303.
______. 1955. Airborne salts and the chemical composition of river waters. Tellus 7:243-250.
______. 1959. The yearly circulation of chloride and sulfur in nature; meteorological, geochemical and pedological implications, part I. Tellus 11:375-403
______. 1960. The yearly circulation of chloride and sulfur in nature; meteorological, geochemical and pedological implications, part II. Tellus 12(1):63-109.
______. 1961. The exchange of matter between atmosphere and sea. Pages 411-423 in M. Sears, ed. Oceanography. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
ETHERINGTON, J. R. 1967. Studies of nutrient cycling and productivity in oligotrophic ecosystems. I. Soil potassium and wind-blown sea-spray in a south Wales dune grassland. J. Ecol. 55:743-752.
EYLES, D. E. 1939. Studies on the vegetation of certain coastal islands in the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia. M.S. Thesis. Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. 225 pp.
FERNALD, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany, 8th ed. American Book Co., New York. 1632 pp.
FOGG, J. M. 1930. The flora of the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts Rhodora 32:119-132, 147-161, 167-180, 208-221, 226-258, 263-281.
FORCIER, L. K. 1973. Seedling pattern and population dynamics, and the reproductive strategies of sugar maple, beech and yellow birch at Hubbard Brook. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 194 pp.
FOWELLS, H. A. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handbook 271. 762 pp.
FOX, W. T. and R. A. DAVIS, JR. 1971. Fourier analysis of Weather and wave data from Holland, Michigan, July 1970. Technical Rep. No. 3 of ONR Task No. 388-092/10-18-68 (414). 79 pp.
FREE, E. E. 1911 The movement of soil material by the Wind. U.S. Dep. Agric. Bur. Soils Bull. 68. 272 pp.
FULLER, M. L. 1914. The geology of Long Island. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 82. 231 pp.
GAMBELL, A. W., and D. W. FISHER. 1966. Chemical composition of rainfall, eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-supply Pap. 1535-K. 41 pp.
GARRETT, W. D. 1964. The organic chemical composition of the ocean surface. NRL Report 6201. U.S. Naval Res. Lab. 13 pp.
GAUCH, H. G. 1957. Mineral nutrition of plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 8:31-64.
GEMMELL, A. R., P. GREIG-SMITH, and C. H. GIMINGHAM. 1953. A note on the behavior of Ammophila arenaria (L) Link. in relation to sand-dune formation. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin. 36:132-136.
GERLOFF, G. C., D. G. MOORE, and J. T. CURTIS. 1964. Mineral content of native plants of Wisconsin. Wis. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. 14. 27 pp.
GLEASON, H. A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43:463-481.
GODFREY, P. J., and M. M. GODFREY. 1973. Comparison of ecological and geomorphic interactions between altered and unaltered barrier island systems in North Carolina. Pages 239-258 in D. R. Coates, ed. Coastal Geomorphology. Publications in Geomorphology. State University of New York.
______. 1974. The role of overwash and inlet dynamics in the formation of salt marshes on North Carolina barrier islands, Pages 407-427 in R. J. Reimold and W. H. Queen, eds. Ecology of Halophytes. Academic Press. New York.
GOERING, J. J., and D. W. MENZEL. 1965. The nutrient chemistry of the sea surface. Deep-Sea Res. 12:839-843.
GOODING, E. G. B. 1947. Observations on the sand dunes of Barbados, British West Indies. J. Ecol. 34:111-125.
GORHAM, E. 1958. The influence and importance of daily weather conditions in the supply of chloride, sulphate and other ions to fresh waters from at mospheric precipitation. R. Soc. Lond. Phil. Trans. Ser. B241:147-178.
______. 1961. Factors influencing supply of major ions to inland waters, with special reference to the atmosphere. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 72:795-840.
______, and J. B. CRAGG. 1960. The chemical composition of some bog waters from the Falkland Islands. J. Ecol. 48:175-181.
GREENLAND, D. J., and J. M. L. KOWAL. 1960. Nutrient content of the moist tropical forest of Ghana. Plant Soil 12:154-174.
HARPER, R. M. 192l. Cape Cod vegetation. Torreya 21:91-98.
HARRIS, W. B. 1967. Stratification of fresh and salt water on barrier islands as a result of differences in sediment permeability. Water Resour. Res. 3:89-97.
HARSHBERGER, J. W. 1900. An ecological study of the New Jersey strand flora. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1900:623-671.
______. 1908. The comparative leaf structure of the sand dune plants of Bermuda. Amer. Phil. Soc. Proc. 47:97-110.
______. 1909. The comparative leaf structure of the sand dune plants of New Jersey. Amer. Phil. Soc. Proc. 47:72-89.
______. 1911. Phytogeographic survey of North America. Die vegetation der Erde 13. Stechert & Co., New York. 790 pp.
HELvEY, J. D., and J. H. PATRICK. 1965. Canopy and litter interception of rainfall by hardwoods of eastern United States. Water Resour. Res. 1:193-206.
HIGGINS, E. A. T., R. D. RAPPLEYE, and R. G. BROWN. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. Univ. Md. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. A-172. 70 pp.
HILL, T. G., and J. A. HANLEY. 1914. The structure and water content of shingle beaches. J. Ecol. 2:21-38.
HOPE-SIMPSON, J. F., and F. L. JEFFERIES. 1966. Observations relating to vigour and debility in marram grass [A. arenaria (L) Link]. J. Ecol. 54:27 1-274.
HOYT, J. H. 1967. Barrier island formation. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 78:1125-1136.
______. 1968. Barrier island formation: Reply. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 79:1427-1432.
HUTTON, J. T., and T. I. LESLIE. 1958. Accession of non-nitrogenous ions dissolved in rainwater to soils in Victoria. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 9:492-507.
IVES, S. A. 1923. Maturation and germination of seeds of Ilex opaca. Bot. Gaz. 76:60-77.
JACKSON, M. L. 1958. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
JENNY, H., S. P. GESSEL, and F. T. BINGHAM. 1949. Comparative study of decomposition rates of organic matter in temperate and tropical regions. Soil Sci. 68:419-432.
JOHNSON, A. S., H. O. HILLESTAD, S. A. FANNING, and G. F. SHANHOLZER. 1971. An ecological survey of the coastal region of Georgia. U.S. Dept. Interior National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series No. 3.
JOHNSON, D. S. 1900. Notes on the flora of the banks and sounds at Beaufort, North Carolina. Bot. Gaz. 30:405-410.
JOHNSON, D. W. 1919. Shore processes and shoreline development. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 584 pp.
JOHNSON, N. M., G. E. LIKENS, F. H. BORMANN, and R. S. PIERCE. 1968. Rate of chemical weathering of silicate minerals in New Hampshire. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 32:53 1-545.
JUANG, F. H. T., and N. M. JOHNSON. 1967. Cycling of chlorine through a forested watershed in New England. J. Geophys. Res. 72:5641-5647.
JUNGE, C. E., and R. T. WERBY. 1958. The concentration of chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, and sulfate in rain water over the United States. J. Meterol. 15:417-425.
JYUNG, S. H., and S. H. WITTWER. 1965. Pathways and mechanisms for foliar absorption of mineral nutrients. Agric. Sci. Rev. 3(2):26-36.
KEARNEY, T. H. 1900. The plant covering of Ocracoke Island; A study in the ecology of the North Carolina strand vegetation. Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 5:261-319.
______. 1901. Report on a botanical survey of the Dismal Swamp Region. Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 5:321-585.
______. 1904. Are plants of sea beaches and dunes true halophytes? Bot. Gaz. 37:424-436.
KELLY, A. P. 1925. Soil water of the New Jersey coast. Ecology 6:143-149.
KEPPEL, H. 1967. Cation exchange phenomena in plant leaves. Pages 329-346 in International Atomic Energy Agency symposium on the use of isotopes in plant nutrition and physiology. Vienna. 1966.
KIENTZLER, C. F., A. B. ARONS, D. C. BLANCHARD, and A. H. WOODCOCK. 1954. Photographic investigation of the projection of droplets by bubbles bursting at water surface. Tellus 6:1-7.
KNOWLTON, C. H. 1914. New England distribution of Ilex opaca and Ilex glabra. Rhodora 16:163-165.
KOYAMA, T., and K. SUGAWARA. 1953. Separation of the components of atmospheric salt and their distribution. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jap. 26:123-126.
KREFTING, L. W., and E. I. ROE. 1949. The role of some birds and mammals in seed germination. Ecol. Monogr. 19:269-286.
KRINSLEY, D., T. TAKAHASHI, M. L. SILBERMAN, and W. S. NEWMAN. 1964. Transportation of sand grains along the Atlantic shore of Long Island, New York; an application of electron microscopy. Mar. Geol. 2:100-120.
KURZ, H. 1939. The reaction of magnolia, scrub live oak, slash pine, palmetto, and other plants to dune activity on the West Florida coast. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 1939:195-203.
______. 1942. Florida dunes and scrub, vegetation and geology. Fla. Dept. Cons. Geol. Bull. 23:154 pp.
LAESSLE, A. M., and C. D. MONK. 1961. Some live oak hammocks of Northeastern Florida. Quart. Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci. 24:39-55.
LANGDALE-BROWN, I. 1968. The relationship between soils and vegetation. Pages 61-74 in R. P. Moss, ed. The soil resources of tropical Africa. University Press, Cambridge.
LEDIG, F. T., and J. H. FRYER. 1972. A pocket of variability in Pinus rigida. Evol. 26:259-266.
LEEFLANG, K. W. H. 1938. De chemische samenstelling van den neerslag in Nederland. Chem. Weekbl. 35:658-664.
LIETH, H. 1968. The determination of plant dry-matter production with special emphasis on the underground part. Pages 179-186 in F. E. Eckardt, ed. Functioning of terrestrial ecosystems at the primary production level. UNESCO Copenhagen symposium. United Nations, N.Y
LIKENS, G. E., and F. H. BORMANN. 1970. Chemical analysis of plant tissues from the Hubbard Brook ecosystem in New Hampshire. Yale Sch. For. Bull. 79:1-27
______, F. H. BORMANN, N. M. JOHNSON, and R. S. PIERCE. 1967. The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium budgets for a small forested ecosystem. Ecology 48(5):772-785.
LLOYD, M., and R. J. GHERLARDI. 1964. A table for calculating the 'equitability' component of species diversity. J. Anim. Ecol. 33:217-225.
LUTZ, H. J., and R. F. CHANDLER. 1946. Forest soils. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 485 pp.
MADOWICK, H. A. I., and J. D. OVINGTON. 1959. The chemical composition of precipitation in adjacent forest and open plots. Forestry 32:14-22.
MARBUT, C. F. 1935. Soils of the United States. Atlas of American agriculture III. U.S. Dep. Agric. 98 pp.
MARKS. P. L. 1971. The role of Prunus pensylanica L. in the rapid revegetation of disturbed sites. Ph.D. Thesis. Yale University. 119 pp.
MARSHAL, J. K. 1965. Corynephorus canescens (L) p. Beauv. as a model for the Ammophila problem. J. Ecol. 53:447-463.
MARTIN, A. C., H. S. ZIM, and A. L. NELSON. 1951. American wildlife and plants, a guide to wildlife food habits. Dover Publ. Inc., New York, 500 pp.
MARTIN, W. E. 1959. The vegetation of Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Ecol. Monogr. 29:1-46.
MCHARGUE, J. S., and W. R. ROY. 1932. Mineral and nitrogen content of the leaves of some forest trees at different times in the growing season. Bot. Gaz. 94:381-393.
MILLER, J. F., and R. H. FREDERICK. 1969. The precipitation regime of Long Island, New York. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 627-A. 21 pp.
MILLER, R. B. 1963. Plant nutrients in hard beech. III. The cycle of nutrients. N.Z. J. Sci. 6:388-413.
MILLIMAN, J. D., and K. O. EMERY. 1968. Sea levels during the past 35,000 years. Science 162:1121-1123.
MITCHELL, H. L. 1936. Trends in the N, P, K, and Ca content of the leaves of some forest trees during the growing season. Black Rock Forest paper 1 (6).
MURPHY, R. C. 1933. August on Fire Island. Nat. Hist. 33:351-364.
NELSON, T. D. 1965. Silvical characteristics of American holly. U.S. For. Serv. Res. Pap. WO-3. 7 pp.
NEWBOULD, P. J. 1967. Methods for estimating the primary production of forests. International Biological Programme, London. Blackwell Sci. Publ. 62 pp.
______. 1968. Methods of estimating root production. Pages 187-190 in F. E. Eckardt, ed. Functioning of terrestrial ecosystems at the primary production level. UNESCO Copenhagen symposium. United Nations, New York.
NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. 1969. Catalog of vascular plants at Sandy Hook State Park and Fort Hancock, New Jersey. 13 pp.
NIHLGARD, B. 1970. Precipitation, its chemical composition and effect on soil water in a beech and a spruce forest in south Sweden. Oikos 21:208-217.
NYE, P. H. 196l. Organic matter and nutrient cycles under moist tropical forest. Plant Soil. 13(4):333-346.
ODUM, E. p. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270.
______. 197l. Fundamentals of ecology, 3rd. ed., Saunders, Philadelphia. 574 pp.
OGDEN, J. G. 1961. Forest history of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. I. Modern and pre-colonial forests. Am. Midl. Nat. 66:417-430.
OLSON, J. S. 1958a. Lake Michigan dune development. I. Wind Velocity profiles. J. Geol. 66:254-263.
______. 1958b. Lake Michigan dune development. II. Plants as agents and tools in geomorphology. J. Geol. 66:345-351.
______. 1958c. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan sand dunes. Bot. Gaz. 119:125-170.
OLSSON-SEFFER, P. 1909a. Relation of soil and vegetation on sandy sea shores. Bot. Gaz. 47:85-126.
______. 1909b. Hydrodynamic factors influencing plant life on sandy sea shores. New Phytol. 8:37-5l.
OOSTING, H. J. 1945. Tolerance to salt spray of plants of coastal dunes. Ecology 26:85-89.
______. 1954. Ecological processes and vegetation of the maritime strand in the southeastern United States. Bot. Rev. 20:226-262.
______, and W. D. BILLINGS. 1942. Factors effecting vegetational zonation on coastal dunes. Ecology 23:13 1-142.
ORLOV, A. Y. 1959. The role of suctorial roots of arboreal plants in enrichment of the soil with organic substances. Biol. Abstr. 32(9871):1958.
OVINGTON. J. D. 1950. The afforestation of the Culbin Sands. J. Ecol. 38:303-319.
______. 1959. The circulation of minerals in plantations of Pinus sylvestris (L). Ann. Bot. 23:229-239.
______. 1962. Quantitative ecology and the woodland ecosystem concept. Adv. Ecol. Res. 1:103-192.
______. 1965. Organic production, turnover and mineral cycling in woodlands. Biol. Rev. 40:295-336.
______. 1968. Some factors affecting nutrient distribution within ecosystems. Pages 95-105 in F. E. Eckardt, ed. Functioning of terrestrial ecosystems at the primary production level. UNESCO Copenhagen symposium. United Nations, New York.
______, and H. A. I. MADOWICK. 1959a. The growth and composition of natural stands of birch. I. Dry-matter production. Plant Soil 10:271-283.
______, and, H. A. I. MADOWICK. 1959b. The growth and composition of natural stands of birch. II. The uptake of mineral nutrients. Plant Soil 10:389-400.
______, and H. A. I. MADOWICK. 1959c. Distribution of organic matter and plant nutrients in a plantation of Scots pine. For. Sci. 5:344-355.
PEARSE, A. S., H. J. HUMM, and G. W. WHARTON. 1942. Ecology of sand beaches at Beaufort, North Carolina. Ecol. Monogr. 12:135-190.
PEARSON, L. C., and D. B. LAWRENCE. 1958. Photosynthesis in Aspen bark. Am. J. Bot. 45:383-387.
PERKIN-ELMER CORP. 1968. Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Norwalk, Connecticut.
PERLMUTTER N. M., and F. A. DELUCA 1963. Availability of fresh ground water, Montauk Point area, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-supply Pap. 1613-B. 39 pp.
PETERKEN, G. F. 1966. Mortality of holly (Ilex aquifolium) seedlings in relation to natural regeneration in the New Forest. J. Ecol. 54:259-269.
______, and P. J. NEWBOULD 1966. Dry matter production by Ilex aquifolium L. in the New Forest. J. Ecol. 54:143-150.
PINSON, J. N. 1973. A floristic analysis of open dunes in South Carolina. Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
PRICE, W. A. 195l. Barrier Island, not "offshore bar." Science 113:487-488.
PURER, E. A. 1934. Foliar differences in eight dune and chaparral species. Ecology 15:197-203.
______. 1936. Studies of certain coastal sand dune plants of southern California. Ecol. Monogr. 6:1-87.
RANDALL, W. E. 1962. Vegetative cover type report of Cape Cod National Seashore. Northeast Region, Natl. Park Serv. U.S. Dep. Inter.
RANWELL, D. 1959. Newborough Warren, Anglesey I. The dune system and dune slack habitat. J. Ecol. 47:571-601.
RAYNER, D. A. 1974. An analysis of maritime closed dunes vegetation in South Carolina. M.S. Thesis. University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.
REICHLE, D. E. 1967. Radioisotope turnover and energy flow in terrestrial isopod populations. Ecology 48(3):352-366.
REMEZOV, N. P. 1959. Methods of studying the biological cycle of elements in forests. Sov. Soil Sci. 1:59-67.
RENNIE, P. J. 1955. The uptake of nutrients by mature forest growth. Plant Soil 749-95.
RICHARDS, P. W. 1964. The tropical rain forest. University Press, Cambridge. 450 pp.
RIELEY, J. O., D. MACHIN, and A. MORTON. 1969. The measurement of microclimatic factors under a vegetation canopya reappraisal of Wilm's method. J. Ecol. 57:101-108.
RODIN, L. E., and N. I. BAZILEVICH 1967. Production and mineral cycling in terrestrial vegetation. Oliver & Boyd, London. 288 pp.
ROMNEY, E. M., R. G. LINDBERG, H. A. HAWTHORNE, B. G. BYSTROM, and K. H. LARSON. 1963. Contamination of plant foliage with radioactive fallout. Ecology 44:343-349.
SALISBURY, E. J. 1925. Note on the edaphic succession in some dune soils with special reference to the time factor. J. Ecol. 13:322-328.
______. 1934. On the day temperature of sand dunes in relation to the vegetation at Blakeney Point, Norfolk. Trans. Norfolk & Norwich Nat. Sci. 13:333-355.
______. 1952. Downs and dunes, their plant life and its environment. G. Bell & Sons, London. 328 pp.
SAMPSON, A. W., and R. SHAMISH. 1935. Growth and seasonal changes in composition of oak leaves. Plant Physiol. 10:739-75l.
SCHULTE, E. 1965. A study of the ecology of the plants in the Sunken Forest, Fire Island, N.Y. M.S. Thesis. C. W. Post College, Long Island Univ. 69 pp.
SCOTT, D. R. M. 1955. Amount and chemical composition of the organic matter contributed by overstory and understory vegetation to forest soil. Yale Univ. Sch. For. Bull. 62:1-73.
SCOTT, G. A. M. 1965. The shingle succession at Dunegrass. J. Ecol. 53:21-23.
SEACORD, D. F. 1967. A floristic study of Plum Island, Newburyport, Massachusetts. Honors thesis in Botany, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 50 pp.
SHREVE, F. 1910. Ecological plant geography of Maryland coastal zone, East shore district. Md. Weather Serv. Spec. Publ. 3:101-148.
SIRKIN, L. A. 1972. Origin and history of Maple Bog in the Sunken Forest, Fire Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99:131-135.
SMALL, J. A., and W. E. MARTIN. 1958. Vascular plants of Island Beach State Park. New Jersey Dep. Conservation and Economic Development. 12 pp.
SMALL, J. K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern Flora. Publ. by the author, New York. 1554 pp.
SMITH, W. H. 1969. Release of organic materials from the roots of tree seedlings. For. Sci. 15:138-143.
SNOW, L. M. 1902. Some notes on the ecology of the Delaware coast. Bot. Gaz. 34:2 84-306.
______. 1913. Progressive and retrogressive changes in the plant associations of the Delaware coast. Bot. Gaz. 55:45-55.
STALTER, R. 1971. The summer and fall flora of Huntington Beach State Park, Georgetown County, South Carolina. Castanea 36:167-174.
______. 1974. Vegetation in coastal dunes of South Carolina. Castanea 39:95-103.
STARR, A. M. 1912. Comparative anatomy of dune plants. Bot. Gaz. 54:265-305.
STENLID, G. 1958. Salt losses and redistribution of salts in higher plants. Encycl. Plant Physiol. 4:615-637.
STRAHLER, A. N. 1966. A geologists view of Cape Cod. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York. 115 pp.
SUGAWARA, K. 1965. Exchange of chemical substances between air and sea. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 3:59-77.
______, S. OANA, and T. KOYAMA. 1949. Separation of the components of atmospheric salt and their distribution. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jap. 22:47-52.
TAMM, C. O. 1950. Growth and plant nutrient concentrations in Hylocomium proliferum (L) Lindb. in relation to tree canopy. Oikos 2:60-64.
______. 1951. Seasonal variation in composition of birch leaves. Physiol. Plant. 4:461-469.
______. 1953. Growth, yield and nutrition in carpets of a forest moss (Hylocomium splendens). Medd. Statens Skogforsoksves Inst. 43(1):1-140.
______. 1958. The atmosphere. Pages 233-242 in W. Ruhland, ed. Encycl. Plant Physiol. IV Mineral nutrition of plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
TANEY, N. E. 1961a. Geomorphology of the South Shore of Long Island, New York. Tech. Mem. 128, Beach erosion. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. 50 pp.
______. 1961b. Littoral materials of the South Shore of Long Island, New York. Tech. Mem. 129, Beach erosion. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. 59 pp.
TAYLOR, N. 1923. The vegetation of Long Island. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Mem. 2:1-107.
THORNE, O. 1953. The Sunken Forest. M.S. Thesis. Yale Univ. New Haven, Conn.
TUKEY, H. B., and R. A. MECKLENBURG 1964. Leaching of metabolites from foliage and subsequent reabsorption and redistribution of the leachate in plants. Am. J. Bot. 51:737-742.
______, R. L. TICKNOR, O. N. HINSVARK, and S. H. WITTWER. 1952. Absorption of nutrients by stems and branches of woody plants. Science 116:167-168.
TWOMEY, S. 1953. The identification of individual hygroscopic particles in the atmosphere by a phase-transition method. J. Appl. Phys. 24:1099-1102.
U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 1960. South Shore of Long Island from Fire Island Inlet to Montauk Point, New York. Beach erosion control study and hurricane survey.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 1941. Climate and man. Yearbook of Agriculture. 1248 pp.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. 1967. Climatic maps of the United States. Environmental Science Services Administration.
VAN DER PIJL. 1969. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Springer-Verlag Berlin. 154 pp.
VOIGT, G. K. 1960a. Alteration of the composition of rainwater by trees. Am. Midl. Nat. 63:321-326.
______. 1960b. Distribution of rainfall under forest stands. For. Sci. 6:2-10.
WALLACE, MCHARG, ROBERTS & TODD, INC. 1972. Amelia Island, Florida; A report on the master planning process for a new recreational community. Sea Pines Company, Hilton Head Is., S.C. 56 pp.
WALLER, H. D., and J. S. OLSON. 1967. Prompt transfers of cesium-137 to the soils of a tagged Liriodendron forest. Ecology 48:15-25.
WATERMAN, W. G. 1919. Development of root systems under dune conditions. Bot. Gaz. 68:22-53.
WELLS, B. W. 1939. A new forest climax; the salt spray climax of Smith Island, North Carolina. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66:629-634.
______, and I. V. SHUNK 1931. The vegetatton and habit factors of coarser sands of the North Carolina coastal plain. Ecol. Monog. 1:465-521.
______. 1938. Salt spray, an important factor in coastal ecology. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 65:485-492.
WHERRY, E. T., and R. G. CHAPEN. 1928. Mineral constituents of Spanish moss and ball moss. Ecology 9:501-504.
WHITE, E. J., and F. TURNER. 1970. A method of estimating income of nutrients in a catch of airborne particles by a woodland canopy. J. Appl. Ecol. 7:441-462.
WHITE, J. J. 1968. Bioenergetics of the woodlouse Tracheoniscus rathkei Brandt in relation to litter decomposition in a deciduous forest. Ecology 49:694-704.
WHITEHEAD, H. C., and J. H. FETH. 1964. Chemical composition of rain, dry fallout and bulk precipitation at Menlo Park, California, 1957-1959. J. Geophys. Res. 69:33 19-3333
WHITTAKER, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smokey Mountains. Ecol. Monogr. 26:1-80.
______. 1961. Estimation of net primary production of forest and shrub communities. Ecology 42:177-180.
______. 1962. Net production relations of shrubs in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 43:357-377.
______. 1963. Net production of heath balds and forest heaths in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 44:176-182.
______. 1965. Branch dimensions and estimation of branch production. Ecology 46:365-370.
______. 1966. Forest dimensions and production in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 47:103-121.
______. 1967. Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biol. Rev. 42:207-264.
______. 1970. Communities and ecosystems. MacMillan Co., London. 162 pp.
______, F. H. BORMANN, G. E. LIKENS, and T. G. SICCAMA. 1974. The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: Forest biomass and production. Ecol. Monogr. 44:233-254.
______, and G. M. WOODWELL. 1967. Surface area relations of woody plants and forest communities. Am. J. Bot. 54:931-939.
______, and G. M. WOODWELL. 1968. Dimension and production relations of trees and shrubs in the Brookhaven Forest, New York. J. Ecol. 56:1-25.
______, and G. M. WOODWELL. 1969. Structure, production and diversity of the oak-pine forest at Brookhaven, New York. J. Ecol. 57:155-174.
WILDE, S. A., G. K. VOIGT, and J. G. IYER. 1964. Soil and plant analysis for tree culture. Oxford Publ. House, Calcutta, India. 209 pp.
WILL, G. M. 1959. Nutrient return in litter and rainfall under some exotic conifer stands in New Zealand. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 2:719-734
WILLIS, A. J., B. F. FOLKES, J. F. HOPE-SIMPSON, and E. W. YEMM. 1959. Braunton Burrows: the dune system and its vegetation I & II. J. Ecol 47:1-24, 249-288.
WILM, H. G. 1946. The design and analysis of methods for sampling microclimatic factors. J. Am. Stat. Assn. 41:221-232.
WILSON, A. T. 1959. Surface of the ocean as a source of airborne nitrogenous material and other plant nutrients. Nature 184:99-101.
WILSON, K. 1960. The time factor in the development of dune soils at South Haven Peninsula, Dorset. J. Ecol. 48:341-359.
WITHERSPOON, J. P. 1964. Cycling of cesium-134 in White oak trees. Ecol. Monogr. 43:403-420.
WITTWER, S. H., M. J. BUKOVAC, W. H. JYUNG, Y. YAMADA, R. DE, H. P. RASMUSSEN, S. N. HAILE MARIAM, and S. KANNAN. 1967. Foliar Absorptionpenetration of the cuticular membrane and nutrient uptake by isolated leaf cells. Qual. Plant Mater. Veg. 14:105-120.
WOODCOCK, A. H. 1957. Salt and rain. Sci. Am. 197:42-47
WOODS, F. W., and K. BROCK. 1964. Interspecific transfer of Ca-45 and P-32 by root systems. Ecology 45:886-889.
WOODWELL, G. M., and R. H. WHITTAKER. 1967. Primary production and the cation budget of the Brookhaven Forest. Pages 151-166 in H. E. Young, ed. Symposium on primary productivity and mineral cycling in natural ecosystems. Ecological Society of America. University of Maine Press, Orono.
WORTHINGTON, J. 1972. An evaluation of environmental impact: Little Cumberland Island, Ga. Master's Thesis. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 161 pp.
WRIGHT, T. W. 1955. Profile development in the sand dunes of Culbin Forest, Morayshire. I. Physical properties. J. Soil Sci. 6:270-283.
______. 1956. Profile development in the sand dunes of Culbin Forest, Morayshire. II. Chemical properties. J. Soil Sci. 7:33-42.
YAMADA, Y., H. P. RASMUSSEN, M. J. BUKOVAC, and S. H. WITTWER. 1966. Binding sites for inorganic ions and urea on isolated cuticular membrane surfaces. Am. J. Bot. 53:170-172.
Last Updated: 21-Oct-2005