1. The term preservationist
is often used in an uncomplimentary way as a synonym for
extremist. John McPhee, Encounters with the Archdruid (New
York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1971), p. 95. Here it has no such
connotation. By preservationists, I mean those whose inclinations are to
retain parklands largely (though not absolutely) as natural areas,
without industrialization, commercialized recreation, or urban
influences. There is no official preservationist position, and obviously
no unanimity of view on any controversial question. Among the
organizations that speak most consistently for such views are the
National Parks and Conservation Association, the Wilderness Society, the
Sierra Club, and Friends of the Earth. The bibliography at the end of
this book surveys, though with no attempt at comprehensiveness, major
influences in the preservationist literature.
It is my thesis that, however unself-consciously,
those who speak for essentially undeveloped parks adhere to a set of
generally consistent views. One major purpose of this book is to draw
together and articulate those views as a coherent ideology for the
2. While this is a book about
national parks, by no means all the lands of national park quality are
thus designated by the Congress. American public land history is a
tangled web of confusing categories. Much of our high quality wilderness
is within the national forests, administered by the Department of
Agriculture, rather than by the Interior Department's National Park
Service. The greatest acreage of all is administered by the Interior
Department's Bureau of Land Management (BLM). And a good deal of
superlative parkland is owned and managed by the states, or even by
Even the official "national park system" is a melange
of national parks, national monuments, national recreation areas, and
national lakeshores and seashores, as well as numerous historic sites
and other miscellany. See Index of the National Park System
(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979). Each of these
categories is managed under different legislative mandates.
My concern is not with the numerous distinctions
Congress has made, but with the general question of how we ought to want
to use our high-quality natural areas held in public ownership. Though I
use the term national parks throughout, much of what I say is applicable
to certain national forest and BLM lands, to state parks, and to a range
of lands within the national park system, however designated.
Chapter 1. Creating Tradition
1. The standard history of the
national parks is John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical
History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961). See also,
Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 1979); Hans Huth, Nature and the
American: Three Centuries of Changing Attitudes (Lincoln: University
of Nebraska Press, 1972); Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American
Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973); Joseph L. Sax,
"America's National Parks: Their Principles, Purposes and Prospects,"
Natural History 85, no. 8 (October, 1976):57.
2. See Huth, Nature and the
American, chap. 4.
3. Travelers' books and artistic
work had, however, made western scenery familiar and popular. Huth,
Nature and the American, chap: 8.
4. Act of June 30, 1864, 13 Stat.
325, ch. 184, §§ 1,2. Huth, Nature and the American,
5. Hutchings Illustrated
California Magazine 4, no. 4 (October, 1859): 145.
6. For the early history of
Yellowstone, see Aubrey L. Haines, Yellowstone National Park: Its
Exploration and Establishment (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing
7. Hans Huth, "Yosemite: The Story
of an Idea," Sierra Club Bulletin, 33, no. 3 (March,
8. Huth, Nature and the
American, p. 223 n.12.
9. See note 4 above.
10. Act of March 1, 1872, 17 Stat.
32, ch. 24, § 1.
11. The history of the early parks
is described in Ise, Our National Park Policy.
12. Act of August 25, 1916, 39
Stat. 535, ch. 408, § 1. Donald C. Swain "The Passage of the
National Park Service Act of 1916," Wisconsin Magazine of History
50 (1966):4, 9-11.
13. H. Duane Hampton, How the
U.S. Cavalry Saved Our National Parks (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1971).
14. See Runte, National
Parks: also Alfred Runte, "The National Park Idea: Origins and
Paradox of American Experience," Journal of Forest History 21,
no. 2 (April, 1977):64.
15. See note 7 above.
16. Nash, Wilderness and the
American Mind, pp. 13032.
17. Huth, "Yosemite," p. 63.
18. Hampton, How the U.S.
Cavalry Saved Our National Parks, pp. 40-41.
19. The Maine Woods, ed.
Joseph J. Moldenhauer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), p.
20. Carolyn de Vries, Grand and
Ancient Forest: The Story of Andrew P. Hill and Big Basin Redwood State
Park (Fresno, Calif.: Valley Publishers, 1978), p. 28. This attitude
was doubtless a reaction to the excesses in the "reformation" of the
wilderness that had seemed appropriate to earlier American thinkers. See
Cecelia Tichi, New World, New Earth: Environmental Reform in American
Literature from the Puritans Through Whitman (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1979).
21. Paul W. Gates and Robert W.
Swenson, History of Public Land Law Development (Washington,
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1968), chaps. 15, 22.
22. Erik Nilsson, Rocky Mountain
National Park Trail Guide (Mountain View, Calif.: World
Publications, 1978), pp. 6-9.
23. Runte, National Parks,
pp. 77, 93; Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, p. 68;
Haines, Yellowstone National Park, pp. 126, 128; Huth, Nature
and the American, pp. 36, 38, 49.
24. Ise, Our National Park
Policy, p. 196. Robert Shankland, Steve Mather of the National
Parks (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951), p. 145.
25. Runte, National Parks,
26. Redwood National Park was not
established until 1968. Act of October 2, 1968, 82 Stat. 931, Public Law
90545, § 1. Congress enlarged the park in 1978. Act of March
27, 1978, 92 Stat. 163, Public Law 95-250, Title I, § 10 1(a)(1).
See "The Tragedy of Red wood National Park," Natural Resources
Defense Council Newsletter 6, no. 4, (July/August, 1977):1.
27. On the Hetch Hetchy battle, see
Holway R. Jones, John Muir and the Sierra Club: The Battle for
Yosemite (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1965).
28. Ise, Our National Park
Policy, pp. 307-17.
29. There were, of course, always
concessions to commercial interests. Crater Lake National Park was
opened to mining in 1902 (Act of May 22, 1902, 32 Stat. 202), and
reclamation projects were permitted in both Rocky Mountain and Glacier
National parks (Act of January 26, 1915, 38 Stat. 798; Act of May 11,
1910, 36 Stat. 354).
30. Harold K. Steen, The U.S.
Forest Service: A History (Seattle: University of Washington Press,
1976), p. 124.
31. Ibid., pp. 118-22.
32. Shankland, Steve Mather of
the National Parks, p. 97.
33. Earl Pomeroy, In Search of
the Golden West: The Tourist in Western America (New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, 1957), pp. 151-52. Almost from the beginning, Yosemite Valley has
suffered from overdevelopment of various kinds. Shirley Sargent,
Yosemite and Its Innkeepers (Yosemite, Calif.: Flying Spur Press,
1975), pp. 87, 89, 96, 11617. Speaking of early tourists in
Yosemite, John Muir wrote disparagingly: "They climb sprawlingly to
their saddles like overgrown frogs, ride up the Valley with about as
much emotion as the horses they ride upon and, comfortable when they
have 'done it all', ... long for the safety and flatness of their proper
homes." John Muir, Letters to a Friend (Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Co., 1915), pp. 8081.
34. "The service thus established
shall promote and regulate the use of the . . . national parks . . . by
such means and measures as conform to the fundamental purpose of the
said parks . . . which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the
natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide
for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will
leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Act of
August 25, 1916, 39 Stat. 535, ch. 408, § 1.
35. See, e.g., U.S. Department of
the Interior, National Park Service, Draft General Management Plan,
Yosemite National Park, California (August, 1978), revised January,
1980. Compare with the (rejected) Yosemite National Park Preliminary
Draft Master plan (August 12, 1974). See Ise, Our National Park
Policy, p. 437.
36. U.S., Congress, House,
National Park Service Planning and Concession Operations: Joint
Hearing Before Certain Subcommittees of the Committee on Government
Operations and the Permanent Select Committee on Small Business, 93d
Cong., 2d sess., December 20, 1974. Of course there were always some
large concessioners, such as the railroads. See text at note 8
37. E.g., Fred B. Eisemen, Jr.,
"Who Runs the Grand Canyon?", Natural History 87, no. 3 (March,
1978): 8393; Liz Hymans, "The Flow of Wilderness," Not Man
Apart (Friends of the Earth) 8, no. 5 (Mid-March, 1978).
38. Desert Solitaire (New
York: Random House, Ballantine Books, 1971), p. 52. See also Edward
Abbey and Philip Hyde, Slickrock: The Canyon Country (San
Francisco: Sierra Club, 1971), p. 71. A somewhat more tolerant view is
revealed in "The Winnebago Tribe," in Edward Abbey, Abbey's Road
(New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979), pp. 14244.
39. See chapter 7.
Chapter 2. Codifying Tradition
1. A Sand County Almanac with
Other Essays on Conservation from Round River (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1966), p. 196.
2. T. H. Watkins and Dewitt Jones,
John Muir's America (New York: Crown Publishers, 1976), p.
3. Reprinted in Landscape
Architecture 44, no. 1(1953): 17.
4. Hans Huth, "Yosemite: The Story
of an Idea," Sierra Club Bulletin 33, no. 3 (March, 1948):66.
5. Introduction by Laura Wood Roper
to Olmsted's report, Landscape Architecture 44, no. 1
7. The report has been discussed
occasionally in published sources. E.g., Holway R. Jones, John Muir
and the Sierra Club: The Battle for Yosemite (San Francisco: Sierra
Club, 1965), p. 3032; and in Laura Wood Roper's biography, FLO:
A Biography of Frederick Law Olmsted (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1973), pp. 283 87. See also U.S. Council on
Environmental Quality, Third Annual Report (1972), p. 313. On
October 12, 1979, Congress finally established a Frederick Law Olmsted
National Historic Site. Public Law 9687
8. "The Yosemite Valley and the
Mariposa Big Trees," Landscape Architecture 44, no. 1(1953):
9. Ibid., p. 20.
11. Ibid., p. 21.
14. Ibid. Notably, Olmsted's ideas
parallel the views of those who promoted the establishment of libraries,
universities, and museums. William B. Ashley, "The Promotion of
Museums," Proceedings of the American Association of Museums 7
(1913):39, 44; Frederick Rudolph, The American College and
University: A History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), p. 279;
Sidney Ditzion, Arsenals of a Democratic Culture (Chicago:
American Library Association, 1947), p. 153. Olmsted's view was, of
course, an article of faith in nineteenth-century America; see Frank
Moore, ed., Andrew Johnson: Speeches (Boston: Little, Brown,
1866), p. 56.
15. "The Yosemite Valley," p.
16. Ibid., p. 20.
17. Charles M. Dow, The State
Reservation at Niagara: A History (Albany: J. B. Lyon Co.,
18. "The Movement for the
Redemption of Niagara," New Princeton Review (New York, A. C.
Armstrong & Sons, 1886), 1:23345; Alfred Runte, "Beyond the
Spectacular: The Niagara Falls Preservation Campaign," New York State
Historical Society Quarterly 57 (January, 1973):3050.
19. "Notes by Mr. Olmsted,"
Special Report of the New York State Survey on the Preservation of
the Scenery of Niagara Falls and Fourth Annual Report on the
Triangulation of the State for the Year 1879 (Albany: Charles von
Benthuysen & Sons, 1880), p. 27
20. "Report of Messrs. Olmsted and
Vaux," Supplemental Report of the Commissioners of the State
Reservation at Niagara Transmitted to the Legislature January 31,
1887 (Albany: Argus Co., 1887), p. 21. The description that follows
in the text is taken from this and the 1879 report.
21. See note 19 above.
23. "The Yosemite Valley and the
Mariposa Big Trees," p. 21.
24. See note 19 above.
25. "Nature," in Ralph Waldo
Emerson, Selected Prose and Poetry, 2d ed., ed. Reginald L. Cook,
(New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Rinehart Editions, 1969), p.
26. "The American Scholar," ibid.,
27. See generally Raymond Williams,
The Country and the City (New York: Oxford University Press,
Chapter 3. Perpetuating Tradition
1. There is a related scholarly
literature. E.g., Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, Beyond Boredom and
Anxiety (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975); Johan Huizinga, Homo
Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture (London: Routledge
& Kegan Paul, 1949); Roger Caillois, Man, Play and Games (New
York: Free Press, 1961); Paul Weiss, Sport: A Philosophic Inquiry
(Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969); Allen Guttman,
From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports (New York:
Columbia University Press, 1978).
2. Extensive bibliographies are
provided in Arnold Gingrich. The Well-Tempered Angler (New York:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), pp. 31723 and The Joys of Trout
(New York: Crown Publishers, 1973), pp. 25164.
3. The Joys of Trout, p.
4. A River Never Sleeps (New
York: William Morrow & Co., 1946), p. 268.
5. (New York: Crown Publishers,
1971), p. xiii.
6. (London: Navarre Society, 1925),
7. Ibid., pp. 114, 129.
8. Ibid., p. 66.
9. Ibid., pp. 43, 51.
10. (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1976), p. 42.
11. A River Never Sleeps, p.
12. Ibid., pp. 7980.
13. See, e.g., Colin Fletcher,
The Man Who Walked Through Time (New York: Random House, Vintage
14. A River Never Sleeps, p.
15. (New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1972). See also Stephen R. Kellert, "Attitudes and Characteristics
of Hunters and Anti-hunters," in Transactions of the 43rd North
American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference (Washington,
D.C.: Wildlife Management Institute, 1978), pp. 41223; Paul
Shepard, Jr., The Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game (New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973), chap. 4.
16. Gasset, Meditations on
Hunting, pp. 75, 35.
17. "Wildlife in American Culture,"
in A Sand County Almanac with Other Essays on Conservation from Round
River (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), p. 197.
18. Ibid. This is an observation
routinely made in the mountaineering literature. See Csikszentmihalyi,
Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, pp. 48, 75; Jeremy Bernstein,
Mountain Passages (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978),
p. 37; Geoffrey Winthrop Young, Mountain Craft (London: Methuen
Co., 1949), p. 3.
19. The best discussion appears in
the report of the United States Council on Environmental Quality, David
Sheridan, "Off-Road Vehicles on Public Land" (Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1979).
20. Robert Pirsig, Zen and the
Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (New York: Bantam Books, 1976).
21. E.g., J. Ginsberg, R. Mintz,
and W. S. Walter, The Fragile Balance: Environmental Problems of the
California Desert (Stanford: Stanford Law School Environmental Law
Society, 1976), chap. 3.
22. Sheridan, "Off-Road Vehicles on
Public Land," p. 2.
23. Lee Gutkind, Bike Fever
(New York: Avon Books, 1974), pp. 21113.
24. Sally Wimer, The
Snowmobiler's Companion (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973),
pp. x, 150.
25. A characteristic older book is
Guido Rey, The Matterhorn (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1907). The
modern genre is illustrated by Maurice Herzog, Annapurna (New
York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1953). A. C. Spectorsky, ed., The Book
of the Mountains (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955) contains
an extensive collection of mountaineering writing. See also note 18
above; and notes 26, 27, 28 below.
26. The Maine Woods
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), p. 65.
27. Chris Bonington, Everest the
Hard Way (New York: Random House, 1976).
28. Galen Rowell, In the Throne
Room of the Mountain Gods (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1977). See
also Galen Rowell, High and Wild: A Mountaineer's World (San
Francisco: Sierra Club, 1979).
29. Csikszentmihalyi, Beyond
Boredom and Anxiety, p. 75.
30. Rowell, In the Throne Room
of the Mountain Gods, pp. 111, 178, and Bonington, Everest the
Hard Way, p. 14.
31. Bonington, Everest the Hard
Way, p. 14.
32. Rowell, In the Throne Room
of the Mountain Gods, p. 111.
34. Quoted in Rowell, In the
Throne Room of the Mountain Gods, p. 147.
35. "A Perilous Night on Mount
Shasta," from Steep Trails, in Edwin Way Teale, ed., The
Wilderness World of John Muir (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976),
36. Norman Foerster, Nature in
American Literature (New York: Russell & Russell, 1923), p.
37. Rowell, In the Throne Room
of the Mountain Gods, pp. 16970.
38. Ibid., p. 157.
39. Ibid., p. 110.
40. Ascent, 1964, pp.
41. Ibid., p. 23.
42. Ibid., p. 24.
43. "The Climber As Visionary,"
Ascent, 1969, p. 6.
45. U.S., Department of the
Interior, National Park Service, Office of Public Affairs, "Editorial
Briefs," 7, no. 34 (August 21, 1979), p. 3.
46. "The Bear," in The Portable
Faulkner, ed. Malcolm Cowley (New York: Viking Press, 1967), p.
47. Ibid., p. 197.
48. In the collection In Our
Time (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970), pp. 13156.
Another lovely Hemingway fishing scene appears in chapter 7 of The
Sun Also Rises (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926).
49. Ibid., p. 134.
50. The background of "Big
Two-Hearted River" is explained in a later Hemingway story, "A Way
You'll Never Be," in Ernest Hemingway, The Nick Adams Stories
(New York: Bantam Books, 1973), p. 135.
51. (New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1952). The hunt is a persistent and complex theme in Hemingway's
writings, as in his life. The safari in The Green Hills of Africa
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963) and the exegesis of
bullfighting in Death in the Afternoon (New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1960) both show a fascination with the kill
characteristic of the author's own behavior. Carlos Baker, Ernest
Hemingway: A Life Story (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
52. The Old Man and the Sea,
53. Ibid., p. 54.
54. Johan Huizinga, The Waning
of the Middle Ages (Garden City, 124 N.Y.: Doubleday, Anchor Books,
1954), p. 39. See generally Raymond Williams, The Country and the
City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).
55. Virgin Land: The American
West as Symbol and Myth (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
56. Public Parks and the
Enlargement of Towns (Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1870;
reprint ed., New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1970), pp.
57. E.g., see Muir's advice to
businessmen in "The Gospel for July," Sunset 23, no. 1 (July,
1909):1. See also Joseph L. Sax, "Freedom: Voices From The Wilderness,"
Environmental Law 7 (1977):568; John Hammond, "Wilderness and
Life in Cities," Sierra: The Sierra Club Bulletin 62, no. 4
58. Alaska Wilderness
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1973), p.
165. See also Marshall's "The Problem of Wilderness," Scientific
Monthly 30 (February, 1930): 14148.
59. Carl Bode, ed., The Portable
Thoreau (New York: Viking, 1975), pp. 45657. Note the
strikingly parallel description in Rowell, In the Throne Room of the
Mountain Gods: p. 145.
60. "The [nature] hunter deeply
respects and admires the creature he hunts. This is the mysterious,
ancient contradiction of the real hunter's characterthat he can at
once hunt the thing he loves." J. Madson and E. Kozicky, "The Hunting
Ethic," Rod and Gun 166, no. 3 (1964): 12, quoted in Kellert,
"Attitudes and Characteristics of Hunters and Anti-hunters," p. 415. See
note 46 above.
61. Bode, Portable Thoreau,
62. Ibid., pp. 460, 458, 459. See
also The Maine Woods, ed. Joseph J. Moldenhauer (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1972), p. 119.
63. "Walking," in Bode, Portable
Thoreau, p. 609.
64. The Maine Woods, pp.
6971, 78, 155-56.
65. Walden, in Bode,
Portable Thoreau, pp. 394-400.
66. On the boredom of the tame see,
e.g., Irving Howe, "Notes on Mass Culture," in Mass Culture: The
Popular Arts in America, ed. Bernard Rosenberg and David Manning
White (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1957), pp. 496, 499. See also Eric
Larrabee and Rolf Meyersohn, eds., Mass Leisure (Glencoe, Ill.:
Free Press, 1958).
67. Bode, Portable Thoreau,
68. "There is something servile in
the habit of seeking after a law which we may obey." "Walking," in Bode,
Portable Thoreau, p. 623.
"The spirit of the American freeman is already
suspected to be timid, imitative, tame." "The American Scholar," in
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Selected Prose and Poetry, 2d ed., ed.
Reginald L. Cook (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969), p. 55.
See J. S. Mill, On Liberty (New York: Penguin Books, Pelican
Edition, 1974), pp. 13435. The ultimate political consequence for
societies whose citizens cease to think for themselves is imagined in
Yevgeny Zamyatin's antitotalitarian novel, We (New York: Bantam
Books, 1972), p. 23.
69. A. H. Maslow, Motivation and
Personality (New York: Harper & Bros., 1954), p. 214. See note
70. (New York: Random House,
Vintage Books, 1971). See also Michael Murphy, Golf in the
Kingdom (New York: Dell, Delta Books, 1972).
71. Zen in the Art of Archery,
72. Ibid., p. 72.
Chapter 4. The Rise and Decline of Ecological
1. The Sane Society (New
York: Rinehart & Co., 1955), p. 136; see also Roger Caillois,
Man, Play and Games (New York: Free Press, 1961), pp.
11415, 12022; R. M. MacIver, The Pursuit of Happiness
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1955), chap. 6; George A. Pettitt,
Prisoners of Culture (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
2. Irving Howe, "Notes on Mass
Cultures," in Mass Culture: The Popular Arts in America, ed.
Bernard Rosenberg and David Manning White (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press,
1957), pp. 496, 499. See also Eric Larrabee and Rolf Meyersohn, eds.,
Mass Leisure (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1958).
3. John C. Hendee, George H.
Stankey, and Robert C. Lucas, Wilderness Management, U.S. Forest
Service Miscellaneous Publication no. 1365 (October, 1978), pp.
3067. See also William R. Butch, Jr., "Recreation Preferences As
Culturally Determined Phenomena," in Elements of Outdoor Recreation
Planning, ed. B. L. Driver (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
1974), pp. 6187.
4. (New York: Ballantine Books,
1968), p. 62.
5. (New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1973), p. 141.
6. The idea goes beyond the usual
concept of option value employed by economists. See B. A. Weisbrod,
"Collective-Consumption Services of Individual Consumption Goods,"
Quarterly Journal of Economics 78, no. 3 (August, 1964):47
177. An option value requires us to identify some good or service
we do not presently use, but want to retain the opportunity to use. To
identify an option value, we must presently recognize that we may want
that good or service in the future. Here the concern is with the
anterior question, what are the sorts of things to which we ought to
attach option values? The failure of ordinary market behavior to reveal
the intensity of our wants is explored by the economist Tibor Scitovsky
in The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and
Consumer Dissatisfaction (New York: Oxford University Press,
The conventional economic view is that public support
is justified if benefits come to us without having to pay for them and
if we value those benefits. Baumol and Bowen, "On the Rationale of
Public Support," in Performing ArtsThe Economic Dilemma
(New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1967), p. 369. The quite distinct
question the preservationist poses is which benefits provided by parks
we should want to value.
7. I was introduced to this term by
Professor Guido Calabresi of Yale Law School.
8. The content and range of
contemporary controversy is illustrated by congressional hearings on
National Arts and Humanities Endowment legislation. E.g., U.S.,
Congress, Senate, Arts, Humanities and Cultural Affairs Act of 1975:
Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education, Committee on
Education and Labor, House of Representatives, and Special Subcommittee
on Arts and Humanities, Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, 94th
Cong., 1st sess., on H.R. 7216 and S. 1800, November 1214,
To the extent that publicly supported museums have
been persuaded to seek popularity by dramatic exhibitions of celebrated
and well-publicized works, there has been an intense critical response
within the profession: "The need has never been greater for rigorous
standards and their most scrupulous observance," in Brian O'Doherty,
ed., Museums in Crisis (New York: George Braziller, 1972), p. 83.
Hilton Kramer, "The Considerable But Troubling Achievements of Mr.
Hoving," New York Times, November 11, 1976, sec. 2, p. 1. See
also Nathanial Burt, Palaces for the People (Boston: Little,
Brown & Co., 1977), p. 5. Karl E. Meyer, The Art of Museum:
Power, Money, Ethics (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1979).
Such controversies are as old as public cultural
institutions themselves. E.g., Frederick Rudolph, The American
College and University: A History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962),
pp. 27983; Laurence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American
University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), pp.
100110; Daniel M. Fox, Engine of Culture: Philanthropy and Art
Museums (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1963);
Sidney Ditzion, Arsenals of a Democratic Culture (Chicago:
American Library Association, 1947).
9. To some degree we must yield
autonomy even in the routine functions of government. Walter Lippman,
The Phantom Public (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.,
10. The typical professional
position is summed up in L. Burress, "How Censorship Affects the
Schools," Wisconsin Council of Teachers of English Special Bulletin no.
8 (October, 1963): "Censorship is the use of non-professional standards
for accepting or rejecting a book. Professional standards are based on
the traditional body of literature in English, and assume a familiarity
with that literature. Along with the literature is a tradition of
literary criticism explaining and evaluating the literature. Though a
group of professionally trained people may well disagree on the merits
of a given book, a working consensus can be obtained, subject to
continued debate in the forum provided by literary journals. That is . .
. a public process, and can be joined by any interested person who will
familiarize himself with the rules of the game."
Regarding professional group values as a powerful
constraint and influence on personal values, see, e.g., Daniel Katz and
Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations (New York:
John Wiley & Sons, 1966), pp. 5157; Jerome Bruner et
al., "Personal Values as Selective Factors in Perception," Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology 43(1948): 142, 154; Mortimer B. Smith
et al., Opinions and Personality (New York: John Wiley &
Sons, 1956), pp. 41-43; H. C. Kelman, "Three Processes of Social
Influence," in Attitudes, ed. Marie Johoda and Neil Warren
(Baltimore, Penguin Books, 1966), p. 153.
11. The appropriate legal ground
for determining the scope of a teacher's or librarian's academic freedom
has been a subject of intense controversy among legal scholars,
especially at the preuniversity level, where formal authority over
curriculum is vested in a school board. Where the teacher is plainly in
the mainstream of professional and critical judgment, rather than acting
idiosyncratically or officiously testing the bounds of community
decency, the inclination to follow the intellectual tradition in the
profession is very strong, whatever the formal ground for the decision.
E.g., Keefe v. Geanakos, 418 F.2d 359 (1st Cir. 1969); Parducci v.
Rutland, 316 F. Supp. 352 (M.D. Ala. 1970); Mailloux v. Kiley, 436 F.2d
565 (1st Cir. 1971), 448 F.2d 1242 (1st Cir. 1971); Minarcini v.
Strongsville City School Dist., 541 F.2d 577 (6th Cir. 1976); Epperson
v. Arkansas, 393 U.S. 97 (1968). Compare Presidents Council v. Community
School Board, 457 F.2d 289 (2d Cir. 1971), cert. denied, 409 U.S.
998 (1972), criticized in O'Neil "Libraries, Liberties and the First
Amendment," University of Cincinnatti Law Review 42(1973):209.
For a reference to the extensive legal literature on the subject see
Goldstein, "The Asserted Right of Public School Teachers to Determine
What They Teach," University of Pennsylvania Law Review
12. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
13. Ibid., p. 196.
14. On Becoming a Person
(New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1961). A more detailed explanation of
Rogers's theory appears in "A Theory of Therapy, Personality, and
Interpersonal Relationships, as Developed in the Client-Centered
Framework," in Psychology: A Study of a Science, ed. Sigmund
Koch, vol. 3 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1959). Rogers's views and their
place in modern psychology are described in Calvin S. Hall and Gardner
Lindzey, Theories of Personality, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley
& Sons, 1970).
15. Motivation and
Personality (New York: Harper & Bros., 1954), p. 214. See also
The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 1971).
16. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1971).
17. Ibid., pp. 42627. A view
rather like Rawls's appears in the economist Tibor Scitovsky's The
Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer
Dissatisfaction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). For an
example of current ways of studying user satisfaction see, e.g., U.S.,
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Proceedings: River
Recreation Management and Research Symposium, January 24-27, 1977,
Minneapolis, Minn., North Central Forest Experiment Station, General
Technical Report NC-28, pp. 35964.
18. E.g., Reuben Fine, The
Psychology of the Chess Player (New York: Dover Publications, 1967),
noting Ernest Jones's classic paper, "The Problem of Paul Murphy," read
to the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1930. Jones's paper provoked
a number of psychological studies of chess players, all of which concur
in describing "hostile impulses," "sense of overwhelming mastery," "love
of pugnacity," and "competitiveness."
19. There seems to be considerable
agreement that winning a game, simply to prevail, diminishes the depth
of the player's satisfaction. But whether the structure of the game
itself is significant remains an unsettled, and largely unexplored,
question. See Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play
Element in Culture (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1949), p.
197, criticizing the systemization and professionalization of sports.
See also Allen Guttman, From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern
Sports (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), p. 9, discussing
the thesis that games are structured devices for exhibiting mastery, but
making no distinction between zero-sum games and others which permit
but, do not depend on winning against an opponent.
Chapter 5. The War and Postwar
1. U.S., Department of the Interior,
National Park Service, Guadalupe Mountains National Park,
Environmental Assessment, Development Concept Plan (September,
2. U.S., Department of the Interior,
National Park Service, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Master
Plan (March 29, 1973).
3. E.g., U.S., Department of the
Interior, National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area,
Proposed General Management Plan, Wilderness Recommendation, Road
Study Alternatives, Final Environmental Statement (July, 1979), p.
29: ". . . yearly visitation from 1962, when the recreation area was
established, through 1977. Linear trend analysis for the 16-year period
yields an average annual increase of about 25 percent per year. . .
4. The discussion of the Olympic
National Park controversy is taken from the following sources: U.S.,
Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "National Park
Service War Work, December 7, 1941 to June 30, 1944, and June 30, 1944
to October 1, 1945," mimeographed; memorandum, Newton B. Drury,
director, National Park Service, to secretary of the interior, December
18, 1942; Abe Fortas, acting secretary of the interior, to Senator Homer
T. Bone, December 17, 1942; confidential memorandum, superintendent,
Olympic National Park, to director, National Park Service, June 11,
1941; supplemental memorandum on supply of Sitka spruce, from W. T.
Andrews, consultant, November 17, 1940; John Ise, Our National Park
Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1961), pp. 39293; annual reports of the secretary of the
interior for 1942, 1943, 1944; Robert Shankland, Steve Mather of the
National Parks (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951), p. 306; Elmo R.
Richardson, Dams, Parks and Politics (Lexington: University of
Kentucky Press, 1973), pp. 10-13; "Will the Needs of War Require Loss of
Olympic National Park," The Living Wilderness, May, 1943, pp.
2627; Edgar B. Nixon, ed., Franklin D. Roosevelt and
Conservation 19111945, 2 vols. (Hyde Park, N.Y.: General
Services Administration, 1957), 2:559-60, 57273, 57879.
5. Developments on national forest
land sometimes affect the parks quite directly. The Jackson Hole ski
development in Wyoming has generated urbanizing pressures that are now
being felt on land directly adjacent to Grand Teton National Park. The
description of the Mineral King controversy is taken from these sources:
Jeanne Ora Nienaber, "Mineral King: Ideological Battleground for Land
Use Disputes" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, n.d.);
Susan R. Schrepfer, "Perspectives on Conservation: Sierra Club
Strategies in Mineral King," Journal of Forest History 20, no. 5
(October, 1976): 17690; Commentary, "Mineral King Goes Downhill,"
Ecology Law Quarterly 5 (1976):55574; Peter Browning,
"Mickey Mouse in the Mountains," Harper's 244 (March, 1972):65,
245 (August, 1972):102; U.S., Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
Region 5, Mineral King Final Environmental Statement (San
Francisco, February 26, 1976).
6. Sierra Club Bulletin 52,
no. 11 (November, 1967):7. Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727
7. The Mineral King area has now
been added to the adjacent Sequoia National Park, with a mandate that
will prevent its development as a ski resort. Public Law 95-625, §
314, 92 Stat. 3479 (November 10, 1978).
8. Los Angeles Times, January
13, 1978, p. 36.
9. Schrepfer, "Perspectives on
Conservation," p. 184.
10. Calculating demand, as an
economic matter, is complex and difficult. Marion Clawson and Jack L.
Knetch, Economics of Outdoor Recreation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1966); U.S., Department of the Interior, Bureau of
Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Recreation: A Legacy for America,
appendix A, "An Economic Analysis" (December, 1973). Economists are
concerned with observed willingness to pay as a measure of benefits from
the project. "Mineral King Valley: Demand Theory and Resource
Valuation," in John V. Krutilla and Anthony C. Fisher, The Economics
of Natural Environments (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
1975), chap. 8, pp. 189218. My concern here is with a complication
of that measure from the perspective of a supplier who is willing to
forego some benefits, measured by consumer willingness to pay, for
others measured by collectively articulated goals; and who thus feels
obliged to meet some, but not all, conventional demand. Economic
analysts may ignore such distinctions: "Suppose (winter) visitors to a
ski site are going for other purposes as well, simply to play in the
snow, say, or to enjoy the social environment. Is this a problem? We
don't think so." Krutilla and Fisher, Economics of Natural
Environments, p. 198.
The existence of a given recreational demand does not
itself demonstrate that national park policy should be committed to its
fulfillment, any more than a demand for cosmetic surgery has to be
fulfilled by a public medical care policy. Likewise, we might well
decide upon a public policy of building hospitals, and not hotels,
though there is a considerable demand for hotel rooms, and vacationers
might be willing and able to outbid sick people for available beds.
Collectively, as owners of the public lands and citizens, we can have a
collective desire different from the sum of market demands made by each
of us individually. We may decide to forego the greatest dollar return
on our property in favor of some use that we believe provides a greater
return in satisfaction.
11. See U.S., Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Environmental Statement (Final), Mount
Hebgen, Management Alternatives, Gallatin National Forest,
USDA-FS-R1(11) FES-Adm-76-25 (May 13, 1977); petition of Montana
Wilderness Association, Montana Wildlife Federation, the Environmental
Information Center, Wilderness Society and the Sierra Club (United
States, Department of Agriculture, Before the Regional Forester, Region
1, 1977); Letter of Final Administrative Determination, John R. McGuire,
chief, Forest Service, to James H. Goetz (August 1, 1978).
12. Bruce L. Nurse to Lewis E.
Hawkes, forest supervisor, Gallatin National Forest, February 21, 1977,
in the petition of Montana Wilderness Association (see note 11 above),
13. Morton Lund, "The Sage of Sun
Valley," Ski Area Management Spring, 1972, p. 35.
14. Clay R. Simon to Lewis E.
Hawkes, forest supervisor, Gallatin National Forest, May 27, 1975, in
the petition of Montana Wilderness Association (see note 11 above),
15. See note 12, above.
16. Environmental Statement,
17. See note 12 above. Charles J.
Cicchetti, Joseph J. Seneca, and Paul Davidson, The Demand and Supply
of Outdoor Recreation (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University
Press, 1969); Environmental Statement, p. B-19.
18. Such facilities require
"capability of handling large crowds efficiently (volume is everything
in such an operation) [and] keeping [the visitor] in a happy (i.e.,
spending) frame of mind." Richard Schickel, The Disney Version
(New York: Avon Books, 1968), p. 114.
19. William E. Shands and Robert G.
Healy, The Lands Nobody Wanted (Washington, D.C.: Conservation
Foundation, 1977), pp. 47-48.
20. U.S., Congress, House,
National Park Service Planning and Concession Operations: Joint
Hearing Before Certain Subcommittees of the Committee on Government
Operations and the Permanent Select Committee on Small Business, 93d
Cong., 2d sess., December 20, 1974.
21. U.S., Department of the
Interior, National Park Service, Yosemite National Park Preliminary
Draft Master Plan (August 12, 1974).
22. U.S., Congress, House,
National Park Service Planning and Concession Operations, pp.
226-27, 23336, 238-41, 29095.
23. The most recent Park Service
plan for Yosemite recommends some reduction in the existing facilities
at the park. U.S., Department of the Interior, National Park Service,
Final General Management Plan for Yosemite National Park
(January, 1980). The draft plan of August, 1978, was more
24. The Park Service itself at
times promotes development in order to generate demand for visits at
sparsely used parks, focusing on what it take to attract casual tourists
passing by: In the now-shelved master plan for Guadalupe Mountains
National Park in Texas (recommended March 29, 1973), park service
planners observed: "Visitor use . . . will be seriously impeded until
motels, restaurants and campgrounds become available within a convenient
distance [p. 38]." To make the park "a magnet for visitors [p. 2]," a
tramway to the top of Guadalupe Peak was recommended as an "educational
and inspirational experience [p. 37]." See notes 1 and 2 above.
25. Alta's economic viability may
depend on its proximity to day users from nearby Salt Lake City. If
skiing without resort facilities is not profitable in most
circumstances, the question for public policy would be whether we want
to subsidize that activity, as we do many others.
26. Steven V. Roberts, "Visitors
Are Swamping the National Parks," New York Times, September 1,
1969, p. 15.
27. The Revolt of the Masses
(New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1957), p. 58.
28. Ibid., pp. 5759: "The
world which surrounds the new man . . . incites his appetite, which in
principle can increase indefinitely . . . two fundamental traits: the
free expansion of his vital desires . . . and his radical ingratitude
towards all that has made possible the ease of his existence. These
traits together make up the well-known psychology of the spoilt child. .
. . To spoil means to put no limit on caprice, to give one the
impression that everything is permitted to him and that he has no
Chapter 6. Science and the Struggle for
1. Act of October 21, 1976, 90 Stat.
2733, Public Law 94378, Title III, § 301, repealing a
provision directing the construction of a road from the
ChincoteagueAssateague Island Bridge to an area in the wildlife
refuge, for recreation purposes.
2. U.S., Department of the Interior,
National Park Service, Gateway National Recreation Area, General
Management Plan, Discussion Draft (September, 1976), pp. 14, 34. A
decision paper was issued in April, 1978, and a general management plan
and final environ mental statement in 1979.
3. Ibid., p. 64.
4. One of the most encouraging Park
Service expressions of intent is the "interpretive concepts" section of
the Draft Master Plan for Acadia National Park (May, 1976), pp.
5. In his journal for October 23,
1837, Ralph Waldo Emerson said: "Culture is not the trimming and turfing
of gardens, but the showing [of] the true harmony of the unshorn
landscape . . ." E. W. Emerson and W. E. Forbes, eds., Journals of
Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol. 4 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1910) p.
6. The significance of Thoreau's
contrasting of tameness and wildness may be seen even in these seemingly
minor matters. In The Disney Version (New York: Avon Books,
1968), p. 39, Richard Schickel finds in the Disney films "a drive . . .
toward . . . multiple reductionism; wild things and wild behavior were
often made comprehensible by converting them into cuteness, mystery was
explained by a joke and . . . terror was resolved by . . . a discreet
averting the camera's eye from the natural processes. . . . [T]here is
something deeper than [money] at work in this national passion to tame.
. . ."
7. Jeremy Bernstein, Mountain
Passages (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978), p. 66. See
also, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development,
Environment Directorate, "The Growth of Ski-Tourism and Environmental
Stress in Switzerland," ENV/TOUR/78.5, Paris, April 25, 1978.
Chapter 7. A House Divided
1. Act of September 3, 1964, Public
Law 88577, 78 Stat. 890, 16 U.S.C. § 1131.
2. Francoise Leydet, The Grand
Canyon (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1964). See also T. H. Watkins et
al., The Grand Colorado: The Story of a River and Its Canyons
(Palo Alto: American West Publishing Co., 1969), p. 270.
3. Eliot Porter, The Place No One
Knew: Glen Canyon on the Colorado (San Francisco: Sierra Club,
1963); see National Parks Ass'n v. Udall, Civil No. 390462 (U.S.
Dist. Cr. 1962). The earlier, precedent-setting battle over the proposed
Dinosaur MonumentEcho Park Dam is described in John Ise, Our
National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1961), pp. 476-80.
4. J. W. Powell, The Exploration
of the Colorado River and Its Canyons (New York: Dover Publications,
1961), a republication of the original work published in 1895 under the
title Canyons of the Colorado. For a fine biography of Powell,
see Wallace Stegner, Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley
Powell and the Second Opening of the West (Boston: Houghton Mifflin
5. U.S., Department of the Interior,
National Park Service, Colorado River Management Plan, Grand Canyon
National Park, Arizona (December 20, 1979), p. 1. See idem,
"Final Environmental Statement, Proposed Colorado River Management
Plan, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (n.d.).
6. Colorado River Management
Plan, pp. 8-9.
7. Final Environmental
Statement, p. 11-41. Detailed information about river controversies
appears in U.S., Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Proceedings: River Recreation Management and Research Symposium,
January 24-27, 1977, Minneapolis, Minn., North Central Forest Experiment
Station, General Technical Report NC-28).
8. E.g., Fred B. Eiseman, Jr., "Who
Runs the Grand Canyon?", Natural History 87, no. 3 (March,
1978):8393; Liz Hymans, "The Flow of Wilderness," Not Man
Apart (Friends of the Earth) 8, no. 5 (Mid-March, 1978).
9. Wilderness Public Rights Fund v.
Kleppe, Eisemann v. Kleppe, 13 ERC 2094 (9th Cir. 1979); Western River
Expeditions, Inc. v. Morton, Civ. No. C-125-B (U.S. Dist. Cr. Utah),
Order of June 4, 1973; Grand Canyon National Park v. Stitt, No. 77-722
(U.S. Dist. Cr. Ariz.) (filed September 19, 1977, pending).
10. See note 5 above.
11. It is appropriate for the Park
Service to put some maximum limit on the duration of visits. There is an
administrable line between leisure and monopoly.
12. Colorado Outward Bound School
River Trips, for example, have a very different perspective. See their
undated mimeo pamphlet, "Which Trip for You." They do not run trips in
Grand Canyon National Park.
13. E.g ., "Jack Currey's Western
River Expeditions" (1977 catalog), p. 28; American River Touring
Association, "River Adventure: 1978," p. 21.
14. Adventure Bound, Inc., "River
Expeditions 1977" (unpaged). This concessioner does not run trips in
Grand Canyon National Park; its area is from Dinosaur National Monument
and from above Arches National Park down to Glen Canyon National
15. "Jack Currey's," p. 28.
17. Ibid, p. 4.
18. American River Touring 1979
catalog, p. 9 (7 days, Lee's Ferry to Diamond Creek).
19. See Roggenbuck and Schreyer,
"Relations Between River Trip Motives and Perception of Crowding,
Management Preference and Experience Satisfaction," in U.S., Department
of Agriculture, Proceedings: River Recreation Management and Research
Symposium, pp. 33964. Mordechai Shechter and Robert C. Lucas,
Simulation of Recreational Use for Park and Wilderness Management
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), chap. 9.
20. When such conflicts arise,
policy considerations other than recreation may be determinative. For
example, a decision might be made to retain an area as wilderness for
its resource values, or to retain scientific or archeological features,
even though to do so would prevent meeting recreational demands that
would have prevailed if the only conflict were between competing
recreational policies. So it is quite possible thatfor reasons
unrelated to recreation policya place like Grand Canyon would be
closed to high density service recreation even though there is a
shortage of service recreation areas and an "over-abundance" of pristine
areas. Similarly, a determination of strong industrial need could
justify removing an area from management for reflective recreation, and
permit service recreation, though there are already abundant
opportunities for service recreation. In such a case, recreation policy
generally would be subordinated to some other priority (such as the need
to mine a greatly needed mineral). Nothing in this book is meant to
suggest that recreation policy, per se, must prevail over other
policies. It is directed solely to conflicts among competing
21. E.g., Smoky Mountain Field
School, a series of extended summer workshops cosponsored by the
National Park Service and the University of Tennessee Division of
Continuing Education. Cf. the Yellowstone Institute, run by the
Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, and the Yosemite Institute's
School Weeks program.
22. Woodall's Trailer and RV
Travel, January, 1978, p. 5.
23. See note 4 above.
24. Richard Jones's Worldwide River
Expeditions, "Rivers USA 1977," p. 3.
25. "1977 Colorado River &
Trail Expeditions, Inc., p. 1.
26. American River Touring, p.
27. A nice description of going it
alone in the canyon today is "Down the River with Major Powell," in
Edward Abbey, The Journey Home (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1977),
28. Title 2300, Recreation
Management, ¶ 2331.11c, exhibit I.
29. The Forest Service had an
analogous policy of refraining from cutting commercial timber right up
to highways so that citizensoffended by the idea of murdering
trees, though they used wood productswould be screened from
unwanted reality. Harold K. Steen, The U.S. Forest Service: A
History (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976), p. 139.
30. The truly self-defining
individual can pay a high price in loneliness for his or her inner
freedom, and that price is nowhere more poignantly portrayed than in
Thoreau's journals. See Odell Shepard, The Heart of Thoreau's
Journals (New York: Dover Publications, 1961), pp. 142, 17273,
175. "If an individual gives up his distinctiveness in a group . . . he
does it because he feels the need of being in harmony with them rather
than in opposition to them." Sigmund Freud, Group Psychology and the
Analysis of the Ego, ed. and trans. James Strachey (New York: W. W.
Norton & Co. , 1939), p. 24.
31. "The master had but to look at
him, when this young man would fling himself back as though struck by
lightening, place his hands rigidly at his sides, and fall into a state
of military somnambulism, in which it was plain to any eye that he was
open to the most absurd suggestion that might be made to him. He seemed
quite content in his abject state, quite pleased to be relieved of the
burden of voluntary choice." Thomas Mann, "Mario and the Magician," in
Stories of Three Decades (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1936), p.
"I tell Thee that man is tormented by no greater
anxiety than to find someone quickly to whom he can hand over that gift
of freedom with which the ill-fated creature is born. But only one who
can appease their conscience can take over their freedom." Fyodor
Dostoevski, The Brothers Karamazov (New York: Modern Library,
1950), p. 302.
Chapter 8. Conclusion
1. E.g., Chez des Amis, 139 W. 87th
St., New York, New York.
2. René Jules Dubos, "The
Genius of the Place," Tenth Annual Horace M. Albright Conservation
Lectureship, University of California at Berkeley, School of Forestry
and Conservation, February 26, 1970.
3. Clara Barrus, Our Friend John
Burroughs (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1914), p. 131.