Southwestern Monuments Monthly Report

Field Reports From the Men on the Job

WHITE SANDS By Tom Charles, custodian,
Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Visitors this month, 3,500; since October 1, 15,980.

This seems to have been a busy month but as I recount the things accomplished they do not make a very long list.

Work around the headquarters has been dragging for some time but I notice now that about 12 or 15 men are pouring the foundation on the custodian's residence, which livens things up considerably. Then Johnie has moved his family to residence No. 2 and Johnwill having moved into No. 1 makes the area look a little less unoccupied.

Our visitor are woefully lacking, but the filling station men and eating house proprietors in town complain of short travel in about the same proportion as we are afflicted and we all agree that new road construction on Federal Highway 70 is accountable. There have been about 75 trucks, using 18 miles of the highway between the Sand and Las Cruces. There was a truck load of gravel every minute, two shifts a day, with the empties thrown in between. The dust never settled. So we have had no travel from the west, and all we had from the east was those who made a special trip to see the Sands. In addition to this 23 miles of new construction west of the Sands, there are two similar projects on Highway 70 est of Alamogordo.

So road conditions have not been good and, while these projects should be finished in January, the road gossip is that an 18 mile project on 70, through the Mescalero Indian reservation, will be called about the time these are finished. So we are likely to have another six months of blocked highway from which we will probably suffer more than from the present construction because it will be in the tourist season and will be on the west of us where we get most of our visitors. About all the satisfaction I can get out of all this road construction is in anticipating the crowds for 1940 when the Coronado Cuarto Centennial will be on.

The weather has been pleasant almost every day this month except for a couple of fairly good rains for which we were thankful.

This week Mrs. Nancy Grey, a radio station operator with the Milwaukee Journal, spent a couple of days with us. She liked the Sands very much and feels optomistic as to an increase of tourist traffic in the Southwest the next few years. Last week W. D. MacMillen, who has taught astronomy in the University of Chicago for 31 years, drove into the Heart of the Sands and said, "Well I drove 186 miles to see these Sands and I got my money's worth." Dr. MacMillen went from here to Lubbock, Texas, to visit a friend, and the next day the Lubbock Journal carried a two column, black headline article about the wonders of the Great White Sands. So both the doctor and the custodian were satisfied with that visit.

Our registration book shows 665 names this month as against 3,901 in August. As I figure it, our 665 is about 17 percent of our banner month last summer. Using our usual 17 percent registration, it would give us 3,990 visitors this month, but I do not believe we had that many for we had two good sized school parties and had nearly 100 percent registration from them so I believe we will do us justice to give us about 3,500. We had 27 states, three foreign countries, and Alaska represented.


NAVAJO By James W. Brewer, Jr.,
Tonalea, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 6; since October 1, 77.

Arriving in three cars, six visitors came to the Betatakin section of this monument. All were visitors with official business and all were contacted.


The weather hasn't been entirely to blame for the low number of visitors; the month started off in an Indian summer way but, like March is supposed to do when it comes in like a lamb, December is going and snow has fallen on three occasions, the last being today's two inches. The days have been moderate with temperatures in the upper thirties or lower forties.


The approach road to Betatakin was in splendid shape until a snowfall on the night of December 16 made chains necessary until the noon thaw. The Marsh Pass Road received a blade treatment between Red Lake and Kayenta about the eighteenth.


On December 17 we had five-sixths of our visitors. Mr. Lyons, representing a well-drilling company, called in the morning to be shown the location selected for the pump-to-sump line.

When I returned to Shonto I found Regional Director Herbert Maier and Jack Hails with L. L. Hargrave of the Museum of Northern Arizona just about to start for Betatakin. I joined the party and together we climbed into and out of Betatakin talking mostly about house site and how to get the most house with a little money.

Sallie fixed us a lunch in Milton's tent while the rest of us went thru the ruin. Mr. Maier suggested improving the trail below the ruin and prohibiting visitors from walking on the ruin itself. Because of a train connection Mr. Maier had to make in Flagstaff, we could not view the ruin from across the canyon.


A plan for directional road signs has been completed and specifications for a type of peeled-juniper-post-carved-pine-panel sign has been forwarded for approval. Research is underway for a labelled nature trail. (Got some good stuff from Paul.) Abandoned campsites along the approach road have been policed.


The Soil Conservation Service has supplied this office with some splendid maps; one, a set of four topog. maps that covers this whole corner and includes all three ruins on the monument. The other is a set of two aerial maps that together cover almost the same territory.


Boss, the thing that seems to be worrying most of us who are thinking about Navajo is just where to put the new house when it comes. The ideal location is ruled out because it can't be done with the money available; the next best site is at, or near, the head of the canyon and the cost of a water line again steps in. So, it boils down to simply putting the house on a spot where water is most economically available.

It's a swell layout for right now, but this ranger wonders what thought is being given to "visitor flow".

If the house could now be placed so that at a later year it could be used as a checking station, we would all be proud of our foresight.


GRAN QUIVIRA By George Boundey, custodian,
Gran Quivira, New Mexico

Visitors for December, 147; since October 1, 176.

For a winter without much snow, the old timers say this is the coldest in 40 years.

During the month we have had several visits from the "1940 Quarto Centennial" representatives. They were especially interested in roads, and contemplate doing work on both the east and south roads.

Somebody during the past few months has done considerable excavating in the "Montezuma" pueblo situated about three miles to the west of this monument. Being told there was considerable charred corn and beans exposed, I went over to look around. I found two rooms about eight by 12 feet, each filled to a height of between two and three feet with burned corn and beans. The charring had preserved them.

We have a radio and a wind charger to keep up our batteries, and here on this hill with no interference to hinder, we can get almost anything we care to tune for. A friend who has been radio operator on board ship can pick up and translate for us code messages from ships as far away as the Philippines.

Were this month on the monument has been a continuation of the work of last month, a general raking and cleaning up of trails and things in general.


AZTEC By T. C. Miller, custodian,
Aztec, New Mexico.

Visitors this month, 631; since October 1, 2,942.


December has been a busy month for this monument. Not so much in the way of travel, but we have accomplished a lot of our Trail Project and on Ruins Stabilization.

One official trip was made to Chaco Canyon National Monument on December 9 in connection with the Mobile Unit. While at Chaco, Custodian McKinney and I took measurements on the Threatening Rock. It was a big surprise to me when I found all three gages set by Andy Clark with his engineering crew, were out about three and one eighth inches. This movement of the rock has probably been going on for a thousand years or more, but it is not noticeable without those steel gages.

Another official trip was made to Gallup by the custodian on December 13. Mr. and Mrs. Charlie Steen accompanied me on this trip and caught their train for Arizona. The custodian returned to Aztec after purchasing a new battery for truck No. 8121.

An attempt was made to inspect Yucca House and Hovenweep on December 20, but due to eight inches of new snow and difficult roads, I was unable to get in to either of the monuments.


We have had a lot of different kinds of weather this month. Nice warm sunny days and cold nights for the first part, while during the latter part much rain and snow has been experienced.

Max. temp.57Clear days11
Min. temp.3Partly cloudy days12
Total snowfall in inches6-1/2Cloudy days7
Precipitation for the month1.02


Six hundred thirty one people entered the monument in 218 automobiles coming from 25 states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska. Last year we had 503 people in 170 cars. This is an increase of 128 people and 48 cars.


As previously reported, work began November 21 on excavation of two rooms, putting a new drainage system from the roof of the Great Kiva, and leveling, grading, and draining the court under the direction of A. E. Underhill.

Charlie Steen, archeologist for Southwestern Monuments, arrived on November 28 and very capably supervised all excavations of rooms on this project. He departed for Headquarters December 13.

Excavations were made, trail graded through rooms, tile drain installed and carried to a point on east side of Ruins and disposed of as per approved plan. All trenches were tamped with good grade of moist clay.

The old stairway leading from the rooms in the northwest corner of ruins has been removed and the visitors are guided from the rooms out into the court through original doors. It is a nice easy grade as well as a more interesting and educational trip. All work on this project was suspended due to inclement weather December 17.

No attempt was made to lay a bitumuls trail as the weather is well below freezing every night. It is hoped that Mr. Underhill will return next spring and finish this job. The job, as far as it has gone has improved the appearance of the ruins 100 percent. The tile drain had a chance to do its stuff on three different occasions, and it functions very satisfactorily.


On November 23, our water pump unit went bad. We have had a lot of trouble with this pump in the past and it has been necessary to releather it about once a month. This was due to the fact that the concrete foundation on which the pump was sitting was in bad shape. It was necessary to lay a new concrete floor in the pump house, and pull the pipe to releather the pump. To date the job is holding up nicely, and we have had no more trouble with the water pump.


Truck No. 8121 was transferred from Chaco Canyon National Monument to Aztec Ruins, and Truck No. 8116 from Headquarters, on November 25.


Work has continued on stabilizing the walls and re-roofing the kiva with bitudobe. This job is about 75 percent complete. Some delay has been experienced due to freezing weather.

The first layer of bitudobe was put on December 1.

The walls have been stabilized up to roof height. It was necessary to keep fires in the kiva to prevent to bitudobe from freezing. The roof was also covered with straw. The first layer has completely dried, and it is ready for the finish coat. We are now waiting for better weather before finishing the job.

The walls of the two rooms recently excavated by Charlie Steen are being stabilized. To date this job is about 50 percent complete.

The entire month was devoted to work on the kiva and stabilizing walls. These jobs have been closely watched and supervised by the custodian. Gordon Vivian, archeological foreman, has been in a few times inspecting the work.


The Coronado Centennial seems to be creating a lot of interest over the state. Charlie Steen and the custodian attended the first meeting held in Farmington, December 7. Officers were elected for San Juan County, and it is believed that New Mexico will be alive with tourists in 1939 and 1940.


A. E. Underhill, as previously reported, arrived on November 18. He remained here on the Trail Project until December 1, when he received orders to proceed to Colorado National Monument. He returned here December 8 and remained until December 16.

Charlie Steen arrived November 28 and departed December 13.

Ronald F. Lee, supervisor of Historic Sites, Washington, D. C.; Jack Diehl, District Engineer, Region III; Erik Reed, archeologist, Aubrey Neasham, Santa Fe; and Mike Gallegos, Santa Fe, State Highway Engineer, were official visitors arriving and departing December 14.

This party made the complete ruins and museum trips and commented on the progress being made here at this monument. Furthermore, they promised us a new bridge across Estes Arroyo. This bridge had been promised by the State of New Mexico prior to their visit, but we are sure when all these "Brass Hats" tell the State of New Mexico the connection Aztec Ruins has with their 1940 program, the bridge will be built.

In addition to the new bridge for Aztec Ruins, this party told us of the proposed building of an approach road to Chaco Canyon. If that's the case we might have a little competition here in San Juan County.

Boss, it will be necessary to double the personnel for 1939 travel and we will probably need three times that many in 1940. Don't you think you had better begin scratching around for a few of those dollars that will be necessary to pay these guides?

Gordon Vivian and Lewis T. McKinney, Chaco Canyon, were here Dec. 1. Kenneth Boone of the Mobile Unit, Chaco Canyon, was here December 20.


PIPE SPRING By Leonard Heaton, acting custodian
Moccasin, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 205; since October 1, 710.

My travel figures for the month of December show more visitors by ten, but the total travel through the monument is 33 less. The increased number to the fort came from the CCC Camp which made up about 50 percent of my visitors this month; and the decrease in travel is caused by the fact that the stock men have finished up their fall sales and are pasturing their stock for the winter.

The total travel is as follows: Visitors to the fort 40, campers three, through travel 162.

On December 20, I hooked the truck on the drag and spent about five hours dragging the roads in the monument. They were packed so hard and were so rough it was lots of work to get them smoothed down. They need some more dragging, and I will get at it if we get some drying weather after the last storms.

Our weather the first part of the month was dry and clear, days pleasant and warm for the most part. The last week has been stormy and cold. It cleared off and froze hard last night, and it looks like our storm is over for a while. We have had 13 clear days, three partly cloudy, eight cloudy, and six stormy days the past month.

I set out 12 poplar trees south of the parking area and three cottonwoods along the path between the ponds the past month. I have about 15 more to set out and I think I will have most of the planting done, anyway it is as far as I known, unless some of the landscapers want more trees somewhere else.

I plastered up the ceiling of the fort where the plaster had fallen off. Was doing this when Natt drove in on December 7. This morning when I opened up, I found that another small piece of plaster had fallen and some more is about to fall in the west room, second floor, lower house; the room that I am using for an office. The brick on the chimneys of the upper house are weathering away and falling quite badly this fall. They were put up some time in the late eighties as far as I can learn, likely by Mr. E. D. Wooley was lived here at that time.

I was very surprised to find Natt here, and when I started out for some more mud to finish up my plastering, he was running all over the CCC Camp trying to find out where I was located. We spent part of the afternoon in taking some pictures and talking over some monument problems. I took Natt and the quail up to stay with men.

Next morning we banded the quail, left them in the hen house, and returned to the monument. Natt got some more pictures and took measurements from the fort for museum developments. He left me some supplies and pulled out for the south rim of the Grand Canyon at noon.

I surely did enjoy his visit and want him with the rest of the gang down there to know that they are welcome to come any time they can get away. Come and stop with us any time.

This might sound like I have been blowing myself into a hole, but I have just had a telephone installed in my home (No. 2R3), so we are a little closer to the outside world than we were. Also I have a small electric plant in the house. No more trimming wicks and striking matches to give us light, as we have been doing the past 13 years.

I hope that you and the Southwestern Monuments Family have the Happiest Christmas and most Prosperous New Year ever.


TONTO By Gordon Gilbert Philp, in charge,
Roosevelt, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 220; since October 1, 712.

This month of December has brought a much needed rain. Since my return from the coast on Sunday, December 18, spasmodic precipitation has occurred. Today, December 23, shows signs of clearing, however.

As I understand has always been the case with the approach road during the rainy season, it is suffering from erosion. The numerous holes and ruts recently filled are cleanly washed to their rocky base, and strangely enough the filling cannot be found nearby to remedy the condition. I doubt, however, that even now the road is poor enough to discourage travel, as this month shows a decided increase over November in visitor attendance.

Approximately 220 persons visited the monument during the month. Of this number, I believe I would be safe in saying that not more than 60 percent actually made the ascent from the parking area to the ruin proper. This condition is undoubtedly partly due to the fact that without someone on hand to contact them and to answer just enough questions to stimulate further interest, many probably drive away thinking, "Oh well, I guess there wasn't much of interest there, anyway." Under the present circumstances, little can be done to alter this unfortunate situation, but I am anxiously awaiting the time when I may be of more aid to them.

Junior Archeologist Steen visited Tonto November 26, and kindly enlightened me on numerous points relative to the Lower Ruin and its ancient inhabitants. Also, we exchanged cars--he took the dump truck leaving me 1805, a pick-up. (1805 is the license number, not the model.)

On December 6, I was pleasantly surprised by the arrival of David and Corky Jones and S. Coyle from Headquarters. They remained for dinner after which the evening was devoted to the preparation of bird study skins.

Maintenance work has been devoted primarily to the improvements of the museum and its display cases. These latter have been refinished, as has the door and other woodwork. The walls have been calcimined and the innumerable water stains thus obliterated. Both front and rear doors have been re-hung and made to swing freely. Weather striping has been placed around windows and doors. The two specimen cases were uncrated and placed so as to be readily accessible.

A trip was made to a nearby canyon and an abandoned, manufactured iceless cooler picked up. It has since been re-painted and a few minor repairs made so that it is now a serviceable and worthwhile addition to the monument's possessions.

Repairs were made to the retaining wall about the Lower Ruin in an attempt to prevent further erosion of the fill directly back of the wire fence.

On December 9, a trip was made to Headquarters on official business.

Five days leave was taken, during which time Ben Frazier acted as caretaker. Having lived in Roosevelt most of his life, he is well informed and able to give an intelligent answer to most any question a visitor might ask, relative to this vicinity.


BANDELIER By C. G. Harkins, custodian,
Box 669, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Visitors this month, 215; since October 1, 1,103.

Visitor travel was slow during the month, although the visitors that did arrive were very interested in our ruins. The condition of the road discourages a good many who would otherwise come into the monument. At present I understand there is a crew from the State Highway Department surveying for a new location of the entrance road, and I also understand there is a movement under way to bring our new approach road around by Espanola. This we do not want, as it would increase the distance to Santa Fe and cut out San Ildefonso Pueblo, one of the major points of interest along the present entrance road.

There is demand for a good road that would serve this community and the area comprising the Los Alamos Ranch School and reach Santa Fe over the shortest possible route to include the principle points of interest along the way.

Sixty six cars brought 215 visitors from 20 states and Washington, D. C.; 111 people required 34 field trips and 100 people took 32 museum trips. Comparing this report with December of 1937, we had 58 less visitors, took five more field trips and four more museum parties, gaining on party time in both field and museum.

With few exceptions the earlier part of the month, and Harvey cars carrying their own couriers or guides, all visitors to see the ruins this month were accompanied by a guide. The slogan, "No guide no Ruins Trip" has been literally in effect and, with a few exceptions, has worked without question.

Our figures belie us on those quotations but, in case of a misunderstanding, the visitors not taking the guide trips consisted of; families to see boys in the camp, friends of the residents, cooperative agency officials just looking things over, and Harvey parties having their own couriers.


Hundreds of Christmas trees have been taken from the Jemez Mountains to Santa Fe, Albuquerque, and other communities, becoming decorations for the streets and many homes. The display of lights and decorations at Madrid are beyond comprehension and surpass any of the displays in previous years.

All but 15 or 20 of the 30 boys have gone to their homes for the holidays as have the majority of the technical foremen, but a force of two are here holding down Fort Bandelier. Rather quiet and unusual!


A broken water line near the Hotel Utility Area caused considerable grief and shortage of water until the seepage arose to the surface indicating the cause and location of the trouble. Also the intake has had to have attention as water freezing over the seeps and ice damming up diverted the stream away from the seeps causing a shortage in the intake box. Snow freezing on the roofs of the residences at night and thawing during the day has caused a small amount of work patching around the canales where the contractions have made openings. The tuff rock fireplaces in the residences will not stand the heat and have to be patched occasionally.


Nine sheets of aerial photographic maps for a mosaic of the Rio Grande watershed of this area were received from the SCS and have been forwarded to Headquarters for mounting.

While roaming the monument recently, some 30 boys found a cooking pot completely intact, half filled with silt, in a cave in Lummis Canyon. It was turned in for display in the museum.


One book entitled "The Rain Bird", a study in Pueblo Design, by H. P. Mera, compliments Laboratory of Anthropology, was received.


For oil heaters for Operator's Development.


Dr. G. E. Ruhle, Jim Hamilton, Lee McClatchy, Allan Rinehart, Chuck Richey, Ronald F. Fee, Aubrey Neasham, Jack Diehl, Dale King, and Erik Reed visited the monument.


Margaret Breen and Kenneth B. Disher, Indian Service; H. R. Tolley, F. F. Elliot, D. S. Myer, Ray J. Kimmel, Hugh Collins, J. A. Adams, and Frank C. W. Pooler, Forest Service; and Herbert O. Brayer, University New Mexico, came to Bandelier this month.


The weather has been typical of December with occasional snow flurries and cold nights. Your custodian returned from annual leave ahead of a snow storm, in fact he was either ahead of a snow storm or behind one all during his leave, and was plenty glad to return to a good monument.

The statistics are as follows:

Days clear16Mean Max.45.38
Days cloudy5Mean Min.17.06
Days pt. cloudy10Mean31.22
Max. Temp.55Precipitation.32
Min. Temp.4


BANDELIER CCC By James Eden, acting project superintendent,
Box 669, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

The installation of the heating unit, recently received at this monument, in the Lobby and Sales room of the Operator's Development will enable us to call this unit 100 percent complete.

Completion of the grinding of the flagstone floor in one room of Cabin "B" and the staining of the woodwork and floors of both Cabin "A" and "B" units have brought those two projects to the point of painting and decorating. Immediately upon receipt of painting specifications, in order that the decorating may be completed, these two cabin groups will be completed 100 percent.

The floor furnace for the Operator's Residence has arrived and, upon its installation in the near future, this project will be 100 percent complete.

Plastering of the Comfort Station has been finished during the month. All door and window openings have been installed. With the exception of a few minor items to be accomplished by the carpenter crew, this project is complete ready for painting and decorating.

In addition to the work on the projects, the carpenter crew has completed considerable work on the show cases in the Lobby and Sales Room as well as other pieces of furniture. Also this crew has been working on a sign for El Morro National Monument under the Signs Project.

Quarrying of building stone for use in wall and floor construction of future buildings in the Operator's Development has gone forward all month.

Complete cleanup work of the area around the stable used by the concessionaire has been finished during the month under the Razing Undesirable Structures Project.

Under the Landscaping Project, the entire areas of both the old ranger station and the stable have been naturalized; also under this project considerable work has been accomplished on the slope above the Hotel Development.

All distribution lines for the fuel oil distributing and storage sysytem have been installed up to the point of connecting pumps in the various buildings. Pumps, safety valves, etc., have been received and are ready for installation at an early date.

All piping has been installed in the Hot Water System, Operator's Development, during the month, there lacking only the hooking up of the hot water storage tank and the heaters to call this project complete.

A small crew has been at work all month on the Soil Preparation Project hauling top soil and clay to the Hotel Development. Flagstone walks and rock legdes which form the terrace for planting pockets have been built between the Lobby and Sales Room unit, Cabins "A" and "B", and the Comfort Station under the two projects, Walls and Walks. There remain only walks and ledges on the west side of the Comfort Station before these projects will have gone as far as they can be carried at present as they cannot be completed until the erection of Cabin "C" and D" groups.


CHIRICAHUA By Frank Fish, custodian,
Douglas, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 272; since October 1, 1,168.

The great Arizona drought of 1938 ended with storms on the 15th and 19th of the month. Total precipitation measured at the Faraway Ranch was 2.07 inches. Churches throughout the state held special services of prayer for moisture. The rain gods finally relented and stockmen and farmers rejoiced. Higher elevations of the scattered Arizona mountains are capped with snow. Dr. Douglas of tree ring fame predicts a wet winter for the state.

Approximately 100 men have been placed on the payroll in the Bisbee mines during the past few weeks. One furnace at Douglas will close soon for improvements and the lack of ore. The Phelps Dodge Corporation has just received an order from the government for 2,000,000 pounds of copper tubing to be fabricated at Los Angeles and the copper to come from the mines of Arizona.

Road improvements are continuing in the county. The Steins Pass section between San Simon and the Arizona Line (seven miles from Road Forks) has been surfaced from the State Line to within four miles of San Simon. Relocation of the section between San Simon and Bowie is underway--this section will be built south of the railroad eliminating two railroad crossings. The W. P. A. have made good progress on construction from the Monument-Dos Cabezas road through Apache Pass. This road follows the old Butterfield Stage Route.

The Douglas Chamber of Commerce went on record as one of their first major objectives this year to promote a paved road to the Chiricahua National Monument.

Visitors show a gain over last December. The main reason is that we had 69 CCC enrollees from SCS-34 A, Rucker Canyon, Arizona.


VisitorsCars Out of StateNo. of

*69 CCC enrollees from SCS34A, Rucker Canyon


TripsAttendance TimeTotal Stay
1938361882620 min.9310 min.
193919831147 min.7386 min.

National Park Service officials were: Jack Haile, CCC Inspector, and Ranger Egermeyer of Case Grande.

Unusual visitors were four girls that hitch-hiked from Douglas. It was necessary for the custodian to deliver them back home after working hours. It is believed not many monuments are so popular that girls will travel 70 miles to see them. If I was a bit younger, you might say what McKinney is thinking.

The Whitetail gate was padlocked and keys given to local property owners in and around Hilltop. Signs were placed at both ends of the road warning that the road was closed. Everybody concerned appeared pleased at the way it was handled--at least no complaints have been received.

Other signs have been made and placed at temporary locations until permanent sign plans are received.

The laundry room was given a fresh coat of paint. Two temporary tent structures were removed from the camp ground.

The slack visitor period has given us an opportunity to do a little general purpose. The Lee boys killed a lion south of the monument on December 6. They stated this made the 91st lion they have killed in the Chiricahua mountains in the past eight years.


CHIRICAHUA CCC By Wm. Stevenson, project superintendent,
Douglas, Arizona.

Three 25 man crews have continued on the Bonita highway backsloping project this month. Four hundred square yards of rock banks were sloped one-half mile north of the Sugar Loaf truck trail intersection and materials were used for surfacing. Four hundred fifty square yards of banks were sloped one-quarter mile west of Bonita Park and the materials were used for road surfacing and for landscaping rock fill slopes. Two hundred square yards of banks were sloped near the headquarters area and materials were used for landscaping in the vicinity of the headquarters parking area. Coarse materials were utilized in borrow pit elimination.

One half mile of Bonita Highway was resurfaced, and culvert basins and ditches were cleaned.

Grading and walks were completed for the Administration Building.

The carpentry crew completed new truck seats and has now resumed painting on the Administration Building.

Eighty cubic yards of stone were removed from the quarry this month.

Elmer C. Gipe was entered on duty as Mechanic, November 28, 1938.


CASA GRANDE By A. T. Bicknell, custodian,
Coolidge, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 2,605; since October 1, 7,894.


Days clear11Max. temp.87
Days partly cloudy9Min. temp.21
Days cloudy10Mean max temp.72.1
Precipitation1.52"Mean min temp.36.6

This has been a very peculiar month, as regards the weather here at Coolidge. During the period of December 11 to 22, inclusive, rain fell on eight days--the greatest precipitation in 24 hours occurring on the 16th, when .70 inches of rain fell. Then on the 17th, a very heavy fog covered the ground until about 10:30 A.M. Three nights; the 22, 23, and 24, brought heavy frosts--the first for this year. Truthfully, one cannot give the directions of the prevailing wind, as it blew from the east on eight days, from the west on seven days, and from the southwest on five days; the remaining ten days of the month it blew from any and all directions.


Visitor travel this month is down somewhat from that of December, 1937. A total of 2,605 people came to the monument during the month, as contrasted with 2,931 visitors last year. Travel also showed a drop of 213 visitors from November, which is no doubt due to the bad weather during practically one-third of the month.

Davy and Corky Jones showed up at Casa Grande on the first, ready to begin the winter tour of duty here. Due to the shortage of houses on the monument, they are living at Vah-Ki Inn, just across the canal.

On December 7, Assistant Superintendent Miller, accompanied by Rangers Jones and Egermayer, and clerks Petrie and Gastellum, drove up to Phoenix to hear a lecture by Superintendent Charles J. Smith of the Petrified Forest National Monument.

Custodian Bicknell and Mechanic Stonehecker made an official trip to CCC Camp NM-5-A, at Flagstaff, on November 30, for the purpose of delivering heavy equipment transferred from the Chiricahua camp. They returned on December 1.

Ranger Egermayer left December 2, to return the trucks borrowed from CNM-a-A, and returned the following day. He reports a very enjoyable morning spent in seeing the Wonderland of Rocks in company with Custodian Fish and Project Supt. Stevenson.


During the month, the following NPS personnel were visitors at Casa Grande; Jack Haile--State Inspector CCC; Gilbert Philp, Ranger from Tonto; Charles J. Smith, Superintendent of the Petrified Forest N. M., and Mrs. Smith; Jesse Nuesbaum, Superintendent of Mesa Verde N. P.; W. E. Austin, Ranger from the Grand Canyon, and Mrs. Austin; Ronald F. Lee, Supervisor of Historic Sites and Buildings; Herbert Maier, Acting Regional Director; M. F. Cristianson, Regional Recreational Area Planning Division, Region III.


Other visitors worthy of mention were: Mr. C. E. Persons, Regional Trial Investigator of the National Labor Relations Board; Mr. and Mrs. M. F. King, the parents of Park Naturalist King, and their daughter Mrs. Edward Shirley; Mr. Frank A. Schilling, an engineer who had been here during the Fewkes excavations of 1906.

Another visitor, worthy of mention in a different manner is the woman who complained to the custodian of the lacking of a heating stove in the ruins, so the visitors could enjoy their trip through the building, rather than be "half frozen to death" as she expressed it. We sincerely hope she does not come back in July, as it is certain that we will not have an air-conditioning device to cool the building.


Of the 2,605 visitors who came to the monument in 887 cars, 2,146 were contacted on guided trips through the ruins. Three hundred twenty nine parties were conducted through the ruins. In the museum, 228 parties were contacted. In the picnic ground, 311 people, making up 52 separate groups, held picnics or otherwise made use of the campground facilities. Two more of the groups of American Airlines officials visited the monument on the first two Wednesdays of the month. This completes these tours, and we sincerely hope the various groups enjoyed their stays in the "Sun Country."

Other special groups visiting the monument during the month were a party of six speech class students from the University of Arizona, and a group of 51 Pima children and five adults from the Indian Schools at Blackwater and Phoenix. These last picknicked, went through the ruins and museum, and were shown colored movies by Jr. Park Naturalist Dodge.

In all, visitors from 43 states, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Switzerland, India, England, Brazila, Venezuela, and Fijuana, British Colonial Mandate, signed the register book during the month.


During the month, 12 Flame cabinets were purchased, to house the unsightly Flame tanks used for cooking, and to better protect the installations.


A new exhibit of Pima pottery and basket-making materials and methods was made and installed by Ranger Jones. While this is only a temporary exhibit, it is felt that it will graphically illustrate the processes involved in a very much improved manner.


Job No. 50--Shop: Finished conduit and wiring; installed overhead track; windows hung; and inside walls plastered. Man-days expended 67.

Job No. 51--Warehouse: Plastering watchman's quarters and office finished; the inside walls of storage room also plastered; installed framework for shelf-bins; all locks installed; hardware for the windows installed; painting begun in watchman's quarters. Man-days expended 70.

Job No. 52--Oil House: Locks installed; the turbine ventilator has been received, but is not as yet in place; also installed two mercury electric switches. Transite shelving is not as yet received. Man-days expended--1.

Job No. 53--Guide Service: Enrollee Guide Sheffield was replaced by Scott Hall; Seffield took over Scholz's work for the naturalist department as Scholz was returned to the main camp for discharge. Max Jaso replace Savage as Enrollee Mechanic's assistant. Man-days expended--134.

Job No. 54--Cleanup: Ten man-days were expended on general monument maintenance and clean-up.

Job No. 55--Making adobes: Due to several days of heavy rains, several hundred adobes were ruined, making it necessary to replace those already made for use in the wall of the storage yard and equipment shed. Man-days expended--55.

Job No. 60--Power Line: This job was completed, but no man-days of CCC labor is chargeable, as the hook-up was made by the Indian Service.

Job No. 62--Equipment shed: The rear walls were finished to the plate line; the plates set; the caps poured; the front lintel beams set in place; and three of the steel trusses for roof support set in place and anchored. Many-days expended--39.

Job No. 63--Yard Wall: No actual construction work was done, but 11 man-days of labor was expended on hauling of materials.

Six new men: Barnes, Bybee, Collins, Andrews, Martin, and Tevebaugh, arrived from NM-2-A on the 17th, to replace Scholz, who was returned to the main camp for discharge, and Bryant and Wilder, who finished the carpentry work and were likewise returned. Three of the new men were sent for replacement of the three men who were to take their six-day Christmas leave, beginning the 22nd. Savage was discharged as of November 26, and was replaced by Jaso, arriving on December 3.

On Thanksgiving Day, a special turkey dinner was arranged for the men in the camp.

Safety meetings were held on December 9, 16, and 22. All men in camp attended.

One man, Julian Rocha, was in the hospital at SP-6-A, from December 9 to 13, inclusive. No lost time accidents occurred during the month.

Eight camp inspections were held by army officers and supervisory personnel from the mother camp.


CANYON DE CHELLY By Ted Cronyn, custodian,
Chin Lee, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 48; since October 1, 227.


The last days of November were clear and cold, with a minimum of three degrees above zero. The first half of December was clear and mild, with a minimum of plus eight, and several days that hardly got below freezing. The last half of December was pretty much cloudy, with precipitation on eight days totaling 0.83 inch. The dry weather apparently did no harm to agriculture in this region. On the contrary, it allowed the Navaho Service to work steadily ahead with the clearing and leveling of land to be irrigated from Chin Lee Wash, northwest of the monument. Now if we get plenty snow in the high country, it will be good for this new farm country and for the Navahos in the Canyons, although interfering with travel up the Canyons in the spring.


The count of visitors for the month shows a sizeable increase ever December of 1937 and 1935, when four and 23 were the respective counts. Good weather and good road conditions helped through most of the month, and the count was boosted by repeated visits from interested members of the Navaho Service personnel at Window Rock, the administrative center. It is hardly expected that a similar increase over previous years will occur every month. Of the 48 visitors to the monument, 45 were accompanied on field trips, and 37 were in the office to look at photographs, read articles, and receive verbal information.


During the month, the housing and the concrete base of the water pump were gone over thoroughly. New belts, nuts, and lock washers were put in place. The top of the concrete base, previously cracked and partly loose, was chipped out, and a new concrete top was poured. A considerable quantity of inflammable material was removed from storage in the pumphouse, but the question of where else to put it became a problem. We are pretty short of storage space here.


Late in November, the Navahos held several fire dances in this area. I went over to the one at Rough Rock, on its closing night, and saw a most interesting sight. It was one of the coldest nights of the year to date, with the thermometer down to five above at Chin Lee and probably colder than that over at Rough Rock. Nevertheless there were between 1,500 and 2,000 Navahos in the circle around the big fire. Plenty Pendleton blankets and many-gallon hats, dances until 2 A.M., and believe it or not, hot dongs in split rolls, sold from the rear of a covered wagon.

On December 22, the Navaho Service put out a big feed for the Indians of the vicinity, at the Chin Lee School. This reporter went down to see the sight and help dish out the chow. Seven hundred were fed, but probably a couple hundred of them were repeaters. The men weren't dolled up much, but the women and girls sported all their velvets, silver and turquoise.

Surface water started to run out of the mouth of the canyon on December 9. What was doubtless the year's last auto trip into the Canyon was made on December 4, when a party of Forest Service and Indian Service folks were accompanied up to the White House and a short distance up del Muerto. Water and ice and frozen banks made the going pretty rough.

The inventory that Faris and I made was checked against the Headquarters list, and the differences were not too great.

I made a special trip from the Fort Defiance road over to the de Chelly rim at Spring rock. Picked up a Navajo to show me the route to follow to hike over there, so can take tourists next summer.


Herb Maier and Jack Haile dropped in one day. They looked over the residence and its surroundings and went all through the house, which was in the proverbial condition of bachelor quarters. (remember that when Mr. Demaray went through the Ranger quarters at Tumacacori he remarked "Just camping, eh?") Later these visitors went out the Fort Defiance road to the First and White House Overlooks, with the custodian along as chauffeur and guide. These gentlemen were both greatly impressed with their brief view of the Canyon. Mr. Maier was particularly outspoken in praise of the monument.

Now on the other hand, Cecil Doty, the Regional Architect, was announced but never did come here, so far as I have been able to discover. A wire was phoned on a Sunday morning, and I looked for him all day. In the afternoon I went out with monument visitors, leaving a note for Doty in case he should turn up. No sign of him, no word. Try again, Brother Doty; this is a good place. Sorry to miss his expert advice on chinking the cracks of the Residence building; sorry to miss seeing the old Chickasa Warhorse himself.


Mr. Stewart, Deputy Supervisor, Forest Service, Springervill, N.M. and his family. Mrs. Croxon and children, Window Rock, Ariz. Mr. Croxon is head of the Navaho police unit. Doctors Siegel, Johnson, and McDowell of the Navaho Service at Window Rock and Fort Defiance.

TUMACACORI By Louis Caywood, custodian,
Box 797, Nogales, Arizona.

Visitors this month 1,723; since October 1, 4,014.

Winter travel this year seems to be coming earlier than in years past. For the month there were 1,723 persons who came in 466 cars. Of this number all but 61 were contacted by guided trips through the old mission church or by visiting the museum. 1,723 is an increase of 877 over December, 1937.


The days were clear and warm until December 15, when rains and winds began which lasted until the 23rd. Much needed rain fell and was greatly appreciated by the cattlemen of this county. Since the rain the days have been sharp and clear.


Asst. Supt. Lloyd and Ranger Harthan Bill of the Grand Canyon National Park visited the monument on November 25.

Custodian and Mrs. Bicknell from Casa Grande National Monument were here on November 25 with friends.


Father Victor R. Stoner, Tucson, gave an interesting illustrated talk at the Tumacacori Museum at 8:00 P.M. on December 9th. A group of 54 local people attended. His subject was "The Spanish Missions of Arizona". Both lantern slides and movies were used. Much favorable comment has been received on this lecture.

The custodian gave three lectures during the month. The first, on December 13, was given before 16 members of the Lions Club of Nogales on "Civil Life in New Spain During the 17th and 18th Centuries". Two lectures were given at CCC camps, one at Madera Canyon before a group of 54 on December 14 and the other at Peña Blanca, near Nogales, before a group of 130 on December 18. The Madera Canyon camp near Continental is a spur of the Peña Blanca camp. These two lectures were illustrated by lantern slides and were on "The Sonora Missions."


Handles have been mounted on Cases 8 and 13A so they can be moved. By moving Case 8 out of its niche, the lights for Cases 4, 5 and 9 can be cared for. When the electric map is set up, the mechanism will be placed in a closet beside Case 8 and can be reached by the removal of Case 8 from its niche. By moving Case 13A, the lights in Cases 13B and C, 12 and 11 can be serviced. Cat walks were previously made by the custodian over Cases 5 and 12 to reach the lights of the dioramas of Cases 4 and 11.

The View Room and the Kino Room were cleaned and opened to the public. The church model which has been in the Lobby is now in the View Room so that visitors may compare the model and the actual Mission buildings. This makes a convenient place to explain how the original Tumacacori pueblo and church might have been about 1825.

The carved entrance doors of the museum were partly refitted because of sticking due to the rains.

The exhibits, although still incomplete, continue to draw visitors. There has been no advertising except by those visitors who have seen the exhibits. Some parties have returned as many as four times. Others bring friends or direct them here. Not long ago one of the motor-tours drivers out of Tucson must have driven into the parking area much to his party's disgust because he had to do a lot of talking to get them in the museum. I have always thought the one who payed for such a tour was right, but this time the driver was right because the party stayed a half hour in the museum and would have stayed longer but it was late and they were in a hurry.

On Christmas Day an old pioneer lady from Tucson stopped in with her children on their way to Nogales. She told me that she had known Peter Kitchen and many other pioneers of this region. When she saw the mass diorama, she was so impressed that she was speechless. Finally after hearing the music play she said that seeing the model church meant more to her than anything else possibly could on Christmas day and she hoped she would live to see it again next Christmas. Happenings such as this are certainly impressive. I can't help but think how nice it would be if the people in Berkley, who worked so hard to make these exhibits a success, could hear only a few of the many compliments that are spoken every day.


SAGUARO By Carleton Wilder, temp. ranger,
Box 2708, Tucson, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 1,500; since October 1, 4,300.


Visitors this month have been about as numerous as they were during November. I believe about 1,500 people entered the monument during the month. Of this number, 241 were contacted at the cactus garden and spent time at the displays. Few local visitors came to the monument, usually coming to the cactus garden only when showing out of state visitors the sights.


During the month, several repairs were made on the Dodge curtain truck. Rear spring shackles and steering arm and connections were installed. The brake cylinder was overhauled.


The large sign for the south entrance was put up, and smaller directional signs were placed throughout the monument.


The county road connecting Broadway in Tucson with the south entrance to the monument was completed. Apparently, this road is carrying quite a bit of traffic.

The CCC work program has been approved, I understand, and I will have the assistance of two boys in checking visitor travel, beginning about the first of the year.

In December 17, a disreputable character was reported to me as being on the monument, near the north gate. Upon investigation, he turned out to be an unemployed negro youth who had come south for the winter months. I offered to take him back to the main road, but not wanting to run him out in the desert, finally took him in to Tucson and turned him over to the police.

One stray dog was disposed of.

During the month the contact station, located at the entrance to the cactus garden and near the cabin, was completed. It provides a place to meet visitors, have them register, and to acquaint them with the plants that they will see in the cactus garden. The displays at present consist of a cross-section of a saguaro and an upright section of the skeleton of a saguaro. These exhibits have been of interest to almost every visitor. Charts and labels will be added to the display so that it will be self-explanatory, and of use to the visitor in the absence of a guide.

Most of the plants in the cactus garden have been identified, and a start has been made on replacing some of those which are not in good condition.

Early in the month I pad a visit to Dr. J. G. Brown of the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arizona. He stated that from five to 15 percent of the saguaros in this region are infected with crown gall. He has a graduate student working on the problem of the occurence of this disease in the saguaro, and hopes to have some definite information later in the winter. I assured Dr. Brown of full cooperation, and may be of some definite assistance to him as the study progresses.

The route of the cactus trail has been tried out on several parties, and I believe such a trail can be successfully established here. It includes a saguaro with a beehive in it, a night blooming cereus growing in place in the desert, several bird nests in growing cholla, a prickly pear growing in a saguaro, and two unusually interesting pack-rat nests. The trail also provides an opportunity to point out many of the plants typical of the desert, but not found in the cactus garden or in the immediate vicinity of the cabin.


A party of American Airlines employees from the East visited the monument in company with Don Young, Tucson representative.

Dr. and Mrs. John E. Holloway, accompanied by Dr. J. G. Brown of the University of Arizona, visited the monument. Dr. Holloway is head of the Department of Botany, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. This was his first trip to the United States, and he was especially interested in the flora of the desert.

Mr. and Mrs. Marvin Frost, winter visitors in Tucson, have been frequent visitors to the monument. The Frosts spend their summers near Acadia National Park, and have frequently shown color motion pictures at campfire talks there.

On December 24, Bruno Lessing, famous journalist, paid a brief visit to the monument. On December 2, Tommy Onstett and Miss Grace Johnson visited with us for part of the afternoon.


WALNUT CANYON By Paul Beaubien, Jr., archeologist,
Flagstaff, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 333; October 1, 1,825.

Forty-one parties were contacted at the observation point, and 28 at the ranger cabin. Park Service visitors were Charles Carter, J. H. Tovrea, Natt Dodge, J. W. Brewer, Cecil Doty and Jack Haile. H. B. Hommen and Jack Diehl were here, but they did not stop at the ranger cabin.

The weather was fine the first part of the month, but snow on the 19th and 20th just about finished the visitor contacting for the winter. The moisture was much needed however.

During the month, six trips were made to Wupatki. Samples of water from Heiser and Wupatki Springs were sent to H. B. Hommon's office. On the 7th, 17 Gambel Quail were released at Wupatki Spring. Eleven of these quail were seen by the CCC guides, on the 18th. On the 9th I accompanied J. V. Lloyd, acting superintendent of the Grand Canyon Nat'l Park, and Mr. A. L. Ivey, president, Virginia Carolina Chemical Company, on a trip through Wupatki and Sunset Crater National Monuments. Mr. Ivey is a close friend of former Director Albright.

On the 20th, I was at Wupatki when the CCC boys began work on the water system and the custodian's residence. This latter trip will be remembered for the amount of snow encountered. Going in in the morning Mr. Parker and I estimated that there were six inches on the ground at Citadel Ruin, and it was snowing as we left. Because of road conditions, I did not go back on the 24th for the travel statistics, but will send them next month. The Sunset Crater road is blocked by snow.

A little more of the trail dirt has been screened at Walnut. Twelve bird bones were found, they have been identified by Lyndon L. Hargrave of the Museum of Northern Arizona. Ten bones were from one individual turkey, one was from a raven (Corvus corax), and a broken humerous belonged to a crow (Corvus brachyhrhynchos). The latter seems to be the only crow bone on record from a prehistoric site in the Southwest.

To add a note about Gambel Quail at Wupatki, Clyde Peshlacai says there is a flock of 14 at Black Falls, a large flock at Coyote Spring, and that once in awhile he sees a few at Heiser Spring. I have seen, in the vicinity of Coyote and Heiser Springs, a few car loads of rabbit hunters who also have been interested in quail.


CHACO CANYON By L. T. McKinney, custodian,
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

Visitors this month 78; since October 1, 911.

Well, here goes the last bit of Chaco news for this old year of 1938. She has been a grand old year, but lets hope for a better one for the year of 1939, and best wishes for yourself and the others of the Southwestern Monuments for the coming New Year. I hope that old Santa Claus brings each and every one a sock full of nice presents.

I haven't been out to all of the ruins this month, but I have been to Pueblo Bonito, Chettro Kettle, Del Arroyo, Pueblo Alto, Tsinklitsin, Penasco Blanco, Hungo Pavi, Una Vida, Casa Rinconada, Kinkletsoi, Wejiji, Kinya-a, and Kinklizin, also Talus unit #1, and find them in the following conditions: Kinya-a shows a few places where stone has fallen since a year ago; haven't noticed any place where pot hunting has been done. However, visitors continue to loosen the wires where they have been climbing over the fence.

Kinklizin looks pretty good since Gordon did quite a lot of work there several months back. There are several more places that need repairing, but nothing that is in bad need for a while, as Gordon got the hot spots. Kinbinola--I haven't been to this within the last few months.

Penasco Blanco is still suffering quite a lot; there have been several pieces of wall fall since last winter and it certainly needs some attention.

Tsinklitsin is still being damaged by the west winds, also a few pieces of wall have fallen since last winter.

Hungo Pavi is still crumbling away very rapidly, which is certainly a shame, for it is only of the larger ruins in the monument, and there is some nice masonry in this ruin.

Una Vida is another of the major ruins that needs some attention badly.

Wejiji must have some attention at once, no need of stating the condition of this ruin, as I have taken every Brass Hat that has come around, up there to look at it, so they all know its condition.

Pueblo Del Arroyo has begun to look like there were some hopes for it since Gordon has been working on the hot spots. There is still lots to be done.

Casa Rinconada is still in pretty good shape, as the School of American Research did quite a bit of work on it some two years back.

Kinkletsoi could stand some repair work on the walls, especially wall capping. The Chaco Wash is still creeping closer and closer to this ruin each summer. There should be something done to prevent this.

Pueblo Bonito is looking pretty good after the work on it the last 18 months. It will take some time to get this ruin under control and could be kept that way with two or three men working at ruin repair the year around. I believe it is much easier and a whole lot cheaper to keep them in shape then to get them in shape.

Threatening Rock measures 4-17/32 inches at the east, 4-24/32 inches in the center, and even four inches at the west end. Following are the measurements of December 1937; 2-5/8 inches east, 2-11/16 center, and 2-9/16 inches west end. Since Carolie and I measured this rock yesterday, she has moved all her dishes off the shelves and took all the cups off the hooks, pictures off the wall, etc. I guess we had better make plans to move Pueblo Bonito out another hundred feet, because I challenge any man in the Service to say that he knows what this rock is going to do. Why in heck don't we stop this movement? Then we will know it will not destroy the most wonderful ruin on the North American Continent. Or shall we sit and argue about it until we get the ruin repair, at considerable expense, then let the rock fall some cool night and tear down the work in five minutes that it took the Bonitians about 210 years to do and us four or five years to repair. Let's fix it now!

The Soil Conservation Service is still very much interested in our interest here in the Canyon. Could we get interested in their interest here and help them out with their work? This Chaco Wash has widened some 200 to 300 feet in the last 90 years, and at the present time is within 20 feet of two of the major ruins. Where will they be at the end of the next 90 years? Maybe our sons would like to see these as we see them now.

Stanely Tanner and family moved from the Chaco Canyon Trading Post on December 23. Andrew Jackson Lavender (Jack) will operate the post for Mr. Arthur B. Tanner after the first of the year. We all welcome Jack and Amelia Back to the Canyon again.

We have had .57 inch of precipitation during the month, .41 inch more than December last year. About one inch of snow fell but didn't stay on the ground very long. About once inch of snow fell but didn't stay on the ground very long. There are still patches on the northern slopes. The maximum temperature for the month was 66 degrees and the minimum was 5. There were three bad winds this month, eight clear days, three cloudy ones, and the balance partly cloudy.

I guess the visitors have gone south with the geese and other birds, because there have been only 78 here this month, from the following seven states: Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Massachusetts, New Mexico, West Virginia, also Washington, D. C., and Canada. Ronald F. Lee, of Washington, D. C., Aubrey Neasaem of Santa Fe, John H. Diehl of Santa Fe, Dale S. King of Coolidge, Arizona, Herbert O Brayer of Albuquerque, and Mike Gallegos of Santa Fe were official monument visitors this month. Carroll Miller, Mrs., and son Joe, were also here during the month. I almost forgot Cal had been over, until I got the grocery bill.


MOBILE UNIT By Gordon Vivian, foreman,
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

Since our last monthly narrative complaint about the weather, we have expended 399 man days here in the Chaco and at Aztec, divided among the following five jobs. All camp and maintenance details have been pro-rated among them.

Drainage, plaza and rooms, Bonito133 man days
Wall patching, Bonito131 man days
Support walls, minor ruins35 man days
Waterproofing rooms, Aztec25 man days
Replace kiva roofing, Aztec75 man days

Division of the work this month has depended a lot on the state of the weather. During warm spells when it was possible to lay stone, we pushed the patching and the laying of the bitudobe roof on the little kiva at Aztec. When the weather bore down, we put in our time moving dirt on the drainage job. We got in quite a bit of rapid fire changing about.

Under the disagreeable-weather-drainage program for the south tier of rooms, we have continued removing debris from the exterior, working from the east lower end toward the center where this work will connect with that done last winter on the southwest side. Six hundred yards have been removed this last month and worked over for building stone, the stone being piled for future use and the remaining dirt spread on the monument approach road to the north. This work along the exterior should be completed within the next two weeks. The drainage crew will then be shifted to the east plaza work within the ruin.

All wall patching this month has been done in preparation for drainage of the east plaza. Along the north side of the plaza, kivas O and N were repaired and on the west, room 17 as the first of a series of rooms that, with the great kiva, form the west limits of the area.

Of the kivas, N appears to have been excavated and then both partially repaired and refilled. The fill in the interior is some four feet below the level of the plaza outside. The masonry of the north half of the wall circumference is distinct from the small amount which prior to repair was visible in the south. This part appears to have been rebuilt to keep the footing under the higher room walls directly behind it. The greater part of the south half of the wall was missing and material from the higher plaza area directly to the south had washed in over the intentional fill. Fifty yards of this material was cleared away to express the remaining portions of the south wall and the ventilator. This ventilator shaft is perfectly round and, unless I am too badly mistaken, this is a rare bird in Chaco. After clearing, the wall and shaft were rebuilt to bring them above the level of the plaza. Twenty eight cubic yards of stone was laid on this job.

Room 17 is one of a series of rooms which divide the plaza into east and west halves. The rooms belong to a late building period, and portions of it are superimposed on and set of line with earlier walls. To date, four square yards of masonry have been laid patching the top walls and building out parts of the lower ones to strengthen support of those above. In addition to the masonry laid, 90 stub poles have been prepared for wall patching in rooms along the east side of the plaza.

The 35 man days charged to support of minor ruin walls were spent on job five at Del Arroyo where were laid eight square yards of repair to foundations. No capping was done over completed work. After we had started work on this ruin with no ground plan to follow for numbering, Mac. got us a copy of Judd's excavation plans. OUr new architect foreman, Kenneth Boone, has enlarged these plans and, starting from the 36 excavated rooms, numbered all of those remaining unexcavated. In addition to the Del Arroyo plans, he has also gotten out the long delayed profile of Wijiji.

At Aztec, 75 man days had been spent on replacing the wooden and concrete roofing of the small kiva with one of bitudobe when cold weather made the advisability of laying more bitudobe doubtful, and work was transferred back to the waterproofing job. The wood-and-tar-paper roof was first removed from the kiva and the underlying concrete slab roof examined. Portions of this slab roof were badly cracked, and it was decided to remove it in entirety. With this done and the exterior wall repaired, the dirt covering the underlying crib work was leveled up and packed to receive the first layer of the bitudobe. Immediately after laying, it was covered with dirt to prevent freezing. Due to a cold snap, it was not thought advisable to uncover it and lay the top coating, and work at present is confined to cleaning up the waterproofing job.


MONTEZUMA CASTLE By Earl Jackson, custodian,
Camp Verde, Arizona.

Visitors this month 425; since October 1, 1,610.

During the month 24 states were represented and three foreign countries: England, Canada, and Baja California (Mexico). Three different groups came from Canada. Visitors arrived in 113 cars, and one on horseback.


Park Service: December 12--We had the surprise pleasure of having Acting Regional Director Herb Maier and CCC Inspector Jack Haile. This was Mr. Maier's first visit to the Castle, and we spent over two intensive hours getting him acquainted with it; I say intensive, because we concentrated everything that we could about the monument into those two hours.

Other Visitors: Among the visitors were Harold Burstow and wife, of Adelaide, Australia who were here on November 24. He is publisher and managing editor of "News, Limited." November 27 brought 36 wives and family members of the Clarkendale Woman's Hiking Club for a picnic. Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kuzell were visitors. He is Superintendent of the smelter at Clarksdale. On the same day, Dr. Dryer and 19 CCC boys from the Clear Creek camp were in. On December 1 Ranger Harold Linn, of the Beaver Creek Ranger Station and Herman O. Darrh, landscape architect with Forestry Recreational Planning, were business visitors. December 13 brought W. C. Lewis and Robert W. Brost of the National Council of Visitor Education.


Precipitation3.06Min Temp19
Days Cloudy10Mean Maximum63.16
Days partly cloudy6Mean Minimum29.73
Max temp75

Our extremely heavy rainfall occurred between December 15 and 22 inclusive. The ground was to parched after several months complete drouth, and the rain fell so gradually that practically all the moisture was taken up by the soil, and a great amount of good resulted. The surrounding watersheds were snow covered, but not to any great depth. A foot of snow was reported on the road between Jerome and Prescott.

Until the rain, roads were very corrugated and objectionable. Since then, all approach roads, save the one now under construction between here and Cornville, have been bladed and are in good condition.

Roads over the mountains have all been accessible, with the possible exception of the route from Mormon Lake. No visitors have used that road for some time. The Oak Creek Canyon road for over a week now has been closed between 10:00 A. M. and 2:00 P. M. so blasting can be done in preparation for the paving of the final 3.5 miles of that road between Cottonwood and Flagstaff.

Beaver Creek experienced a slight rise as a result of the rains, but no floods of any moment have occurred in it or the other streams of the Verde Valley.


On the Sunday when the CCC boys were in from the Clear Creek Camp, it happened that Ranger Alberts was in the Castle with a party, and I was on the grounds in front talking to some of the boys and some picknickers, when I noticed two boys huddled close together at the bole of a tree within fifty feet of us. They had practically finished carving their initials when I stopped them.

On a monument patrol just after the heavy rain, Betty and I saw where a car had turned off the entrance road just around a hill before reaching the parking area, and had driven off down into the flat near the creek at the east end of the monument, where it had no business. We tracked two people who left the car and prowled all up and down the creek, and saw that their tracks indicated actions typical of duck hunters stalking possible prey at each pool. No shells were seen, and no duck feathers, so we hope they had no luck.


1. Several plumbing leaks were repaired, and a check valve on our main water line re-ground.

2. Complete clean-up around the garage area was effected, and all the old scrap lumber which could not be used was sawed up for stove wood.

3. Excess loose gravel and sand which had been thrown over the surface of part of the entrance road where the mix was too rich, was removed.

4. Two of our heavy garage doors which would not open were taken down and repaired.

5. Tool shelves were constructed in the garage.

6. Some cement patching was effected in damaged spots on the curb and syzygy wall.

7. Four young Arizona Sycamore trees were planted alongside the walkway between the comfort station and the museum.

8. Vines around the custodian's residence (soon to become a temporary administration building) were re-wired and re-strung. They serve to keep out the intense heat of summer.

9. Three more low hillside plants were set out in the back yard (to be our Nature Garden).


During the month, a number of much needed hand tools were ordered and received by this monument.


The Coconino National Forest has originated a plan for signing all roads leading off main highways into its lands or through them. Their plan would cause the removal of all other signs which might be posted at such points, condensing all information onto their signs. We think the idea is a good one, and would save us the necessity of maintaining our own signs. This means a money saving which is worth something, for the enameled metal signs we use certainly do not stand up under bullets and lassos of country marksmen and cowboys.


Travel has been extremely slow during the latter part of the month, partly due to the storm, but also due to the fact that tourists are not getting into the valley now. Reports of bad roads, especially through Oak Creek Canyon, must deter a lot of them. The fact that travel exceeded that of December a year ago is due to the large picnic party we had early in the month, and to the group of CCC boys.

Business men state that conditions are deplorable in the valley. The guest ranches on Beaver Creek, usually doing a thriving business at this time of year, are having practically no guests, and they report that ranches and resort hotels throughout the state are almost unanimously in the same fix. Dealers in curios are quite hard hit.

The year end finds this monument looking ship shape, and the personnel looking with enthusiasm into 1939 and the new houses that are projected for that year, and the use of the old residence as an administration and museum building. We hope some decision is reached soon on stabilization of Montezuma Castle. Keeping that building in good repair is of far more importance than any other single developments here, and while we are not lacking in appreciation of other developments pending, we feel bad every time we look at that faulty underpinning on the Castle's first and second floors.


NATURAL BRIDGES By Zeke Johnson, custodian,
62-1/2 So. Main St., Salt Lake City, Utah.

Visitors this month 40; since October 1, 154.

I haven't much to report this month as I haven't had any speaking engagements, although I have several coming up soon, but I am talking about the Natural Bridges and San Juan County every day; I mean the Four Corners country. Everyone that meets me wants to know about my country, so I am trying to put over the fact that it is a good country.

I am very glad to report that Mrs. Johnson and Zeke are enjoying the best of health and that Mrs. Johnson is again working in the L.D.S. Geneological Library where she loves to be, and where she has worked for over 15 years; part time since 1929.

We had a very enjoyable trip to Boulder Dam, then on to Los Angeles and up the coast to San Francisco, and back to Salt Lake City by way of Reno. When I got back to Blanding I found almost summer weather there and cars were still going out to the monument. It was cold and wet when we left there November 21, but roads had dried up and people were going out. There were seven high school professors out on December 11, and others went out until December 16 when it snowed again.

It was a mistake for me to leave when I did, and I wish that I were on full time. Then, when it looks likes I will be snowed in, I can send my car in and stay out and work trails for a few weeks or until things freeze up, and come to Blanding on horseback. I could keep two or three head of horses out there in the fall for that purpose. I was told that 30 or 40 people had been out there after I left, and I hope that I can stay out there after this as long as I can work trails. Then I could go back in March and work again for trails over in the canyons surely need to be repaired. Some places they are in bad condition, and I hope that I can stay there next fall and return in the early spring to get them fixed up at a time when there are practically no visitors. Could you raise a little money for me in March and let me take out a man and work in the canyons? Horses and their feed will cost you nothing, and the work could be done so much cheaper then, as we would camp over in White Canyon and be right on the spot where the work was to be done.

Now about the pick-up truck! I sure enjoyed driving it and never had one flat, and the only time I had trouble was when the shackle broke that I told you about. But I never had any brakes all summer although I tightened them up as much as possible. I always drove very carefully and got along all right, but I must have the brakes relined before I drive it any more. (Of course I am hoping for a new one). I also need a lot of signs. Many of those I am using are ones I made myself. They do the job, but are not what I should have. I need several different kinds; can I have them?

I was glad to get the notice that you sent me to be posted by the register, and I will put it in its proper place when I get back in the spring. I am wondering about the films that I sent you of the trail. Were they any good?

Mrs. Johnson and I are enjoying the holiday season very much, and hope that all the Southwestern Monuments folk are doing the same. We are both well and longing to get back on the job again.


CAPULIN By Homer T. Farr, custodian,
Capulin, New Mexico.

Visitors this month 500; since October 1, 4,600.

In reporting the happenings in and around this monument for December, I find less to tell than usual. Today, when the thermometer stood just about ten above, I was working on the cabin and I noted several cars of visitors. I find they come even in zero weather.

The weather has been very cold most of this month, but there have been no bad storms. We have enjoyed a couple of nice snows this winter, and the ground now is all covered with about three inches of snow. All roads have been kept open including the one on the monument as well as the trails. I believe I have worked a little harder this winter than common in keeping roads and trails clear.

I am sorry to report that our robins and mountain blue birds have all left us and for this reason we may look forward to a colder winter than the last one.

Our deer, bobcats, and coyotes never leave us and we still have an over supply of porcupines.


EL MORRO By R. R. Budlong, custodian,
Ramah, New Mexico.

Visitors this month, 47; since October 1, 436.

During December, trips taken were rather short, the weather being somewhat threatening at times, the north side of the rock cold, and the cabin and grounds fairly well torn-up, getting everything ready for winter. Our 47 persons arrived in 19 automobiles.


This was surprisingly mild, with minimum temperatures of 4 degrees on the 14th, and maximum of 61 degrees on the 8th. We had a few light rain and snows--snows falling on five occasions to a total depth of three inches. Total moisture during the month was .66 inches.


That word sounds somewhat familiar, but we still wonder just what water may look and taste like. The well drillers arrived at the monument December 5, and early on the morning of the 6th the custodian cut the east fence, marked-off a temporary road, and the rig and equipment were moved to location. Drilling began at 1 P.M., December 8. Work was shut down the evening of the 22nd, and the drillers went home for Christmas. The hole was then down to 405 feet. While a slight seep of perhaps a gallon an hour was encountered around 200 feet, about the only water we have seen so far has been rain and melted snow. We are now awaiting an inspection of the cores by one of the engineers or geologists before proceeding further with the drilling.


During the month moulds of two more Spanish inscriptions were made with the latex moulding compound, and find impressions obtained--one of the Ramon Garzia Juldo inscriptions of 1709, and one of the 1636 inscription of Juan de Arechuleta and others. Other moulds will be made when we get more warm days.

At present the custodian is cleaning the rock surface of dust and silt around some of the major inscriptions, preparatory to making some photographs desired by the Regional Office. Pencil is not used in marking those inscriptions, since even a soft pencil will scratch the soft stone. After numerous experiments, the custodian has found that Rising Sun Stove Polish, mixed with water and applied lightly with a small sable-hair brush, suffices to make the inscriptions perfectly legible from the outside of the temporary fences in front of the inscriptions. A detailed report on the marking of the inscriptions will be sent to your office in the future.


Park Service visitors arrived on two occassions. The first group, on December 15 on their way to the Shalako at Zuni, consisted of Dr. Gould, Jack Diehl, Erik Reid and Aubrey Neasham of the Santa Fe office; Mr. Ronald F. Lee of Washington, Dr. J. F. Zimmerman, Dr. Donald Brand, Mr. Herbert O. Brayer, Mr. Mike Gallegos, and Dale King. After a light lunch and a quick trip around the inscriptions and trail, they went to the Shalako. And then it rained and snowed all night. We hope they had no mishaps on the road. The second group consisted of Mr. Herbert O. Brayer and a group of Forest Service officials: Messrs. Hunt, Hughes, Allen, and Wade of Albuquerque.


More preparations for winter have been made. Two loads of sawed stovewood have been purchased; a quarter of beef, many green vegetables, and more canned goods. The cellar and cabin have been completely rearranged inside and out; grounds cleared and more earth banked around the cabin, and we are ready for hibernation, if necessary. Snowshoes and skiis are all in order.

We also should mention--though it is hardly an official matter--that Miss Rebecca Lopez, of Albuquerque, is spending the Christmas holidays with us. Miss Lopez is two years old, and we are indebted to the St. Anthony's Orphanage in Albuquerque and to the kindness of Dr. Radcliffe of Belen for making her visit with us possible.


ARCHES By Harry Reed, custodian,
Moab, Utah.

Visitors this month, 65; since October 1, 220.


With the addition of 29,160 acres to the original area of 4,520 acres, Arches National Monument now becomes one of the greatest of the southwestern group. With a total area of 33,680 acres in which are located no less than one hundred arches, windows and natural bridges as well as innumerable monoliths, pinnacles, balanced rocks, and grotesque forms which have been eroded from the basic red sandstone, Arches National Monument now has so much to offer that I feel safe in saying that no one knows the extent of its features.

Much credit is due to the officials and employees of the National Park Service and to the "wheel horses" of Moab for their untiring efforts to bring about this extension which makes development of the monument possible.


Dr. J. W. Williams of Moab received a personal letter from President Franklin D. Roosevelt last week. The President highly congratulated Dr. Williams for his forty years of devotion to the conservation of the Arches region and other outstanding areas in Utah and the neighboring states of Colorado and Arizona. The pen with which the President signed the proclamation was presented to Dr. Williams.


For the most part December has been pretty mild. We have had some snow which melted quickly. The temperature has been moderate for this season, the lowest recorded being 12 degrees above zero. The ground has not been frozen except a very thin crust which always thaws early in the day.

The temporary road into the monument is in fair condition and many persons have visited the monument this month. The small amount of snow which we have had has helped to keep the sandy spots moist and well packed.


Bids will be opened and the contract let by the State Highway Commission in the very near future for oiling the last remaining stretch of gravel on U. S. Highway 160 between Crescent Junction (intersection of U. S. 50) and Arches National Monument. This will give us an oiled surface road all the way from points east and west on U. S. 50 to the monument. This is scheduled for completion before the busy season at the monument next summer.


The Commissioners of Grand County have filed on the spring which is located in the cliff at a point two hundred yards east of the south end of the Colorado River bridge. The rights to this water will be turned over to the Park Service for use in the monument. This water is excellent for drinking purposes and there is ample flow to meet all requirements of the monument headquarters.


sunset over mountains

<<< Previous
> Contents <
Next >>>
Date: 01-Jun-2007