Indian Groups Associated with Spanish Missions of the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park
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In 1731 Mission Capistrano was moved to San Antonio from eastern Texas, where it was known as San José de los Nazonis. The Nasoni were Caddoan Indians, some of whom lived on the Red River and others lived farther south with the Hasinai Caddoans of central eastern Texas (Swanton 1942). The early Capistrano registers have not been found, but information taken from them is included in documents that record a dispute over Indians between missionaries of Capistrano and Mission San Francisco Vizarrón of northeastern Coahuila (Guadalupe 1754a, 1754b, 1754c; Rodríguez 1755). These documents are especially valuable because they contain information on collective names used and on various languages spoken by Indians at Capistrano. Schuetz (1980a) has recently published a valuable summary of the contents of many documents connected with Mission Capistrano.


See Concepción: Borrado.


See Concepción: Pamaque and Camasuqua.


See Concepción: Chayopin.


The hyphenated name Guanbrauta-Aiaquia is given by Schuetz and linked with Mission Capistrano for the year 1772 and also later (Schuetz 1980a:8, 10 and 1980b:57, 63, 264, 273, 292-293). The first part of the name is also rendered as Guanbranta. The second part is evidently the same as the Aiaquia separately cited earlier by Lynn, Fox, and O'Malley (1977:35) as a Capistrano group from the "Texas coast." We have not seen the primary documents cited by Schuetz and are puzzled by the hyphenated presentation. In various documents of the region we have never encountered an Indian group name similar to either part of the hyphenated name. We have, however, seen entries in the baptismal register of Mission Valero (1741-1746) that refer to an adult female, identified as a Tena (also as Tina) Indian, whose personal name is recorded as Alegueta and Aieguita. One wonders if perhaps Guanbrauta and Aiaguia are personal names rather than ethnic group names. Schuetz (1980b:Fig. 3, 1, D) illustrates a pattern of facial tattooing identified as "Guanbrauta-Aiaguia?" The case of the Guanbrauta-Aiaguia seems to need further study.


See Concepción: Malaguita.


See Concepción: Orejón.


See Concepción: Pajalat.


See Concepción: Pamaque.


Schuetz (1980a:3, 1980b:57) lists Pana as a name recorded for Mission Capistrano and equates it with Panascan, for which we use the variant Pasnacan. We list Pana here separately because we are not certain that the two names are synonymous. There is a possibility that Pana may be equivalent to the name Peana, which is recorded for one individual at Capistrano (see Peana below).


The Pasnacan are best recorded in documents connected with the dispute over Indians by missionaries of Capistrano and San Francisco Vizarrón (Guadalupe 1754a, 1754b, 1754c; Rodríguez 1755; see also Campbell and Campbell 1981:48-49). Pasnacan first entered Capistrano in 1743. It is not clear just where the Pasnacan lived before going to Capistrano, but it was evidently somewhere near the coast southwest of Goliad (Santa Ana 1743:69). Guadalupe (1754b:179-180) indicates that Pasnacan is a collective name, but he provides no specific names for Pasnacan groups. No information seems to have been recorded on the language of the Indian groups designated as Pasnacan.


One Peana individual can be linked with Mission Capistrano. In the baptismal register of Mission Valero one Peana woman (Rosa de Viterbo) is said to have died at Capistrano in 1739. At least eight Peana (sometimes also given as Mapeana) were recorded at Valero during the period 1727-1743 (Schuetz 1980b:53). Beyond this nothing is recorded about the Peana. Swanton (1940:135) listed the Peana as probable Coahuilteco-speakers, but this is obviously a guess. See also Pana above.


See Concepción: Piguique.


The Pitalac can be connected with two San Antonio missions, Concepción and Capistrano, and also with one mission of northeastern Coahuila, San Juan Bautista. Occasionally modern writers have referred to Pitalac at Mission Espada, but this has not been authenticated.

The Pitalac of Concepción seem to have been recorded under the name Patalca (see Concepción: Patalca). At Capistrano the Pitalac were recorded under two names: "Pitalaque" (Espinosa 1964:747) and "Alobja" (Pérez de Mezquia 1731:36). Schuetz (1980b:57) gives the following three names for the Pitalac of Capistrano: "Pitalaque, Alobaja, Pacitalac" (see also Habig 1968:162, 271). Only one Pitalac individual was recorded at Mission San Juan Bautista of Coahuila, and this was for the year 1772 (Campbell 1979:42-43).

Indirect evidence suggests that prior to entering the San Antonio missions the Pitalac may have lived west of the lower San Antonio River in the area now covered by Bee and Goliad Counties (Campbell ibid.). Nothing seems to have been documented about the language spoken by the Pitalac.


See Concepción: Pamaque and Sarapjon.


See Concepción: Tacame.


See Concepción: Pamaque and Taguaguan.


See Concepción Tilijae.


See Concepción: Pamaque and Tinapihuaya.


See Concepción: Venado.


See Concepción: Pamaque and Viayan.

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Last Updated: 26-Apr-2007