1. Effinger, William L., Outline
of the Geology and Paleontology of Scotts Bluff National Monument,
2. Mattes, Merrill J., Scotts
Bluff National Monument, p. 56.
3. Ibid. pp. 58-59.
4. Ibid., p. 2.
5. Loc. cit.
6. Dunbar, Seymour, A History of
Travel in America, vol. IV, pp. 1132-1134.
7. Stuart, Robert, The Discovery
of the Oregon Trail, (Robert Stuart's Narratives).
8. Irving, Washington, The
Adventures of Captain Bonneville, pp. 34-35-
9. Brand, Donald D., The History
of Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, p. 32.
10. Mattes, op. cit., p.
11. Mattes, Merrill J., "Robidoux's
Trading Post at 'Scotts Bluffs', and the California Gold Rush,"
Nebraska History, vol. XXX, June, 1949, pp. 95-138.
12. Green, Thomas L., "Scotts Bluff,
Fort John," Nebraska History, vol. XIX, pp. 175-190.
13. Mattes, Merrill J., "Fort
Mitchell, Scotts Bluff, Nebraska," Nebraska History, vol. XXXIII,
14. Mattes, Scotts Bluff National
Monument, op. cit., pp. 44-45.
15. Brand, op. cit., p.
16. Mattes, Merrill J., "Scotts
Bluff is Venerable Landmark for Trails West," article in Scottsbluff
Daily Star-Herald, August 2, 1950.
17. Senator G. M. Hitchcock to
Assistant Secretary Adolph C. Miller, March 28, 1914, National Archives,
Washington, D. C.
18. M. P. Kincaid to Stephen Mather,
February 18, 1916, National Archives.
19. Kincaid to Secretary Lane,
October 5, 1916, National Archives.
20. Petition to Lane. March 4, 1918,
21. Office memorandum, Yard to
Albright. March 22, 1918, National Archives.
22. Office memorandum, Albright to
Mather, March 25, 1918, National Archives.
23. Memorandum, Administrative
Assistant Joseph J. Cotter to Mather, October 26, 1919, National
24. Memorandum, Mather to Cotter,
undated, National Archives.
25. Mattes, Star-Herald
article, op. cit.
26. See Appendix A, The Proclamation
erroneously makes reference to Scotts Bluff being the highest known
point in Nebraska. The highest point in the state is a point in
southwestern Kimball County, 5,424 feet above sea level. Scotts Bluff is
4,649 feet in elevation. South Bluff is 4,692 feet high.
27. Faris, John, (ed.), Who's Who
in Nebraska, p. 719.
28. Letter, Maupin to Director, June
12, 1920, National Archives.
29. Report, Maupin to Director,
September 15, 1920, National Archives.
30. Telegram, Maupin to Director,
December 20, 1920, National Archives.
31. Telegram, Acting Director Arno
B. Cammerer to Maupin, December 21, 1920, National Archives.
32. Letter, Maupin to Director,
February 7, 1922, National Archives.
33. Memorandum, Director to Maupin
July, 1923, National Archives.
34. Correspondence between Maupin
and the Washington Office, 1920-1921, National Archives.
35. Report, Maupin to Director,
1921, National Archives.
36. Letter, Congressman Simmons to
Director, August 1, 1925, National Archives.
37. Faris, op. cit., p.
38. Memorandum, Acting Director
Cammerer to Mathers, June 4, 1926, National Archives.
39. Letter, Mathers to Director,
June 25, 1926, National Archives. Mathers was premature in spending the
$100 allotted for this purpose and was reminded of this by subsequent
memoranda from Cammerer. The builder, Mr. T. C. Reeder, of Gering, was
not paid until after July 1.
40. Correspondence between Mathers
and the Washington Office, 1926, National Archives.
41. Reports of Burrell to the
Washington Office, July-September, 1926, National Archives.
42. "Saddle Rock" is also referred
to by a variety of other names, such as, motorcycle rock, grandpa's
toes, steamboat rock, etc. Some of these appellations also refer to
other bluffs and rocks in the North Platte Valley outside of the
Monument, and should not be confused with them.
43. Burney to Director, May 16,
1927, National Archives.
44. Report, Burrell to Director,
June 18, 1927, National Archives.
45. Newspaper Articles, May and
46. Letters and Reports, Mathers to
Washington Office, 1927-1928, National Archives.
47, Memorandum, Washington Office to
Mathers, 1930, National Archives.
48. Report, National Conference on
State Parks, 1928.
49. Resolution, Yoder, Wyoming,
Chamber of Commerce, to Director, June 24, 1924, It should be noted that
many people did, and still do, spell Scotts Bluff as one word instead of
two. This confusion is due to the spelling of the city of Scottsbluff.
Other doubtful usage and spelling in this resolution are that of the
Yoder Chamber and not this writer.
50. Newspaper editorials and
articles appearing at various times, 1925-1932.
51. Scottsbluff Daily
Star-Herald article, June 18, 1931.
52. Loc. cit.
53. "Auto Road to Top of Bluff
Assured," article in Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, September 13,
54. Loc. cit.
55. Shoemaker, Clifford, Civil Works
Administration Final Report, Bureau of Public Roads, Scotts Bluff
National Monument, April 26, 1934. Many stories circulate concerning the
foot tunnel through "saddle rock". The author was told by one woman that
she had walked through this tunnel in 1916. Others state that the Boy
Scouts built the tunnel. None of these is true. The foot tunnel was
constructed by private contractor during the first two weeks of June,
1933. Articles in local newspapers and Monument records substantiate
56. Shoemaker, Clifford, op.
57. Loc. cit.
58. Report, Francis D. LaNoue to the
Director, April 27, 1934.
59. Report, Francis D. LaNoue,
60. Report, Harold J. Cook to the
Director, April 26, 1934,
61. Notice of Appointment, Guy
Numbers to Harold J. Cook, May 16, 1934.
62. Letter, Cook to R. M. Holmes,
June 25, 1934.
63, Faris, op. cit., p.
64. Correspondence between Cook and
the Washington Office, November 1934 through April 1935.
65. Although this notice is dated
April 24. 1935, it was not received at the Monument office until April
30, at which time Cook took office.
66. The first business office was
located on 10th street in Gering in a building owned by Mrs. Ella Goist.
This was moved in early 1935 to the Gering Courier building. In early
1938, the office was moved to the Monument, to the Ranger's residence at
first, then to the museum.
67. Notification of acceptance of
contract, Cook to Fullen, February 15, 1935.
68. Telegram, Cook to Cammerer, July
9, 1935. Telegram, Ickes to Randels, July 15, 1935: "You are directed to
assume charge immediately . . . and will also act as Custodian."
69. Telegram, Demaray to Mattes,
October, 3, 1935: ". . . Engineer Charles Randels is to continue as
Acting Custodian Scottsbluff [sic] during construction period stop
Accordingly you are to work under Randels supervision until further
notice . . ."
70. Mr. Mattes was certified by
Civil Service Commission for the position of Custodian, Scotts Bluff
National Monument. (Telegram, Verne E. Chatelain to Mattes, August 7,
1935.) Mr. Randels, temporarily Acting Custodian, requested Acting
Director A. E. Demaray to appoint him as Acting Custodian until all work
stopped (letter, Randels to Demaray September 25, 1935). Mr. Mattes
arrived at Scotts Bluff on October 1, and notified the Director of his
arrival and that he had assumed the duties of Custodian (letter, Mattes
to the Director, October 2, 1935). On October 3, Mr. Mattes received the
telegram quoted in 69 above, and formal notification from Acting
Director Demaray on October 14, that Mr. Randels was appointed Acting
Custodian during the construction period and that, ". . . You are hereby
designated as Historian of Scotts Bluff National Monument and you are to
work under Acting Custodian Randels' supervision until further notice."
(Letter, Demaray to Mattes, October 14, 1935.)
71. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, November 1936.
72. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, May 1936. Actual work got under way on May 23 and lasted until
73. Work started on June 8, 1937 and
was finished by early September. The bid was for $80,504.91. Letter,
Thomas J. Allen, Jr., Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, to
the Director, June 7, 1937.
74. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, July 1936.
75. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, September 1937.
76. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Reports, July 1936 through June 1938.
77. Public Travel Tabulation by
Months, File No. A3015.
78. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, April 1939.
79. This wing has been called by
various names since its completion. Such names as "Pre-History Wing, the
North Wing, Geology Wing, and the "Paleo Room," have been used. In early
1960, the designation "Landmark Room" was officially approved and will
be thus applied until any later changes.
80. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Reports, April and May 1938.
81. Letter, Acting Associate
Director R. O. Jennings, to Mattes, June 22, 1938.
82. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, June 1939.
83. Custodians Monthly Narrative
Reports, June 1938 through June 1939.
84. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, August 1938. Mr. Jackson drove the stake at the site of his 1866
encampment on August 23.
85. Letter, Roswell P. Angier,
Associate Dean, Yale University Grad uate School, to Mattes, April 22,
86. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, September, 1938. Mr. Mattes left Scotts Bluff on September 15,
87. Loc. cit.
88. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, November 1938. Mr. Mattes returned to the Monument and relieved
Mr. Humberger June 16, 1939.
89. Correspondence, Washington
Office to Humberger, dated as follows: June 18, 1938; October 21, 1938;
January 9, 1939; April 19, 1939; and May 17, 1939.
90. Custodian's and Superintendent's
Monthly Narrative Reports, 1939 to 1951.
91. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, July 1939. The first derby was held on Sunday, July 30,
92. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, July 1940. Held on July 21.
93. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, August 1941. Held on August 3.
94. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, July, 1951. Held on July 15.
95. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, July 1947.
96. Custodians' Monthly Narrative
Report for September 1939 indicates that all work was completed on
September 29. This work was under the supervision of the Bureau of
Public Roads and was done by the Orshek and Christiansen Company of
Fremont, Nebraska. Total cost was $14,839.83.
97, Memorandum, Mattes to Canfield,
September 5, 1939.
98. Memorandum, Regional Director
Allen to the Director, June 30, 1939.
99. Memorandum, Acting Director John
R. White to Regional Director Allen, August 4, 1939.
100. This news release was printed
in most newspapers in the vicinity.
101. Memorandum, Regional Director
Allen to Superintendent Canfield. September 19, 1939. News release,
April 5, 1940. It is now contrary to federal policy to provide picnic
facilities for local use in national historical areas.
102. Memorandum, Custodian Mattes
to Canfield, May 6, 1940.
103. Memorandum, Acting Regional
Director John S. McLaughlin to Budlong, August 20, 1951.
104. Memorandum, Superintendent
Canfield to Regional Director Allen, January 1, 1941.
105. Among the individuals and
local organizations to make formal protests were: Kiwanis International,
Scottsbluff; International Lions Club, Gering; Senator Hugh Butler;
Congressman Harry P. Coffee; Senator George W. Norris; and the Senior
Class of the Bayard Nebraska high school.
106. Memorandum, Custodian Mattes
to Superintendent Canfield, December 10, 1945.
107. Memorandum, Superintendent
Canfield to Custodian Mattes, June 17, 1946. Undated note in Scotts
Bluff file: "6 picnic tables were transferred on August 4, 1946 from the
old picnic area to Bureau of Reclamation at Lake Minatare,
108. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, August, 1943.
109. Telegram, Acting Regional
Director to Superintendent Canfield, May 25, 1942. Notice of Employment,
August 3, 1942.
110. Notice of Temporary Employment
for Emergency Work in the Field, August 2, 1940.
111. Notice of Employment, June 18,
112. Letter, Mrs. J. Atwood
Maulding, Director of Personnel, to Coffin, June 5, 1940.
113. Memorandum, Custodian Mattes
to Superintendent Canfield, July 6, 1940.
114. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, March 1943.
115. See Appendix B.
116. Grazing permit, signed by Mrs.
B. M. Downar and Merrill J. Mattes, May 26, 1943.
117. Grazing permit, signed by S.
R. Young and Merrill J. Mattes, August 8, 1944.
118. Article, Scottsbluff Daily
Star-Herald, September 2, 1941.
119, Miscellaneous Service Permit,
signed by C. D. Downey and Acting Custodian A. Lynn Coffin, October 1,
1940. A previous agreement had been signed by Downey and Mattes on June
120. Memorandum, Mattes to Regional
Director, May 9, 1945.
121. Notice of Promotion and
122. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, March 1946.
123. Ranger Sneddon was absent from
June 25, 1944 until April 22, 1946.
124. Ranger Marcellus entered on
duty September 7, 1944: Notice of Temporary Appointment, September 7,
125. Memorandum, Marcellus to
Superintendent Canfield, February 14, 1946, resigning position effective
February 21, 1946.
126. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, November 1946.
127. Loc. cit.
128. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, May 1947. Mr. Hieb left May 1.
129. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, April 1948.
130. Telegram, Budlong to
Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, August 2, 1948.
131. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Report, May 1951.
132. Memorandum, Budlong to
Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, June 19,1951.
133. Telegram, Budlong to Regional
Director, June 22, 1948. The bid was $9,962.00.
134. Memorandum, Budlong to
Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, July 10, 1947.
135. Memorandum for the File,
Budlong, August 3, 1948.
136. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, August 1949.
137. Custodian's Monthly Narrative
Reports, April and May 1948.
138. Memorandum, Superintendent
Canfield to Budlong, June 6, 1949.
139. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Reports, March and April, 1949.
140. Quotation from
Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1952.
141. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, July 1953.
142. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, June 1953.
143. Memorandum for the Director,
Demaray to Director, July 4, 1935.
144. Memorandum, Budlong to
Canfield, October 11, 1950.
145. Special Use Permit, undated
but issued in late 1949, signed by Superintendent Budlong and Harry
Thurman, Secretary-Treasurer of the club.
146. Memorandum, Budlong to
Superintendent Canfield, April 23, 1951.
147. Letter, Acting Director
Cammerer to Mather, May 7, 1931.
148. Letter, Associate Director
Demaray to Chief of Engineers, War Department, August 26, 1948.
149. Memorandum, Budlong to the
Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, May 23, 1949.
150. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Reports, July and October 1953.
151. Special Use Permit, issued to
State of Nebraska, Department of Roads and Irrigation, February 20.
152. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, July 1954.
153. Letter, William C. Grove to
Wirth, September 18, 1954.
154. Among the organizations
sending in resolutions and letters opposing the project were:
Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, Omaha World-Herald,
American Association for State and Local History, the Isaac Walton
League, the Sierra Club, the Nebraska State Historical Society, Wildlife
Management Institute, Gering Junior Chamber of Commerce, National Parks
Association, Western Nebraska Council for Social Studies, The Nebraska
Council of the American Pioneer Trails Association, the U.S. Highway 26
Association, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and many
Organizations supporting this project were: Merrill,
Nebraska Chamber of Commerce; the City of Torrington, Wyoming; the
Morrill Mail; American Legion Post 139, Minatare, Nebraska;
Scottsbluff Chamber of Commerce; Torrington, Wyoming Chamber of
Commerce; Gering Chamber of Commerce; City of Scottsbluff; the Nebraska
Association of County Officials; the Mitchell, Nebraska Chamber of
Commerce; city of Bridgeport, Nebraska; city of Minatare, Nebraska; and
several private citizens.
155. Letter, Wirth to Lewis E.
Bates, Administrative Assistant to Senator Frank A. Barrett, Wyoming,
October 1, 1954. Bates had forwarded the application to Wirth from Grove
with an attached letter.
156. Among the various government
and state officials who wrote the Director concerning this proposal
were: Wyoming Senator Frank A. Barrett, Nebraska Congressman A. L.
Miller, Governor-elect Milward Simpson of Wyoming, Wyoming Senator
Joseph C. O'Mahoney, and Congressman Keith Thompson of Wyoming. It
should be noted that of the various officials who voiced an opinion or
an interest in this controversy, only one was from Nebraska, Congressman
Miller. All the others were from the neighboring state of Wyoming, and
they were quite vociferous in their appeals, All were in favor of this
157. Memorandum, Acting
Superintendent Coyt H. Hackett to Regional Director, January 2,
158. Letter, Director Wirth to
Senator O'Mahoney, February 8, 1955.
159, Letter, Assistant Secretary of
the Interior Orme Lewis to Senator O'Mahoney, April 19, 1955.
160. Newspaper article,
Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, May 28, 1955.
161. Letter, Anderson to Potts,
March 30, 1956.
162. Notification of Personnel
Action, June 11, 1956.
163. See File A42, Oregon Trail
164. Memorandum, Acting
Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, George W. Miller to
Custodian Mattes, June 4, 1943.
165. Consignment account,
Superintendent of Documents to Custodian Mattes, April 22, 1942.
166. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, July 1957.
167. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, January 1958
168. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, February 1958
169. Completion Reports of
construction projects, in Monument files.
170. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, April 1958.
171. Superintendent's Monthly
Narrative Report, October 1958
172. Records de not show exactly
when this line was installed through Monument lands. A memorandum dated
February 11, 1954 from the Regional Director to the Bureau of
Reclamation Regional Director in Denver, Colorado quotes E. V. Lindseth,
Assistant Director of the Bureau, as saying that it was first
constructed in 1928.
173. Letter, K. G. Hise to Acting
Superintendent Harris, April 10. 1959.
174. Letter, Executive Secretary
Harris to Superintendent Henneberger, June 4, 1959.
175. Executive Order 4008 by Calvin
Coolidge, May 9, 1924.
176. Proclamation 1999 by Herbert
Hoover, June 1, 1932.
177. Proclamation 2391 by Franklin
D. Roosevelt, March 29, 1940.
178. Summary Sheet of Land
Acquired, Scotts Bluff National Monument, File L1415, Sheet No. 1.