Invasion and Recovery of Vegetation after a Volcanic Eruption in Hawaii
NPS Scientific Monograph No. 5
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Explanation of Symbols Used on Life-Form Diagram (Figs. 8, 10, 11, 16).

PM ="Macrophanerophyte"; i.e., tall woody plant, here defined as trees over 2 m tall (example, surviving Metrosideros polymorpha)
PN = Nanophanerophyte "i.e., small woody plant, here defined as from 25 cm to 200 cm tall (example, surviving Vaccinium reticulatum)
Ch ="Chamaephyte"; here defined as low shrubs or woody plant seedlings that were up to 25 cm tall at the time of observation (example, Vaccinium reticulatum)
Ch(H) ="Chamae-hemicryptophyte"; here defined as herbaceous perennials whose shoot system remained alive above the surface also when part of it died or dried up. This is a new term combination used for this paper, because the typical hemicryptophytes of temperate- and arid-zones have a shoot system that dries down in its entirety to a remnant shoot system that remains above the ground, while the plants here designated as chamaehemicryptophytes showed only partial die-back. A part of the shoot system remained green through the year (example, Machaerina angustifolia)
G ="Geophyte"; here defined as herbaceous perennials that can reproduce vegetatively from underground storage organs after shoot die-back. In contrast to the typical temperate and arid-zone geophytes, regular seasonal shoot die-back was not observed. The plants here called geophytes could be designated as "mechanical geophytes meaning that they were plants (other than grasses) that could regenerate their entire shoot system after it had been removed from the surface by mechanical means (example, Spathoglottis plicata)
T ="Therophytes"; defined as herbaceous plants lacking the capacity of vegetative shoot reproduction
BrCh ="Thallo-chamaephytes"; i.e., cushion-forming bryophytes (example, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum var. pruinosum)
LCh ="Thallo-chamaephytes"; i.e., fruticose lichens (example, Stereocaulon volcani)
BrH ="Thallo-hemicryptophytes"; i.e., flat-appressed mosses (Macromitrium owaihense)
PhycH ="Thallo-hemicryptophytes"; i.e., macroscopic algae (example, Stigonema panniforme)
s ="sclerophyllous"; i.e., leathery leaved woody plants (example, Metrosideros polymorpha)
d ="daphnous"; i.e., soft-leaved woody plants (example. Buddleja asiatica)
bulb ="bulbous" geophytes that arise from bulbs or corms (example, Tritonia crocosmiflora)
caesp ="branched from near the base"; i.e., bunch habit (example, Andropogon virginicus)
frut =" frutescent"; meaning woodiness completed into branch tips (example, Vaccinium reticulatum)
ep ="epiphytic"; growing on other plant (example, Psilotum nudum)
pulv ="pulvinate"; refers here to cushion-forming mosses (example, Campylopus exasperatus)
rad ="radicigema"; refers to root-budding geophytes (example, Hypochoeris radicata)
rept ="reptant"; meaning the plant has a creeping habit; usually stoloniferous (example, Commelina diffusa)
rhiz ="rhizome"; geophytes that arise from rhizomes of various length (example, Nephrolepis exaltata)
ros ="rosette-forming" plant (example, Anemone japonica)
scand ="scandent"; refers to plants that have a tendency to climb (example, Rubus penetrans)
scap ="scapose" or single-stemmed (example, Erechtites valerianaefolia)
sem ="semi-rosette" plants (example, Conyza canadensis) as opposed to those that have completed rosettes (ros)
suff ="suffrutescent"; i.e., semi-woody (example. Eupatorium riparium)

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Last Updated: 1-Apr-2005