1. Charles B. Hosmer, Jr.,
Presence of the Past: A History of the Preservation Movement in the
United States Before Williamsburg (New York: G. P Putnam's Sons,
1965), 21-29. Hosmer's book and its later companion two-volume set,
Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust
1926-1949 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981) are
the authoritative sources on the history of American preservation.
2. Hosmer, Presence of the
3. Ibid., 123-32; for more about the
romanticization of California, see Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the
Californios (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971),
4. Roderick Nash, Wilderness and
the American Mind, 3d ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982),
5. Harold K. Steen, The United
States Forest Service: A History (Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 1976), 5-6. Steen cites Samuel Trask Dana, the dean of forest
historians, for the view that Congress did not understand the
implications of Section 24 of the General Revision Act of 1891.
6. Ibid., 29, 36.
7. William H. Goetzmann
Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning
of the American West (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), 274-76,
8. Curtis M. Hinsley, Jr., Savages
and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of
American Anthropology 1846-1910 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution
Press, 1981), 200-204; Ronald F. Lee, The Antiquities Act of 1906
(Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1971), 16.
9. John Ise, Our National Park
Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,
1961), 147-48, 158; Lee, Antiquities Act, 10.
10. Ise, Our National Park
11. For details of the Mindeleff's
work, see 13th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for
the Years 1891-1892 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,
1892), 289-319, which covers the excavations at Casa Grande. Adolph
Bandelier's novel, The Delightmakers (1890; reprint, New York:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971), is one example of a work that brought
attention to the prehistoric Southwest.
12. Samuel P. Hays, Conservation
and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement
1890-1920 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959), 2.
13. For a more efficient view of
this position, see J. Leonard Bates, "Fulfilling American Democracy: The
Conservation Movement 1907-1921, Mississippi Valley Historical
Review 44 (June 1957), 29-57.
14. See G. Edward White, The
Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience: The West of Frederick
Remington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Owen Wister (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1968), for an interesting discussion of the East-West
dialectic that White believes characterized the late nineteenth and
early twentieth century.
15. Lee, Antiquities Act, 44;
Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency, 13.
16. According to Hays,
Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency, 13, "the very word
'withdrawal' aroused Western farmers to a fighting pitch."
17. Frank McNitt, Richard
Wetherill: Anasazi (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
18. Ibid., 22-23, 27.
19. Ibid., 31, 35-37; see also
Florence C. Lister and Robert F. Lister, Earl Morris and Southwestern
Archaeology (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1968), 2,
8-9, 32, 42.
20. McNitt, Richard
21. Lee, Antiquities Act,
47-77, details the legislative battles that preceded the Antiquities
22. H.R. 8066, 56th Cong., 1st
sess., discussed in Ise, Our National Park Policy, 149.
23. Lee, Antiquities Act,
24. McNitt, Richard
25. Max Pracht, "Report to the
Commissioner of the General Land Office," 16 May 1900, NA, RG 79, Series
1, Records Relating to National Parks and Monuments 1872-1916, Letters
Received by the Office of the Secretary of the Interior Relating to
National Parks 1872-1907, Tray 166. All subsequent citations to letters
and reports in this chapter are to documents in Tray 166.
27. Lee, Antiquities Act, 36.
Former New Mexico territorial governor J. Bradford Prince used the term
28. S. S. Mathers to the
commissioner of the General Land Office, 18 January 1901.
30. Stephen J. Holsinger to the
commissioner of the General Land Office, 5 December 1901, 69, 81, 83.
The Holsinger report has three separate sets of pagination; I will cite
only the first from here on. Holsinger's assertions were incorrect. Lt.
James H. Simpson's expedition visited the ruins and excavated there in
1849. See William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire,
31. Holsinger to commissioner, 5
December 1901, 71.
32. Ibid., 74-75.
33. McNitt, Richard
34. Among others, Congressman Irving
Wanger of New York asked that a constituent of his, a dentist, be
granted a permit to dig archaeological sites in Arizona to make a
collection for the University of Pennsylvania. Although neither GLO
commissioner Binger Hermann nor the young and inexperienced Frank
Pinkley objected, William Henry Holmes at the Bureau of Ethnology
protested vigorously. The permit was flatly denied. Wanger's letter
requesting the favor is in NA, RG 79, Series 1, Records Relating to
National Parks and Monuments 1872-1916, Letters Received, Tray 166.
35. Stephen J. Holsinger to the
commissioner of the General Land Office, 15 May 1902.
38. Richard Wetherill to Talbot
Hyde, 26 January 1903. See McNitt, Richard Wetherill, 203-15, for
another interpretation. He suggests that the new manager of the Hyde
Exploring Expedition conspired against Wetherill.
39. Stephen J. Holsinger to the
commissioner of the General Land Office, 18 December 1902.