History of Scotts Bluff National Monument
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1. Effinger, William L., Outline of the Geology and Paleontology of Scotts Bluff National Monument, p. 3.

2. Mattes, Merrill J., Scotts Bluff National Monument, p. 56.

3. Ibid. pp. 58-59.

4. Ibid., p. 2.

5. Loc. cit.

6. Dunbar, Seymour, A History of Travel in America, vol. IV, pp. 1132-1134.

7. Stuart, Robert, The Discovery of the Oregon Trail, (Robert Stuart's Narratives).

8. Irving, Washington, The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, pp. 34-35-

9. Brand, Donald D., The History of Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, p. 32.

10. Mattes, op. cit., p. 20.

11. Mattes, Merrill J., "Robidoux's Trading Post at 'Scotts Bluffs', and the California Gold Rush," Nebraska History, vol. XXX, June, 1949, pp. 95-138.

12. Green, Thomas L., "Scotts Bluff, Fort John," Nebraska History, vol. XIX, pp. 175-190.

13. Mattes, Merrill J., "Fort Mitchell, Scotts Bluff, Nebraska," Nebraska History, vol. XXXIII, pp. 1-34.

14. Mattes, Scotts Bluff National Monument, op. cit., pp. 44-45.

15. Brand, op. cit., p. 54.

16. Mattes, Merrill J., "Scotts Bluff is Venerable Landmark for Trails West," article in Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, August 2, 1950.

17. Senator G. M. Hitchcock to Assistant Secretary Adolph C. Miller, March 28, 1914, National Archives, Washington, D. C.

18. M. P. Kincaid to Stephen Mather, February 18, 1916, National Archives.

19. Kincaid to Secretary Lane, October 5, 1916, National Archives.

20. Petition to Lane. March 4, 1918, National Archives,

21. Office memorandum, Yard to Albright. March 22, 1918, National Archives.

22. Office memorandum, Albright to Mather, March 25, 1918, National Archives.

23. Memorandum, Administrative Assistant Joseph J. Cotter to Mather, October 26, 1919, National Archives.

24. Memorandum, Mather to Cotter, undated, National Archives.

25. Mattes, Star-Herald article, op. cit.

26. See Appendix A, The Proclamation erroneously makes reference to Scotts Bluff being the highest known point in Nebraska. The highest point in the state is a point in southwestern Kimball County, 5,424 feet above sea level. Scotts Bluff is 4,649 feet in elevation. South Bluff is 4,692 feet high.

27. Faris, John, (ed.), Who's Who in Nebraska, p. 719.

28. Letter, Maupin to Director, June 12, 1920, National Archives.

29. Report, Maupin to Director, September 15, 1920, National Archives.

30. Telegram, Maupin to Director, December 20, 1920, National Archives.

31. Telegram, Acting Director Arno B. Cammerer to Maupin, December 21, 1920, National Archives.

32. Letter, Maupin to Director, February 7, 1922, National Archives.

33. Memorandum, Director to Maupin July, 1923, National Archives.

34. Correspondence between Maupin and the Washington Office, 1920-1921, National Archives.

35. Report, Maupin to Director, 1921, National Archives.

36. Letter, Congressman Simmons to Director, August 1, 1925, National Archives.

37. Faris, op. cit., p. 1,016.

38. Memorandum, Acting Director Cammerer to Mathers, June 4, 1926, National Archives.

39. Letter, Mathers to Director, June 25, 1926, National Archives. Mathers was premature in spending the $100 allotted for this purpose and was reminded of this by subsequent memoranda from Cammerer. The builder, Mr. T. C. Reeder, of Gering, was not paid until after July 1.

40. Correspondence between Mathers and the Washington Office, 1926, National Archives.

41. Reports of Burrell to the Washington Office, July-September, 1926, National Archives.

42. "Saddle Rock" is also referred to by a variety of other names, such as, motorcycle rock, grandpa's toes, steamboat rock, etc. Some of these appellations also refer to other bluffs and rocks in the North Platte Valley outside of the Monument, and should not be confused with them.

43. Burney to Director, May 16, 1927, National Archives.

44. Report, Burrell to Director, June 18, 1927, National Archives.

45. Newspaper Articles, May and June, 1927.

46. Letters and Reports, Mathers to Washington Office, 1927-1928, National Archives.

47, Memorandum, Washington Office to Mathers, 1930, National Archives.

48. Report, National Conference on State Parks, 1928.

49. Resolution, Yoder, Wyoming, Chamber of Commerce, to Director, June 24, 1924, It should be noted that many people did, and still do, spell Scotts Bluff as one word instead of two. This confusion is due to the spelling of the city of Scottsbluff. Other doubtful usage and spelling in this resolution are that of the Yoder Chamber and not this writer.

50. Newspaper editorials and articles appearing at various times, 1925-1932.

51. Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald article, June 18, 1931.

52. Loc. cit.

53. "Auto Road to Top of Bluff Assured," article in Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, September 13, 1932.

54. Loc. cit.

55. Shoemaker, Clifford, Civil Works Administration Final Report, Bureau of Public Roads, Scotts Bluff National Monument, April 26, 1934. Many stories circulate concerning the foot tunnel through "saddle rock". The author was told by one woman that she had walked through this tunnel in 1916. Others state that the Boy Scouts built the tunnel. None of these is true. The foot tunnel was constructed by private contractor during the first two weeks of June, 1933. Articles in local newspapers and Monument records substantiate this.

56. Shoemaker, Clifford, op. cit.

57. Loc. cit.

58. Report, Francis D. LaNoue to the Director, April 27, 1934.

59. Report, Francis D. LaNoue, op. cit.

60. Report, Harold J. Cook to the Director, April 26, 1934,

61. Notice of Appointment, Guy Numbers to Harold J. Cook, May 16, 1934.

62. Letter, Cook to R. M. Holmes, June 25, 1934.

63, Faris, op. cit., p. 1,061.

64. Correspondence between Cook and the Washington Office, November 1934 through April 1935.

65. Although this notice is dated April 24. 1935, it was not received at the Monument office until April 30, at which time Cook took office.

66. The first business office was located on 10th street in Gering in a building owned by Mrs. Ella Goist. This was moved in early 1935 to the Gering Courier building. In early 1938, the office was moved to the Monument, to the Ranger's residence at first, then to the museum.

67. Notification of acceptance of contract, Cook to Fullen, February 15, 1935.

68. Telegram, Cook to Cammerer, July 9, 1935. Telegram, Ickes to Randels, July 15, 1935: "You are directed to assume charge immediately . . . and will also act as Custodian."

69. Telegram, Demaray to Mattes, October, 3, 1935: ". . . Engineer Charles Randels is to continue as Acting Custodian Scottsbluff [sic] during construction period stop Accordingly you are to work under Randels supervision until further notice . . ."

70. Mr. Mattes was certified by Civil Service Commission for the position of Custodian, Scotts Bluff National Monument. (Telegram, Verne E. Chatelain to Mattes, August 7, 1935.) Mr. Randels, temporarily Acting Custodian, requested Acting Director A. E. Demaray to appoint him as Acting Custodian until all work stopped (letter, Randels to Demaray September 25, 1935). Mr. Mattes arrived at Scotts Bluff on October 1, and notified the Director of his arrival and that he had assumed the duties of Custodian (letter, Mattes to the Director, October 2, 1935). On October 3, Mr. Mattes received the telegram quoted in 69 above, and formal notification from Acting Director Demaray on October 14, that Mr. Randels was appointed Acting Custodian during the construction period and that, ". . . You are hereby designated as Historian of Scotts Bluff National Monument and you are to work under Acting Custodian Randels' supervision until further notice." (Letter, Demaray to Mattes, October 14, 1935.)

71. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, November 1936.

72. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, May 1936. Actual work got under way on May 23 and lasted until August 25.

73. Work started on June 8, 1937 and was finished by early September. The bid was for $80,504.91. Letter, Thomas J. Allen, Jr., Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, to the Director, June 7, 1937.

74. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1936.

75. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, September 1937.

76. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Reports, July 1936 through June 1938.

77. Public Travel Tabulation by Months, File No. A3015.

78. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, April 1939.

79. This wing has been called by various names since its completion. Such names as "Pre-History Wing, the North Wing, Geology Wing, and the "Paleo Room," have been used. In early 1960, the designation "Landmark Room" was officially approved and will be thus applied until any later changes.

80. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Reports, April and May 1938.

81. Letter, Acting Associate Director R. O. Jennings, to Mattes, June 22, 1938.

82. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, June 1939.

83. Custodians Monthly Narrative Reports, June 1938 through June 1939.

84. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, August 1938. Mr. Jackson drove the stake at the site of his 1866 encampment on August 23.

85. Letter, Roswell P. Angier, Associate Dean, Yale University Grad uate School, to Mattes, April 22, 1938.

86. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, September, 1938. Mr. Mattes left Scotts Bluff on September 15, 1938.

87. Loc. cit.

88. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, November 1938. Mr. Mattes returned to the Monument and relieved Mr. Humberger June 16, 1939.

89. Correspondence, Washington Office to Humberger, dated as follows: June 18, 1938; October 21, 1938; January 9, 1939; April 19, 1939; and May 17, 1939.

90. Custodian's and Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Reports, 1939 to 1951.

91. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1939. The first derby was held on Sunday, July 30, 1939.

92. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1940. Held on July 21.

93. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, August 1941. Held on August 3.

94. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, July, 1951. Held on July 15.

95. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1947.

96. Custodians' Monthly Narrative Report for September 1939 indicates that all work was completed on September 29. This work was under the supervision of the Bureau of Public Roads and was done by the Orshek and Christiansen Company of Fremont, Nebraska. Total cost was $14,839.83.

97, Memorandum, Mattes to Canfield, September 5, 1939.

98. Memorandum, Regional Director Allen to the Director, June 30, 1939.

99. Memorandum, Acting Director John R. White to Regional Director Allen, August 4, 1939.

100. This news release was printed in most newspapers in the vicinity.

101. Memorandum, Regional Director Allen to Superintendent Canfield. September 19, 1939. News release, April 5, 1940. It is now contrary to federal policy to provide picnic facilities for local use in national historical areas.

102. Memorandum, Custodian Mattes to Canfield, May 6, 1940.

103. Memorandum, Acting Regional Director John S. McLaughlin to Budlong, August 20, 1951.

104. Memorandum, Superintendent Canfield to Regional Director Allen, January 1, 1941.

105. Among the individuals and local organizations to make formal protests were: Kiwanis International, Scottsbluff; International Lions Club, Gering; Senator Hugh Butler; Congressman Harry P. Coffee; Senator George W. Norris; and the Senior Class of the Bayard Nebraska high school.

106. Memorandum, Custodian Mattes to Superintendent Canfield, December 10, 1945.

107. Memorandum, Superintendent Canfield to Custodian Mattes, June 17, 1946. Undated note in Scotts Bluff file: "6 picnic tables were transferred on August 4, 1946 from the old picnic area to Bureau of Reclamation at Lake Minatare, Nebraska."

108. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, August, 1943.

109. Telegram, Acting Regional Director to Superintendent Canfield, May 25, 1942. Notice of Employment, August 3, 1942.

110. Notice of Temporary Employment for Emergency Work in the Field, August 2, 1940.

111. Notice of Employment, June 18, 1943.

112. Letter, Mrs. J. Atwood Maulding, Director of Personnel, to Coffin, June 5, 1940.

113. Memorandum, Custodian Mattes to Superintendent Canfield, July 6, 1940.

114. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, March 1943.

115. See Appendix B.

116. Grazing permit, signed by Mrs. B. M. Downar and Merrill J. Mattes, May 26, 1943.

117. Grazing permit, signed by S. R. Young and Merrill J. Mattes, August 8, 1944.

118. Article, Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, September 2, 1941.

119, Miscellaneous Service Permit, signed by C. D. Downey and Acting Custodian A. Lynn Coffin, October 1, 1940. A previous agreement had been signed by Downey and Mattes on June 17, 1940.

120. Memorandum, Mattes to Regional Director, May 9, 1945.

121. Notice of Promotion and Reassignment, undated.

122. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, March 1946.

123. Ranger Sneddon was absent from June 25, 1944 until April 22, 1946.

124. Ranger Marcellus entered on duty September 7, 1944: Notice of Temporary Appointment, September 7, 1944.

125. Memorandum, Marcellus to Superintendent Canfield, February 14, 1946, resigning position effective February 21, 1946.

126. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, November 1946.

127. Loc. cit.

128. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, May 1947. Mr. Hieb left May 1.

129. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, April 1948.

130. Telegram, Budlong to Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, August 2, 1948.

131. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Report, May 1951.

132. Memorandum, Budlong to Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, June 19,1951.

133. Telegram, Budlong to Regional Director, June 22, 1948. The bid was $9,962.00.

134. Memorandum, Budlong to Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, July 10, 1947.

135. Memorandum for the File, Budlong, August 3, 1948.

136. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, August 1949.

137. Custodian's Monthly Narrative Reports, April and May 1948.

138. Memorandum, Superintendent Canfield to Budlong, June 6, 1949.

139. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Reports, March and April, 1949.

140. Quotation from Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1952.

141. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1953.

142. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, June 1953.

143. Memorandum for the Director, Demaray to Director, July 4, 1935.

144. Memorandum, Budlong to Canfield, October 11, 1950.

145. Special Use Permit, undated but issued in late 1949, signed by Superintendent Budlong and Harry Thurman, Secretary-Treasurer of the club.

146. Memorandum, Budlong to Superintendent Canfield, April 23, 1951.

147. Letter, Acting Director Cammerer to Mather, May 7, 1931.

148. Letter, Associate Director Demaray to Chief of Engineers, War Department, August 26, 1948.

149. Memorandum, Budlong to the Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, May 23, 1949.

150. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Reports, July and October 1953.

151. Special Use Permit, issued to State of Nebraska, Department of Roads and Irrigation, February 20. 1956.

152. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1954.

153. Letter, William C. Grove to Wirth, September 18, 1954.

154. Among the organizations sending in resolutions and letters opposing the project were: Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, Omaha World-Herald, American Association for State and Local History, the Isaac Walton League, the Sierra Club, the Nebraska State Historical Society, Wildlife Management Institute, Gering Junior Chamber of Commerce, National Parks Association, Western Nebraska Council for Social Studies, The Nebraska Council of the American Pioneer Trails Association, the U.S. Highway 26 Association, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and many private citizens.

Organizations supporting this project were: Merrill, Nebraska Chamber of Commerce; the City of Torrington, Wyoming; the Morrill Mail; American Legion Post 139, Minatare, Nebraska; Scottsbluff Chamber of Commerce; Torrington, Wyoming Chamber of Commerce; Gering Chamber of Commerce; City of Scottsbluff; the Nebraska Association of County Officials; the Mitchell, Nebraska Chamber of Commerce; city of Bridgeport, Nebraska; city of Minatare, Nebraska; and several private citizens.

155. Letter, Wirth to Lewis E. Bates, Administrative Assistant to Senator Frank A. Barrett, Wyoming, October 1, 1954. Bates had forwarded the application to Wirth from Grove with an attached letter.

156. Among the various government and state officials who wrote the Director concerning this proposal were: Wyoming Senator Frank A. Barrett, Nebraska Congressman A. L. Miller, Governor-elect Milward Simpson of Wyoming, Wyoming Senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney, and Congressman Keith Thompson of Wyoming. It should be noted that of the various officials who voiced an opinion or an interest in this controversy, only one was from Nebraska, Congressman Miller. All the others were from the neighboring state of Wyoming, and they were quite vociferous in their appeals, All were in favor of this proposal.

157. Memorandum, Acting Superintendent Coyt H. Hackett to Regional Director, January 2, 1955.

158. Letter, Director Wirth to Senator O'Mahoney, February 8, 1955.

159, Letter, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Orme Lewis to Senator O'Mahoney, April 19, 1955.

160. Newspaper article, Scottsbluff Daily Star-Herald, May 28, 1955.

161. Letter, Anderson to Potts, March 30, 1956.

162. Notification of Personnel Action, June 11, 1956.

163. See File A42, Oregon Trail Museum Association.

164. Memorandum, Acting Superintendent, Rocky Mountain National Park, George W. Miller to Custodian Mattes, June 4, 1943.

165. Consignment account, Superintendent of Documents to Custodian Mattes, April 22, 1942.

166. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, July 1957.

167. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, January 1958

168. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, February 1958

169. Completion Reports of construction projects, in Monument files.

170. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, April 1958.

171. Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, October 1958

172. Records de not show exactly when this line was installed through Monument lands. A memorandum dated February 11, 1954 from the Regional Director to the Bureau of Reclamation Regional Director in Denver, Colorado quotes E. V. Lindseth, Assistant Director of the Bureau, as saying that it was first constructed in 1928.

173. Letter, K. G. Hise to Acting Superintendent Harris, April 10. 1959.

174. Letter, Executive Secretary Harris to Superintendent Henneberger, June 4, 1959.

175. Executive Order 4008 by Calvin Coolidge, May 9, 1924.

176. Proclamation 1999 by Herbert Hoover, June 1, 1932.

177. Proclamation 2391 by Franklin D. Roosevelt, March 29, 1940.

178. Summary Sheet of Land Acquired, Scotts Bluff National Monument, File L1415, Sheet No. 1.


History of Scotts Bluff National Monument
©1962, Oregon Trail Museum Association
history/references.htm — 26-Jan-2003